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tacle for the bodies of those that died' Puritanism, in which the prolocutors of the plague. The Mount in the Cur. are Youth and Age. The Theatres in tain Road has, many years fince, been general, of which there are faid to have removed, and manufactories and houses been once seventeen, had, before this built upon its lite; but as an instance time, attracted the attention of the of its height, I have been credibly in. Magistracy, for a misconduct which förmed, that when the fire-works were could hardly be sufficiently reprobated. exhibited in the Green Park in the Accordingly we find, that in the year year 1748, a very great number of 1574, during the mayoralty of Sir John persons assembled upon it, and, if they Hawes, performances of this kind on had not so good a view of the spectacle Sunday were prohibited by an order of as some who, in more ways than one, the Common Council; though it does ventured their lives for the satisfaction not appear to have had sufficient influof their curiosity, they certainly were in ence to have suppressed this practice a situation in which' no danger could for any considerable length of time *. be apprehended. On this hill there It appears, also, from an order of the was a lingle house, the last tenant of Privy Council, dated June the 22d, which used to attend fairs with thews, 1600, of which the object is the re&c.
Ariction of the number of playhouses, In this road, as has been observed, that the Curtain was ordered to be once stood the Curtain Theatre, a ruined and plucked down, and put to place rendered of some importance some other good use; yet itills it seems both with respect to its antiquity, and to have survived this shock, for Mr. its effects on the morals of the times, Malone informs us, that in 1610 it is by having been mentioned in Stock• mentioned in Heath's epigrams as bewood's šermo at Paul's, preached ing then open. Hector of Germany August 24, 1578, and in Northbrook's (the Hero of the North) was performed . Treatise against Idleness, vain Plays, in it in 1615 by a company of young and Enterludes, by way of Dialogue, men; and Stow faith, of later' time, in the quaint manner of that period, instead of Stage Plays t, have been used, which may be termed the dawn of Comedies, Tragedies, Interludes, and
case of this and Holywell-mount, the rubbish might, from a motive of guarding the respective vicinities against the fatal consequences of such a vaft number of putrifying bodies as had been recently buried there, have been laid upon both those cemete. ries. In the course of last summer, when part of the rubbish of the former had just been removed, I had the curiosity to inspect the place, and observed in the different Arata a great number of human bones, together with those, apparently, of different animals, oxen, or cows, and sheep's horns, bricks, tiles, &c. The bones and other exuvia of animals were in many places, especially towards the bottom, bedded in a stiff, viscid earth, of the blueish colour and confitence of potter's clay, which was unquestionably the original ground, thrown into different directions, as different interments operated upon its surface.
• Of Sunday plays it must be noted, that Sir Thomas Noe, merchant, having caused to be enclosed in a wall of brick about an acre of ground, being part of the Hospital of Bethlem, on the Bank of Deep Ditch, so called, parting the wall from Moor fields. This he did for the ease of such parishes as had not ground sufficient to hury within their limits. This was called the New Church-yard, where, upon Whit-Sunday, the Lord Mayor and Aldermen used to resort to hear a Sermon. This was practised anno 1584, when, according to a letter from the Recorder Fleetwood to the Lord Treasurer, "a very good fermon was preached at the New Church-yard before the Lord Mayor, Sir Edward Ofborn, and his brethren, and, by season that no plays were tbe same day (Whitsunday), all the City was quiet.".
* Stage plays, i.e. a kind of dramatic interludes, written (or, it is most probably, traditionally delivered) upon popular subjects, have been performed in the country, particularly in Wales, within these forty years. They were generally enacted upon itages like those of mountebanks, erected at the doors of innsor public-houses, by young men of the town, whose manner, which it did not appear was much improved, has been admirably represented in the Midsummer Night's Dream. St. George for England, and Crispin and Crispianus, were among theic Dramas, whicla probably sofe upon the
ruios • Vol. XLIII. JUNE 1803.
Hiftories, both true and feigned, for than histrionic representations, during the acting whereof certain public the time of a kind of fair which used to places, such as the Theatre *, the be kept near St. Agnes le Cleer, in the Curtain t, &c. were erected. They Easter and Whitsun holidays; of which played also at inns, as the Cross Keys, meetings fome veftiges were, within the Bull, and the City Globe I. There- these forty years, ftill to be traced. fore I am inclined to believe, that the The sign of the original theatre was petitions of the Londoners to Queen a striped curtain ; but I can hardly. Elizabeth, the first of which was laid think it derived its appellation from to be in 1580, only operated upon those this, which, in the rude state of the Playhouses within the City, where the stage, was common to almost every sicknefs, as it was termed, was the ob- playhouse. We may still observe by ject dreaded, from having large afsem. the booths in Bartholomew and other blies of the people in close situations; fairs, which were unquestionably formed while those in the suburbs were encou- on the same model, that there is before raged, and indeed suffered to stand, till each a kind of gallery, where the perthe folemnity of one age, for a time, formers exhibit themselves in their entirely suppressed, and the gaiety of dresses, to attract the attention of the another removed them into more eligi- public, and also a curtain let down, ble ftuations.
behind which they retire. That this When these performances totally was the state of the Curtain, and other ceased at the Curtain Theatre it is suburb theatres, there can be no doubt. impoflible to say. From its being men- The name of this, therefore, seems, as tioned in many records, it probably has been observed, to be derived from maintained a considerable rank among the same source as those of the Tenter the places of amusement of those times. Ground and Road, i. e. from having Tradition says, it was kept open till been formerly part of some outworks about the year 1640; but I think this or fortification by which the approach must mean occasionally open for the to the City was impeded, and which, exhibition of hews of less dignity if we contider the military turn of the ruins of the Mysteries and Moralities, two of the most favourite. It has been said, that Kat's rebellion, 3d Edward VI, was concerted at, and partly occasioned by, a meeting at a ftage-play at Wimonham, where one John Flowerdew encouraged the people to pull down the inclosures, &c.-Holinfhead.
* By this, I conceive, is meant the Theatre in Black Friars, where several of Beaumont and Fletcher's, Middleton's, Ford's, and, indeed, Shakspeare- and Heywood's, plays were performed. Among the Theatres before alluded to, I find there were private houses in Drury-lane and Salisbury-court. The Cock.pit, Drury. lane, wherein Heywood's English Traveller was acted in 1633; the Swan, on the Bank-fide; Globe, ditto; the Red Bull; Phænix, Drury-lane; the Fortune, &c.
† With respect to the Hector of Germany, or the Palfgrave Prime Elector , it was written by William Smith: it appears, perhaps from the Poet's well-tiined choice of a subject, to have been a very popular drama; for helides being, as has been stated, exhibited at the Curtain, it was also acted at the Red Bull, by a company of young Citizens. It was published in quarto 1615, and dedicated to the Right Honourable Sir John Swinnerton, Lord Mayor of London. This play is not divided into a&ts.
Richard Rawlidge, an author who wrote in the reign of James the Firft, in a pamphlet called “The Monster lately found out," ftated, that all the Playhouses within the City were pulled down by order of her Majetty (Queen Elizabeth) and Council, viz. one in Gracechurch-ftreet, one in-Bishopsgate-ftreet, one near Paul's (A Trick to catch the Old One, and the Phoenix, by Middleton, with many other plays of cotemporary authors, were acted here), one on Ludgate-hill, and one ia White Friars.
$ Few royal marriages have been celebrated with more fplendour than this of the Pallgrave and the Princess Elizabeth. Among other thews, " A Masque of the Middle Temple and Lincoln's-inn," written by George Chapman, was presented at Court 1614. The Elector, it appears, was then a very popular character in this country. His portrait was exhibited for a sign to a tavern, on the site of which Paligrave's Head-court was built.
people people of Shoreditch, their being formed which, even at this period, the Cloth into companies of archers, and the vici. quarter * is particularly dedicated. nity of this place to Findbury Fields Tarleton, it appears from the Coand the Artillery Ground, is rendered medy I have quoted, died previous to highly probable
the 13th of October 1614. He had,
while he played at the Curtain, kepo RICHARD TARLETON.
an ordinary in Paternoster-row, SpitalA brief notice of this Comedian fields, which were then, what the name naturally follows the last article, be implies, “pleasant fields for the Citie cause he was one of the company,
zens to walk," and the Row a few probably, of the proprietors of the houses, probably, where they sold rosaCurtain Theatre. He is faid to have ries, relics, &c. t, standing on the edge been a native of Condover (Shropshire), of a very large burying-ground, and and in his time “the fiddle of this part near the old Tabernacle, upon the ste of the metropolis." From what I have of which part of the present market is been able to gather in the course of a built. Behind these houses there was diligent search into the works of ancient formerly a large vacant field, extend. dramatic authors, I thould judge that ing to Whitechapel one way, and the his line of acting was the fame as that priory of St. Helen's the other; comin which, at a later period, Nokes was prehending that part which is now so successful; for although Colley Cib. called the old Artillery Ground fi ber says, that the latter to was an actor Lolesworth Teasel Grounds, which of a quite different genius from any obtained their appellation from the that he had ever read, heard of, or valt quantity of teasels that were seen, since or before his time,” we grown there for the use of the woollen, muit, if we reflect a little, consider this then the principal manutactory of the as one of those bold assertions which district; and the Tenter Ground, part the Laureat was in the habit of hazard, of which itill remains. Those ordina. ing. Had there not been many arche. ries were not merely eating-houses, 'types of Nokes, how would it have but places wherein the civic youths been posible to have filled the parts of used to learn the arts of quarrelling the clown, and other provokingly and smoking tobacco, then deemed comic characters of Shakspeare, or have very polite accomplishments, and represented “ the fools indeed" of wherein, it is said, the games of passage, Jonson. It appears from the induction primero, &c. were allowed; they were to Bartholomew Fair, that Ben had the consequently frequented by the « Gal. former Comedian in his eye when he lants of the Tiines,” to whom, un'wrote the character of Cokes, which, questionably, the comic humour of upon the revival of this play, was fo their Spital.fields' hoit must have been ably supported by the latter; for he very agreeable. makes the Stage Keeper, speaking of This Actor afterwards kept the Ta. the Author, say, “ He will not hear of bor Tavern, in Gracechuich-street, this: I am an Ass ! and yet I kept the which was, probably, one of the playstage in Master Tarleton's time, thank houses, ordered, by Queen Elizabeth, my stars! Ho! had that man lived to to be pulled down, and might have have played in Bartholomew Fair, you derived its name from the niufical troshould have seen him come and be phy with which it was decorated on the cozened in the Cloth quarter so fine. outside, as these kind of signs and ornaly.” This allusion was certainly to the ments, in basso relievo, were common character of Cokes, who was, in the in that age, which fome remains of 'course of the Drama, repeatedly co- them, still to be found, may serve to zened among the stands for hobby- exemplify. horses, toys, ball-lingers, &c. io Tarleton, it appears, was equally
* That is, the quarter of the fair formerly occupied by the Clothiers and Drapers. This, it has been mewn, in the ninth Vestige, was the space in the front of the ancient Priory of St. Bartholoniew, the end of Cloth-fair and of Long-lane.
+ The paternoster-bead-makers, dealers in relics, and text-writers, were formerly trades of confiderable importance in the metropolis.
| The Artillery Company removed from this ground to the New, by the Six Wiodmills, Moorfields, the latter end of the reign of James the Fisit, liia
popular in Southwark. His portrait, cipal actors in them used to take their with his favourite instruments the turn at the different playhouses. This tabor and pipe, was then exhibited as a kind of settled itinerancy, with respect sign of an alehouse. Many years since, to the favourites of the town, has, I remember to have seen a very ancient in our time, been attempted by a print, coarsely engraved, in which an theatrical coalition, but without sucactor was Itanding upon a stage, habited cess; perhaps the spectators had then like Linco, who was with one hand some political reason to be out of Jifting up a large curtain, and with the humour with the world ; for they have other inviting the auditors, whose fince suffered the managers to divide heads appeared around, to lee the per- the rapture which a celebrated finger formances. This, from the circum- afforded, and, indeed, to let their Itance of the pipe and tabor with which friends partake of ecstacies which he was painted, appears to have been fould have been confined to the designed as a representation of this politer audiences of a theatre, where actor, as the engravings seemed to be the motions of the performers are betof a period wheji that art was in its ter understood than their language. infancy, which, as the portrait of of the estimation in which this Shakspeare f evinces, was the case in Player was held by Jonson, we may his time. Camden gives his epitaph be convinced by the compliments he as an inhabitant of Shoreditch, which put into the mouth of Cokes, who might arise from his residence in, or alks the Master of the Motions (Puppet connection with, the Curtain Theatre. Mover) which of his company were the He was one of the twelve to whom best actors, the Burbage and Field of Queen Elizabeth gave wages and live. his theatre? rres.
Before I conclude this article, I must Richard Tarleton, says Baker, in quote one passage more from the play his Chronicle, “ for the part called the alluded to, because it strongly marks Clown's part, never had his match, the nature of the amusements of the nor never will have."
lower order of the peaple of that time, and thews how little they have varied from those kind of exhibitions in the
present age. This celebrat Tragedian was also “ Oh the motions that I, Lanthorn an inhabitant of Shoreditch; he is, Leatherhead, have given light to in with Allen, mentioned by Baker my time, fince my master Pod s died, (page 422) I, and probably played Jerusalem was a stately thing; so was occasionally at the Curtain "Theatre. Ninive, and the City of Norwich lle From a reference to the lists of actors and Sodom and Gomorra! But the inserted under the dramatis personæ Gunpowder Plot, there was a getof feveral of the ancient plays, and penny'! I have presented it to an to the dates and notices where acted, eighteen or twenty penny audience it will be seen, that many of the prin- nine times in an afternoon."
Christmas Tale; that is, in Arcadian dress, with a tabor suspended before him, and pipe in his hand.
t By Droeshout.
| These, says the Chronicler, “ were two such actors, as no age must ever look ta see the like."
Š Pod was Master of the Motions.
i This I take to bę a Mew still in the course of exhibition as a ftock-piece, I wonder much it has kept its ground, because it seems the most rational and uletul of any I have ever heard of. It used to open with a representation of the City of Norwiąh ; to which succeeded different scenes, displaying the rise and progress of the woollen manufactory, from the time of Jaion down to that of Bishop Blaze, and foon to a modern period. One would have thought it rather difficult to have introduced that ludicrous being Punch into an entertainment of fo grave a çalt; yet he formerly was a principal performer, used to give them a song at the theep-fhearing, and mar the operations of the comb and the loom, to the infinite delight of the Tpectators, There was a little bit of anachronism in bringing the golden fleece from Colchos to Norwich; bụt that might be pardoned in confideration of the general merit of the piece,
with the same respect as the veftiges of This Theatre, as a place of amuse. Mona, or the ruins of llcolmkii, or, ment for the inhabitants of Finsbury indeed, to come nearer their elevated and London, was once of conliderable site, the heights of Snowdon, it is importance, and hiftorically has, I impossible to lay; but if we fuffer conthink, been rendered infinitely more jecture for once to occupy the place of fo, when viewed as the seed, the germ, certainty, I should suppose that the from the flourithing Itate of which the Bards, who by-the-bye, whatsoever means were procured to found and those who with, while they depress endow that truly noble and philan. genius, to reflect upon the liberality thropic establilhment, which has been
or illiberality of these times may avow before noticed, Dulwich College. We
to the contrary, were certainly poorer therefore now look with a kind of in former ages than the present, chose veneration on the part that is till this place of abode for two reasons; standing, namely, the whole of the the first and most important was the front in Golden-lane, on which the cheapness of living, for it is upon reroyal arms of the times are displayed, çord, that about the time that wit and with other stuccoed ornaments, that learning fixed their relidence in Grub. seem comparatively to have suffered street, the Steward, Magistrate, and little from the lapse of two centuries. Leet Jury of the Manor of Finsbury. The part of the house which was fore with all their officers, tenants, &c. merly dedicated to the audience is let which, on
a moderate computation, in tenements to the lower order of must have amounted to more than fifty people. This was probably built with persons,“ dined at the Turke's Head. more permanent materials than the
in the Moor-fields," and the expence back toward Playhouse-yard, which of the said dinner amounted to twentycontained the stage, dressing-rooms,
three shillings; a sum which now would &c.: and it is a curious circumitance, scarcely be thought immoderate for the that in the upper story of the front, ample meal and etceteras of one person the original door of the gallery itill of the same description. This imremains; nay, the marks where the portant point, with respect to the diet seats were fixed are to be discovered. of the Grubean fages, being settled, This foor consequently descends in
we may reasonably suppole they also the same manner as those of the galo consulted their pockets, perhaps their Series of a modern playhouse; and one flars, before they took their elevated would be rather puzzled to conjecture Itations. A third reason was, that this how it was possible to place any fur. quarter of the town has, for many ages, niture upon this inclined plane, did been famous as a receptacle for authors not the necessity solve the difficulty of the lower, but, I contend, the most of the case. The poor inhabitants, useful, branches of literature. At no under this impulse, do, by some means
great distance from this haunt of the or other, contrive to accommodate Muses lived many of those ingenious their miserable beds, &c. to the situa.
persons who, before the discovery of tion, though it certainly is like living printing, wrote all the small histories on a stair.case.
then in use; also the ABC, or Ablies;
together with the Ave, Creeds, Graces, GRUB-STREET, CRIPPLEGATE, &c. &c. Fourthly, when the discovery This street, for there are others of I have mentioned rendered the trade of the same name in the metropolis *, an author of ftill greater importance; I take to have been the original source when the black letter copies were, from which such an infinity of wit and with facility, multiplied ad infinitum;
humour have been derived, and which when volumes, and piles of volumes, 3 has absolutely denominated a sect of were formed; and `itationers, which
authors, and a species of literature, name they derived from being stationed that, if it were necellary, I thould at the corners of Itreets, particularly contend have been of more benefit to about Long and Holier-lanes, the Old mankind than the world is in general Bailey, Grey Friars' Wall, Paul's aware of. When the said authors first Clayiters, Barbican, and a hundred settled upon this their once favourite other places, became booksellers, and, ipot, which, I thiųk, lhould be viewed collecting themselves into a fraternity, One in Westminster, &c.