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at Paris in the nights of the Festival of composed for the improvement of the
St. Bartholomew, attended with cir- minds of British ladies ? An answer
cumstances of the most horrid cruelty, mut be given in the negative, by all
was perpetrated, and by her means well disposed readers. The remainder,
extended throughout the kingdom, nearly one third of this Volume, and
whereby 70,000 innocent persons fell a part of the third, are devoted to the
victims to the bigotry and vengeance long life of Catharine II. the late Em-
of this wretched woman; does luch a preis of Rusia, which will be further
character deserve a contiderable por noticed in our next.
tion in a Volume of female Biography, (To be continued in our next.)

The Progress of Maritime Discovery, from the earliest Period to the Close of the

Eigiteenth Century; forming an extenlive Syitem of Hydrography. By
James Stanier Clarke, F.R.S. Chaplain to the Prince, and Vicar of Preston.
Vol. I. 4to.

(Continued from Page 362.)
BEFORE we resume the pleasing and Secondly, Consideration of the Rise and

very interesting task of reviewing Progrels of Maritime Interests, as chethis work uf uncommon merit and ori rished by the different Monarchs of ginality, we think it necessary to inform Portugal, to the Reign of John I., our readers, that the size of the volume Father of the illuitrious Prince Henry, before us exceeds what, in the prevail. Duke of Visco, the great Patron of ing mode of making books of late years, Discovery. This portion of the hismight have been Ipread into three. The tory is comprised in Chapter 1. and quantity and value of the materials be- subdivided into two Sections. ing fully fufficient for that purpole; if The first Section opens with the fol. the Author had followed the exaniple lowing reflections: " To illustrate the of some historians, bis predecessors, of course of the renovated spirit for Mahigh renown in the annals of modern ritime Discovery, which, during the British literature. We therefore think more remote periods of modern history it no more than a duty incumbent on that preceded the fifteentb century, us, and we hope our brother Reviewers cheered the gloom that had chilled or will be of the time opinion, thus pub- overshadowed the commercial genius licly to commend the liberality which of Europe, is the arduous taik í lhall appears in the arrangement of this pub. next perform. Looking forward with Jication; the volunie consisting of no a becoming diffidence of my own abili. leis.tban 984 pages, of which more than ties, and feeling a respectful anxiety one balf, including the numerous notes, for the suffrage, or gratified perulal, are closely printed from a small type of my readers. We have contemplated The well-founded' complaint of to. the progress of Maritime Discovery jeigners of the dearness of our most from the remotett ages; and having uletul books, is in this instance re- beheld its devious or uncertain courle, moved.

struggling with furrounding obitacles We have another object in view, in in the confined limits of the ancient inaking this preliminary oblervation, world, which the superior mind of which is, to justify the continuance of Alexander tirit attempted to pass; bave our review through another month, seen its benign fpirit link amidit the fince we do not remember to have found more than Egyptian darkness into more ample materials to gratify curio- which the irruption of the Northern fity, and, at the same time, to convey hordes plunged the nations both of uletul information to their readers, in Europe and Alia. The rude and deany fimilar work extended to three itructive clans that poured in from volumes, than in this firit division of Scandinavia and the Cimbrian Cherour Author's comprehensive plan. sonelus, came, like the visitation of

The subjects of our present review Divine wrath at Babel, to confound are, first, Illustrations of Modern Com- the language of all the earth, and to inercial History to the Beginning of scatter its different nations. Human the Fifteenth Century, connected with pride and vanity were thus arrested the Progress of Maritime Discovery. in their career ; but at the same inftant,


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an awful pause was formed in the his. dan of the Mamelukes had rendered a tory of mankind : these were times, says free port, under certain relictions. Rymer, in the dedication of his third * Conftantinople affords a memoravolume of the Federa, of great struggle ble instance of the gradual decline of and disorder all over Europe, and the dark: the first emporium in the world, eft period of times. Perhaps it was an through 3 neglect of cherishing and interval of repose, which infinite wif- mainiaining her naval power. Venice; dom had decreed for the restleis inind and afterwards Genoa, lucceeded in of man: like the long, dreary night of establithing a maritime force; and in winter, it preceded discoveries of the the year 1453 Mahomet the Second moit momentous consequence, which besieged Contantinople with an army tlie ensuing day of science has dif- of 300,000 men, and eitablished the seat played. The compass encouraged the of the Turkish empire in that city; by mariner to leave the shore, and truit which means an intercourse with the his spreading canvas to the wind: Eit reverted entirely to Venice, through astronomy taught him to detect its the port of Alexandria. It is fingular, variations, to determine the correct that in this downfall of the great mart situation of countries that were hither- of Indian trade, and in the late overto but imperfectly known; and by throw of the tyrant of Mysore, who what courle the expectation of hope, made such powerful exertions to injure as it led him onward through unfre- the more modern system of European quented feas, might be gratified with intercourse with the East, circum: the fairelt prospect of aggrandisement (tances occur that have a striking simior renown.

Jarity with each other : Conftantino. Our Author then takes a cursory ple, like Seringapatam, was taken by view of the maritime States of Europe Storm, after a molt bloody resistance; at the beginning of the fifteenth cen. and the Greek Emperor, who, like tury, and finds that Constantinople Tippoo Sultan, resolved not to surtook the lead; that city, above all vive his empire, was found unrler one places, was well adapted, by its litua of the gates, trampled to death by the tion, to preserve or renew, during multitude. The maritime power, exmore than two centuries, the com- tenfive territory, and great commerce, mercial intercourse which sublisted be. of the Genoese, are traced to the cointween Exrope and Alia, after the port mencement in 1064, and its progreslive of Alexandria had been thut to the advancement during the whole of the Europeans by the Arabs. The factors thirteenth, and part of the fourteentb cenwho fupplied the Greeks having pur- turies, when they held the balance of chased their goods of the caravans that power in Europe: after subduing Smyr. travelled from India through Canda- na and Pisi, clearing the Mediterranean bar into Pertia, exposed them for sale of pirates, and overcoming the comat the grcat fairs on the frontiers of bined fleets of Venice, Arragon, and the two empires; a confiderable part, the Greek Emperor John Cantacuzene, also, of the Indian commerce, carried the prosperity of Genoa gradually deon by the Northern routes, and the clined towards the year 1390, owing to Caspian Sea, found its way to Con- inteftine commotions. Itantinople. The Italians allo, particir- That extenlive 'territory which in Jarly those of Amalfhi and Venice, general is styled the Low Countries, or eltablished an intercourse with the Nether.lands, from their situation in Greck cities for the prices of India, respect to Germany, came under the and were foon imitated by the in- doninion of the house of Burgundy habitants of Marseilles : thus the lu- jn 1433. Its commerce was of such crative trade of India centered, for a magnitude, that, according to as a considerable time, in the Conítanti- anonymous author of the Annales Flannopolitan or Greek-empire; until the driæ, no less than one hundred and fitty Venetians, finding the ascendancy which merchant thips were feen, in the year the Genoese had obtained at Constanti. 1468, arriving at once at the port of sople, obtained the sanction of the Sluys, which was then the harbour of Pope to conclude a treaty of com- Bruges. merce with the infidel lubduers of Of the present fainous city of AmEgypt; and thus fanctioned, they fterdam we have tlie following curious Telorted to Alexandria, which the Sol- bistorical memoir: “ It was originally,

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in 1203, a finall castle named Amstel, Charles VII. took Bourdeaux from from the river whose banks it de. the English, also the duchy of Norfended. Some peasants, induced by mandy, and Aquitaine or Galcony, the liberality of Gisbert, Lord of the In three months, the expence of blood Castle, to build their cottages near its and treasure which the English had walls, began a considerable trafic by lavished for a century was rendered of means of their fishery. These labours no avail; their only' acquisition that being crowned with success, the rising remained was the town of Calais, and hamlet, which had cheered the gloom the adjacent town and country of of the castle, foon loft all traces of its Guines.

In 1457, the French even former poverty; the filing-boats were ventured to turn the miseries of inturned into merchant-lhips, and the valion on their enemies; and distressed fishermen into merchants. The new their trade, by burning the consider, town was soon surrounded with bridges able town of Sandwich in Kent, and and a dyke, when the term Dam was that of Fowey in Cornwall ; but we added to that of Amstel, since core hear no more of their maritime exruptly turned into Amierdam. In the ploits during the period comprised in year 1469, the Netherlands had at- this civilion of Mr. Clarke's Itupen. tained to such a pitch of maritime dous work. ftrength, that the Duke of Burgundy The first dawn of maritime enterprize poflelled the most formidable naval in England, in the reign of Alfred the power in Europe.

Great, is the next subject of confideraOf the maritime power, discoveries, tion; and its progreis is accurately piracies, and invasions, of the Northern carried on from authentic documents. countries called Scandinavia, more par- This portion of our history includes ricularly of Denmark, old England had the foundation of the ports and cities the moit melancholy proofs, as the of London, Bristal, Hull, and Newearly periods of her history record; castle; and the valuable testimony of fuffice it then to notice, that the Danish that ancient English historian William Chronicle declares the country called the Monk of Malmsbury, in favour of Groneland, or Greenland, to have been the high character of English failors, discovered about the year of Christ so early as the year 1315, the reign of 770, hy Norwegian navigators.

Edward II. English Thips wifit every It is remarkable that the genius of coast, and English sailors excel all others, France appeared late, when compared boib in the arts of navigation and in fight. with other nations, in the progress of ing: and how nobly they have mainmaritime discovery; and for this rea. tained this character, even to our own fon, says our Author, “because a ma- time, the nearly annihilated naval power ritime character was never congenial of France and Spain, at this hour, with the habits and employments of os are contirmations Itrong as proofs of its inhabitants: their minds were too holy writ!" volatile, and too fond of military At the beginning of the fifteenth cenparade, to find any charnis in the plain tury, the commerce of England was fo manners and patient abiding of the much increaled, that in 1413 several mariner. The institution of a Naval merchant-thips failed from London to Order in France, called the Svip and the Morocco; and about the same era, the Afcallop Shell, or, as it was sometimes English first began to indulge an ambio Itiled, the Order of the Ship and Double tion of haring the Sovereignty of the Crejcent, was celebrated by St. Louis Seas, though then furpassed by other the founder in the year 1269; yet even kingdoms in maritime enterprize. A this had little effect in creating a mari fingular curiosity towards the close of time fpirit, or in rewarding what had

this section is, a poem by an anony. appeared: mot writers are of opinion, mis author in the year 1433, termed, that the Order did not survive the The Prologue of the Procelje ofike Libel of founder **

Englijh Policie; exhorting ail England 19 A very considerable increase of kerge the Sea, and namely the Narrow strength, however, was given to the Sea: feuing what Profile commeih ibere. maritime power of France in the fit of, and also what Worship and Saluation teenth century; for in the year 1453, 10 England and to all Englijbmen. Vur

A wooden cut of the collar and pendant Qip, with an explanatory note, will be found at p. 32 ard 33 of Chapter I. Sect. I.


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Author gives several extracts from the the origin of the name of the kingdom quaint rhymes of this commercial pro. --the adventures and marriage of logue, as applicable to his subject; Count Henry, a Portuguese Nobleman, what the poet means by the Libel of with the daughter of Alphonso the English Policie, appears hy the title of Sixth, King of Leon and Caftile, from one part of it, which is called, Woful whom he obtained, as her dower, the Complaint of l.acke of Navie if need come ; frontier province to the south of the and the exhortation thews that the po- Minho; with the privilege of enlarging licy of the troublesome and unfortunate the narrow boundaries of his domain reign of Henry VI. tended to the dimi: by the further expulsion of the Moors. nution, instead of an increale, of naval The Count had fought gallantly under strength. This poem is preserved in the banners of Alphonto: thus did the Hakluyt 's Voyages, black lerrer, Vol. I. infant kingdom of Portugal receive from whom the extracts are made. from chivairy its first Governor. We now

enter upon Section II. Camoens, as he must have had access which relates the rise of the maritime to many authorities now loft, or not kingdom of Portugal, and all the oc. generally known, our Author observes, currences of the naval and commer. is justly entitled to the confidence of cial hiitory of the Portuguese previous the historian, and on this account he to the reign of John I. with which our ofren introduces him to his readers, present review will conclude. It is gives in a note an affecting abridgevery extraordinary, as our Author ment of his life, and thinks at it would juftly observes, « that no English be well worthy of our Eatt India Com. writer of eminence has hitherto illus- pany, or the Board of Controul, to trated a subject of so much importance give a new and elegant edition of ibeir to a maritime kingdom as the rise and commercial poet, and his elegant transfall of this commercial power :”, he Jator: likewise quotes the following pasage Alphonso Henry, the worthy fucfrom Mickle's introduction to bis cellor of the Count his father, was the tranfation of Camoen's celebrated Por: firit King, baving received that title tuguese poem on commerce, entitled, from his victorious soldiers on the field the Lufiad: No lesion can be of of battle, in extending his cominions, greater national importance than the and was crowned at Lamego A. D. Listory of the rise and fall of a com- 1145. During his reign, the first in. mercial empire. The view of what formation relative to the eastern parts advantages were acquired; and what of Atia was communicated to him by might have been ftilladded; the means Rabbi Benjamin, a few of Tudela, a town by which such empire might have con- in Navarre, whole travels are circumtinued, and the errors by which it was ttantially detailed. The travels of John loft; are as particularly conspicuous in de Plano Calpini, a Franciscan friar, at the naval and conniercial history of the head of a million of monks sent by Portugal, as if Providence had intended Pope Jonocent the IVth to arreit the to give a lafting example to mankind - alarining luccellies of the Tartars, artd let us add, there never was a time proved ultimately beneficial to Europe, more favourable than the p:etent for as it tended to procure information filling up this vacuum in our historical respecting the remote provinces of science, tince the prefent degradation Alia, and to further the progress of of Portugal muit' impreis the leflon maritime discovery, very properly fall with couble force.

in with this part of its history in the “ The fertile banks of the rivers reign of Sancho the Ild, King of Minho and Droro were the boundaries Portugal, about the year 1223. Furof a province of Caliile, ulience the ther discoveries by the travels of Friar kingdom of Portugai gradually a. ore William de Rubruquis, under the patronto give laws to the subrniliive realms age of Louis the IXth, King of France, of India, and to direct the course of its « called the mercantile attention to the European commerce. On the variety dittarit provinces of Asia, and first inof rich bistorical treasure contained in Spired that szilion for discoveries which this section, we forber to enlarge, it has since produced such mighty effects." being our intention to recommend, not From him Portugal, as well as the reft to purloin from, works of diringuitbed of Europe, received the forft certain merit: it only remains, therefore, to accounts of China, and were informed point out the principal contents, vix. that such a place as Japan existed:


they are therefore introduced under consequences, has formed the fubject the reign of Alphonso the IIId, King of three tragedies ; one in English, of Portugal, about the year 1253. called Elvira. The melancholy story Denis the Magnificent, his son, fuc- is given at length by. our Author, ceeded him in 1279, and acquired the introductory to the reign of Pedro; nobler appellation of the Father of bis the unfortunate Lady was put to death Country: « The attention of this King by Alphonso, but not till she had born to the augmentation and discipline of four children to Pedro; Alphonso, who his Navy gave a new character to his . died young, John, Denis, and Beatrix. subjects, and insured them the Sove- “ The national character under the reignty of the Sea; and the mercan. auspices of Pedro was raised even tile interest hailed their beloved Mo. beyond the height to which it had narch, as the Proteztor of Commerce. been elevated by Denis. From this The eastern travels of Marco Polo the renowned Monarch arose the illustrious Venetian, and his relations Nicolo and John the First, father of Henry Duke Maffio, for the space of twenty-six years, of Visco. With the inglorious reign attracted, during the long reign of of Ferdinand, surnamed the Careless, Denis, a conGderable and lasting atten- the degenerate ton of Pedro, by his tion;" they advanced towards the first wite Donna Constance Emanuel, and East, beyond the track of any pre- a short notice of the change that took ceding European, actually traded' on place on his demise by the accession of the Indian Ocean, visiting the Iands John the Ist, the Section closes. of Java, Sumatra, and Ceylon, and the To allitt any Englithman of literary coast of Malabar to the gulf of Cam- genius who may be dilpoled to compose bay.

a complete history of Portugal, a conAlphonso the. IVth succeeiled his cise account is subjoined of their most father in 1325, and during the twelve diftinguished writers, including those years of war with Cartile sustained a who have considered Portuguese Afa powerful maritime force; he was the and America, father of Pedro the Just, whose attach

M. ment to Inez de Caltro, and its fatal (To be concluded in our next.)

Cowper illustrated, by a series of Views in House. The Elms. The Shrubbery:

or near the Park of Weston Underwood, Olney Church and Olney Bridge: and Bucks, accompanied with copious De- all of them do honour to the profesa fcriptions, and a brief Sketch of the Poet's fional talents of the artists. The dee Life. 4to. and 8vo.

scriptions which accompany the plates, THIS Work, the performance of two are neatly written, and the life of the artists, Mellis. James Storer, and John Author appears with commendable deGreig, will be very acceptable to the licacy respecting the occasional unadmirers of the poet it illustrates, and happy state of the poet's mind. does credit to the undertakers. The fame of Cowper will live for ever, and

Glasgow, a Poem by John Mayne. 8vo. pofterity will enquire after, and visit the local descriptive poetry loses much places by time rendered claffic ground of its beauty to those who are unac. where he meditated on, and composed quainted with the scenes presented to that enchanting poem, The Task. them, and that is the cafe with the To keep alive the remembrance of poem before us, which we doubt not these scenes, the work before iis will be will be perused with more satisfaction a useful vade mecum, and will serve as in the north than in London. In its a memorial, after time and fashion may travels fouth, it however has not lost have altered the face of the country, all its effect; it may be itill read with or deitroyed what is perishable of the pleasure, even by those who are a now exitting objects. The engravings. itrangers to Glasgow. The author proare thirteen in number, and confit of feflos himself to be an admirer and Cowper's Summer House. The Pea- imitator of the Mule of Burns; and it fant's Neit. The Rustic Bridge. The must be confefied, has followed his Alcove. View from the Alcove. The matter with fuccels. At a future time Wilderness. The Temple in the Wil. he intimates an intention of taking derness. Weston Lodge. Wetton a stride “To Leven Water's bowry VOL. XLIII. JUNE 1803.



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