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Engraved by Woodthorpe from an original Painting by Drummond
taken in the 73 year of his Age.

Abraham Newland Esq."


of the Bank of England.

Publishal by James Aspene. Successor to the late M Sewell N32 Cornhill. Feb.1.1803









HE uniformity of a life paffed in the fame daily routine of employment, and chiefly devoted to attention to figures, will afford but little of entertainment in the recital, The detail, however, will not be unintereft ing to thofe who fee with fatisfaction the rife, progrefs, and final settlement in eafe and affluence of unremitting industry and unimpeached integrity; nor will the leffon be a ufelefs one to thofe who look forwards to the fame advantages, which they may hope to attain by the like honourable means.

ABRAHAM NEWLAND is the fon of William Newland, of St. Saviour's, Southwark, baker, and was born, it is conjectured, about the year 1730. His education was calculated for the counting-house, in which he was placed at an early age, but in which he did not continue long, as in February 1747 he was appointed a Çierk in the Bank of England, and rofe by regular gradation in the establishment until January 1778, when he was advanced to be Chief Cashier. His father died in 1764.

It has been obferved, that at a certain period of life men both acquire and retain fingular habits either of regularity or diffipation. At fifteen minutes paft nine o'clock in the morn. ing, Mr. Newland is feen conftantly, at his defk, and is never abfent from his duty until three in the afternoon.

B 2

The only relaxation he has allowed himself, for many fummers paft, is a daily ride in the Iflington stage-coach to a cottage at Highbury, where he drinks tea, and, after contemplating the beauties of the country, returns regularly in the evening to the Bank; out of which, it is afferted, he has not flept a night for the latt five-andtwenty years. He refides in a fuite of apartments in the Bank, annexed to his office as Chief Cafhier; and being a bachelor, his establishment is not large, His bufinefs fince his introduction into public life has conftituted his plea fure; and he is faid to have been known to declare, that he has derived more real happiness from a fingle hour applied to the performance of his offi cial duty, than from a whole day spent in the moft convivial and entertaining fociety.

In the various negociations of the Bank with Government, Mr. Newland has been of eminent fervice, and his opinion in fome doubtful cafes has been decifive.

To expatiate on the talents, the regularity, and clearnefs, with which he acquits himself of the duties of the department placed under his direction, would be a needlefs repetition of the high encomiums paffed upon him by all those who, both in and out of the Bank, have had occafion to witness his abilities and excellent fyftem of conducting business.



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N the 18th of September, 1781, of the crater; this mass is of a convex

going from Arragona to Girgenti, figure, and rises till it has entirely filled I went (1ays the Writer) out of the the whole cavity, and surmounts it in direct road, to observe a place called the form of an hemifphere," which Maccaluba, which was painted out to burits, and lets a quantity of air me as very singular, by a variety of escape, that caused the whole effect. relations that had very much excited The bursting is attended with a noise my curiosity: The soil of the country resembling that produced by drawing I traversed, is essentially calcareous. It a cork out of a bottle, at the same time is overspread with mountains and hills that the clay is thrown out of the of clay, in which the currents of water crater, and runs down the sides of the have made deep fillures, and some of cone like a lava, extending beyond its which are lined with a gypseous cruft. base, to a greater or less distance, After an hour's walk I arrived at the according to its quantity. As soon as place of deftination; I belield a moun. the air is thus disengaged, the rest of tain of clay, Hat on the top.. The base the clay that was not thrown out, falls exhibited nothing remarkable; but on down into the crater, which then rethe plain that terninates its height, fumes its first form, and preserves it till I obierved the most fingular phenome- a new bubble endeavours to escape. In non that nature has ever yet presented this manner there is produced a con. to my view.

timual motion of depression and ele: The base of this mountain being vation, more or less frequent; and circular, it imperfectly represents a the frequency is increased by stamping truncated cone. Its elevation above upon the cruit of clay with which the yalley in which it is lituated, and the summit of the mountain is covered. almoit enclosed, is one hundred and If a stick be thruit into one of these fifty feet; and the plain at top is in a craters, it returns by little and little, fmall degree convex, and about half a by itarts, but is not thrown to a dir. mile in circumference. This plain is tance, as I had been taught to expect. to extremely fteril, that the slightest During the time I was employed in trace of vegetation cannot be observed. oblerving the phenomena of this moun. Every where on the summit is seen a tain, three of my attendants amused very great number of truncated cones, themselves by throwing pieces of the at various distances from each other, dried clay into the mouth of one of the and of various heights. The highest largest craters; the pieces were all may measure about two feet and a half, swallowed up, and an hour employed and the smallest are not more than two in this kind of work produced no or three lines. At the summit of every other effect than that of dilating the one is a crater, in the form of a fun- orifice a little, without filling it up. nel; the depth of which is about one- Some of these billocks are entirely dry, third of the height of the cone it and give no longer passage to the air. belongs to. The foil they rest on is a The whole number of cones exceeds grey clay, dry and cracked in every an hundred, but this number varies direction, the pieces being about four every day. Besides the cones there or five inches in thickness. The great are several round cavities in the foil vibration that is felt by walking on this itself, especially towards the west, plain, shows that the surface conlilts of a where the plain is less elevated than thincrust, which covers a futtand half- ellewhere. I bese cavities are an inch fiuid substance ; and it is not without or two in diameter, and are filled with trepidation that an observer perceives dirty salt water, out of which bubbles that this dried clay covers an immense are continually emitted without noile gulf of mud, in which he runs the or explosion, but similar to the boiling greatest riique of being swallowed up. of water upon the fire. On the surface

The interior part of each finall of lome of thele concavities, I found a а crater is always moist, and exhibits a pellicle of bituminous oil, of a suffi. continual motion. Every moment a ciently. Itrong odour, of that kind nuits of moitlered clay, of a grey which is often confounded with the colour, is elevated from the lower part smell of sulphur.


Such is the state of this mountain At the distance of one league from during the suinmer and autumn, till the sea-coast, behind Girgenti, is a the rainy season arrives, and this is the place named Moruca by the. antients, state in which I saw it. But the cir- and now Maccaluba, where, on an cumitances during the winter are very eminence in the middle of a barren different; the clay on its summit then plain, are observed several different becomes loft, and almost fluid by the apertures, which, by a gentle ebullition, rain; the conical hillocks are dissolved, throw out mud and troubled water. and nothing presents itself to the fight, On the 13th of September last (1777) but a vart gulf of argillaceous muri, of half an hour after fun-rise, a noise was which the depth is unknown, and heard at this place, which every moment which cannot be approached but with increaling, became in a short time! the greatest danger. An uncealing louder than the loudest thunder. This ebullition prevails over all this sure was succeeded by a trembling of the face ; the air that produces it, has no earth in the neighbourhood, where longer any particular passages, but large apertures are itill to be seen, at burits forth alike in all parts.

the same time that the principal mouth These two states obtain only when by which troubled waters and mud the mountain is calın. It has likewise commonly ifsue forth, becaine enlarged its time of grand fermentation, in in diameter to fix palms *. Out of this which it prelents phenomena that mouth there arole, or was emitted, spread terror and affright into all the something that resembled a cloud of neighbouring places, and that relem- sinoke, and which, in a very few seble chose which precede the eruptions conds, arrived to the height of twentyof ordinary volcanoes ; hocks of four palms. Although the matter of earthquakes, often very violent, are' this explosion had the colour of fame felt to the distance of two or three in some of its parts, it contained nevermiles; fubterraneous thunders and theleis liquid mud, and lumps of clay, noises are heard, and after several days which in falling, spread themselves progressive increase in the interior fer- over the circumambient soil. The mentation, they are succeeded by vio- greater part, however, fell again into lent eruptions, attended with much the great mouth from which they had noise, that throw the soil, together been disgorged ; this 'eruprion lasted with mud, clay, and some stones, to the half an hour, and was repeated three perpendicular height of more than two other times, with the intermillion of a hundred feet; all these matters falt: quarter of an hour, and the duration again upon the same spot from which of a quarter of an hour. In the mean they were projected. The explosions) time, the motion and agitation of large are usually repeated three or four times matses under the earth were heard, at during the twenty-four hours; they the dittance of three miles the noise are accompanied by a fetid smell of resembled that of the sea in a storm. Jiver of sulphur, which spreads itself While these terrible phenomena lasted, over the adjacent parts, and fometimes those who were prelert thought the it is affirmed Mere is an appearance of end of the world was come, and were smoke. After thele eruptions, the terrified by the apprehenfion of being preliminary phenomena ceafe, and the buried under the clay that was thrown mountain again resumes one of the two out of the principal mouth. This mud States before described.

covered all the neighbouring foil, to The eruptions of this remarkable the depth of lixe palms, besides filling and fingular Volcano happen in au- up the adjacent vallies, and though tumo, when the summer has been long this clay was liquid on the day of ani dry, but the interval is not regular. the eruption, it appeared on the fol. Many years sometinies elapse without: lowing day to have recovered its con.' one; and afterwards they take place in fistence, fo that feveral curious perfons two luccellive years, or two years ont were able to approach the great mouth of three, as in 1777 and 1779, which in the middle, for the purpose of are the times of the last eruptions. The obferving it. This mud itill retains regular interval of five years, con. the fmell of fulphur, though not fo ceining which different authors have strongly as on the day of the eruption. Spoken, is contrary to oblervation. The other mouths, which were fhut

• The Naples palm is about 91 English inches.

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