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to any grape country. These grapes are well ripened, and considering the shortness of the season, speak encouragingly for the successful cultivation of this fruit. There are no signs of disease or depredations of insects on any of these vines. This farm contains 97 acres, of which 55 acres are in meadow, and the balance set to orchards and vineyards. Over 70 tons of bay was cut on the farm in 1873, and about 40 tons this year, the extreme drouth during the first part of the season making the difference. The crop of potatoes on parts of his farm for four years past has been a decided success, never having failed of a crop. Last season there were 8 acres planted, which yielded about 200 bushels per acre, of the early rose variety of the finest quality.
Mr. Charles Hurd's orchard contains 14 acres, and consists of 350 apple trees, 600 peaches, 30 cherries, 30 standard pears, 50 plums, one acre of strawberries, one-half acre of raspberries and blackberries, and about 50 grape vines. Most of the apples, peaches, pears, cherries, and plums were set four years ago, and although the land was new, and not very thoroughly cultivated, and in consequence nearly one-quarter of the apples and peaches were lost, get those that are left have made a very fair growth, and all of the small fruits have succeeded admirably. The growth of the fruit trees has not been as strong as on some orchards in this vicinity, but is sound and healthy, the wood being well matured and the fruit buds well ripened. For the last two years Mr. Hurd bas been very thorough in the cultivation of his orchard, and has made a great improvement by taking out all of the stumps on nearly half of the orchard, and giving it a liberal manuring. He has also made a fine addition to his plat of strawberries, having set two-thirds of an acre last spring, the most of them Wilson's and the balance Green's Prolific. The raspberries and blackberries have given good regular crops and may be considered a success. The raspberries are nearly all Philadelphias, which seem to be the most profitable of the red varieties for market.
The farm and fruit orchard of Mrs. Hadsell is just off from Maple street, about one-half mile south of the city. This farm contains forty acres, about twenty of it cleared and nearly ten acres planted to the choicest kinds of fruit. This orchard bas been a fair success except the pear trees, which have nearly half of them been lost by the fire and blight. There are about 150 trees left. The peach trees have also suffered from overgrowth, and a good many have been lost, yet there are about 135 trees left. The cause of this loss is plain to be seen : not fro:n the climate or natural soil, but from over stimulating the soil with too much compost. Mr. Hadsell was lavish in his expenditures on this orchard, thinking no doubt that was the only sure means of raising a successful orchard. The plume, about 200, are in fine condition and a good prospect of a crop of fruit next year on the most of the trees. There are a few apple trees that appear to be doing well.
Dr. Lathrop S. Ellis has a farm on the lake shore two miles south of the city, of which twenty acres are cleared and planted to peaches, plums, pears, apples, grapes and small fruits. The trees are yet young but promise well. The land here is sandy and exposed directly to the lake breezes. Cultivating crops of vegetables between the trees keeps the whole in good condition.
IRRIGATION COMPANY. Recent dry seasons have drawn attention to the importance of irrigation, and Messrs. Ramsdell & Benedict and Oren Wheeler, of Wheeler & Johnson, have formed a company with the intention of going largely into the business of raising fruits, vegetables, and poultry. They have taken forty acres, previously owned by Ramsdell & Benedict, and at present planted in peach trees, located south of the city, and intend to build thereon such improvements as are deemed necessary to secure a thorough cultivation of the soil. They will make ample arrangements to secure irrigating facilities by erecting a steam pump on the ground, which will pump water from Clear Lake, which is located next to the piece of ground, and distribute it through pipes or hose. The engine of a little pleasure steamer will be taken out and placed on the ground for this purpose. Mr. Oren Wheeler is superintending the improvement and making erery arrangemeut to put the enterprise into successful operation.
GENERAL VIEW OF THE MANISTEE FRUIT REGION. Manistee, like all other places along the Lake shore, bas been more or less discouraged on the peach question by the severe frost of 1872, but that frost taught the most observant a most important lesson in regard to peach growing, which is that the peach tree will not bear prolonged cultivation or heavy fertilization; that its greatest danger is in overgrowth, leaving sappy and unripe wood which cannot stand the severity of an unusually cold winter. Those who were the most careless, or wbo purposely neglected cultivation, lost but few trees by that severe winter, while the clean cultivator who would not allow a weed or a blade of grass to grow in his orchard, had the mortification of losing many trees that had been so well cared for. Growers have learned that a few inches of well-ripened new wood is of more value for the production of mature fruit buds and fruit, than many feet of sappy
shoots. With this additional experience peach growers, even as far north as Manistee, cannot fail to raise peaches with about as much certainty as any delicate fruit can be raised anywhere. Yet I think the production of plums should be made the specialty of Manistee. The German prune there is as good as it is in Germany, and as easily raised. Why not raise it in sufficient quantities to supply the United States markets with that choice luxury? Why ship gold to Germany for what can be raised in Northern Michigan ? With the enterprise and spirit shown by leading capitalists of Manistee, by men who have been chiefly engaged in lumbering, as well as the intelligence shown by the fruit growers there, I have great confidence that Manistee is destined to take a prominent position in the production and exportation of fruit, as well as other
TRANSPORTATION AND MARKETS. Although no railroad has yet reached Manistee, the Detroit, Lansing & Lake Michigan Railroad, now terminating at Howard City, is pointing in that direction, while the harbor is one of the best on Lake Michigan. Its proximity to Milwaukee, Sheboygan, Manitowoc, and Escanaba gives it a vast range of unfruitful country to supply, while the home consumption of so large a manufacturing city as Manistee, of itself must create a large demand for the productions of farm and orchard, at good, remunerative prices.
GRAND TRAVERSE, BENZIE, LEELANAW, TRAVERSE CITY, NORTHPORT, FRANKFORT, GLEN HAVEN, GLEN ARBOR, PORT ONEIDA, LOUISVILLE, NORTH UNITY, 'LELAND, ONOMENESE, PROVEMENT, OMENA, NEW MISSION, PSHABA, SUTTON'S BAY,
LEE'S POINT, OLD MISSION, MAPLETON.
COUNTRY NORTH OF MANISTEE. Proceeding north from Manistee the shore presents the front of a fine farming country level to the lake bank, which is of considerable eleration. This country is being well settled up by farmers more or less engaged in fruit-growing. Proceeding past Frankfort Harbor the shore becomes somewhat hilly, and at Point Becs Scies there is an altitude of about 400 feet. Empire Bluffs, about 12 miles further to the northeast, reach a similar altitude. Sleeping Bear Point, seven miles further north attains an elevation of about 500 feet, formiog a prominent feature for many miles. It is so named from a supposed resemblance of the clump of evergreens at the summit to a bear in repose. Much of this shore consists of gravel, clay, and some of sand, with little or no vegetation, and Back from Sleeping Bear Point is an area of clay, pebbles, and sand of six or seren square miles, where vegetation is exceedingly sparse, and being exposed to the lake storms it is not desirable for settlement. It is a small desert on an elevation of nearly 400 feet. Such spots of desolation seen by travelers often lead to unjust reports as to the nature of the country. East of this desert the land is heavily timbered, and although maintaining its altitude, is rich and fertile, being covered with an exceeding heavy growth of bard and soft maple and rock elm. North Unity has a bold clay bluff. Farther north the high land of Leelanaw county comes out to the lake, forming clayey and gravelly cliffs, from 100 to 250 feet high. The beach at many places is covered with a variety of stones, pieces of granite, limestone, brownstone and varigated marble, worn round by attrition and the action of water. I had a fine view of this interesting coast from Onomenese village, where an Indian school house occupies a prominent and beautiful location on the lake shore. Further north is Louisville, or Waukazoo, another Indian village admirably located on the bluff. From these points the Manitou and Fox islands are seen to great advantage; and, together with the bold cliffs on the main land, projecting into prominence and forming bays, and the broad expanse of lake between, form scenery of surpassing beauty and grandeur. I was accompanied on this exploration by Dr. Hutchinson of North port, who took great pains to show me the points of greatest interest, and to whom I am indebted for much information.
THE INTERIOR TOPOGRAPHY. This coast, fraught as it is with interest to the explorer and artist, is too broken and rugged and not sufficiently accessible by safe harbors north of Frankfort, to make it appear desirable to the fruit grower, but this rough exterior is no index to the character of the country between it and Traverse Bay, where the land, although maintaining high altitudes, becomes gently rolling, presenting slopes which for extent of convenient and accessible arable surface and fertility of soil is unsurpassed in any other portion of the State. Fortunately for this fertile track it is approachable on its eastern slope by the best of harbors: those of Northport, New Mission, Sutton's Bay, and Traverse City. It is also interspersed by several navigable lakes: Crystal, Platte, Glen, Traverse, and Carp, the latter 18 miles in length, besides numerous lakes in Grand Traverse county. Carp lake has a shore of 36 miles in extent; Glen lake, 14 miles. Its 41 iniles of coast on Traverse Bay, and its 50 miles on lake afford Leelanaw county an aggregate of 141 miles of navigable water front. Benzie county has 20 miles of water frontage on Crystal lake and five miles on Frankfort Harbor, and its front on Lake Michigan, giving it 50 miles of water frontage. The land between Glen Arbor and Traverse City is undulating, with a general elevation of 300 feet above the bay. Glen lake is surrounded by hills varying from 250 to 400 feet elevation. The highest point on the Leelanaw peninsula, is probabiy between Carp Lake and Sutton's Bay, a narrow belt of land from 400 to 500 feet high. Carp lake is surrounded by bold shores, which are reflected in the clear waters, forming scenes which artists would delight to represent on canvas. Most of the land between these lakes and surrounding these bays is yet covered with a heavy growth of Maple, White Ash, White Birch, Basswood, Rock Elm, and occasionally a Hemlock, interspersed with here and there a White Pine, a Balsam Fir, an Arbor Vitæ, and a Cedar. Sufficient evergreens grow among the other forest trees to relieve the winter-grey. Notwithstanding the altitude, the highest lands are accessable by roads and Indian trails, and on many of the most elevated spots are found lodian clearings of from five to ten acres, and a log cabin. The soil is rich and mellow, being sandy loam, rich with black, vegetable mould. The highest lands are the richest for farming or gardening, and vegetables requiring the best of soil, such as onions, cauliflowers, and celery of the finest quality, grown
Mr. John E. Fisher, of Glen Arbor, has had peach trees planted fifteen years. They had never suffered from frost until 1872, when they were somewhat injured. His orchard is on the first natural terrace above the lake, and is somewhat sandy. Other fruit farms are coming into bearing.
LELAND Mr. John R. Miller has a fine young peach orchard at Leland. The trees bore the first time last year, and are growing vigorously. Farmers in this vicinity are beginning to see their opportunity to do well at fruit growing.
LEE'S POINT. Mr. James Lee has an orchard ten miles north of Traverse City, on the Leelanaw shore, about thirty feet above bay water level. He has 1,500 peach trees, which were injured two years ago, but have now recovered and promise a crop next season. He has 800 grape vines: Concords, Isabellas, and Delawares. Grapes only failed once in eight years, and that was when snow came in October. Last year his apples bore enormously. His 200 apple trees, planted 12 years ago, are now yielding handsomely.
THE NEW MISSION SETTLEMENT.
Five miles south of North port is the site of what is known as the new Mission, in contradistinction to the “ Old Mission” of the Peninsula. But even New Mission now presents indications of age, and the Seminary building erected at great expense on a fine elevation near the New Mission harbor by the Presbyterian Board of Missions, show indications of dilapidation, occasioned by years of rough usage (especially on the side devoted to the boys), and of neglect, since the mission was abandoned. The property, consisting of this large building and 500 acres of valuable farming land, much of which is clear of stumps, was purchased in 1869 by Messrs. A. & B. C. Miller for $8,000 00. An orchard planted by the Missionaries or Indians 25 years ago produce both apples and peaches every year. The peaches, howerer, are seedlings, though of fair quality. The first plantation of budded peaches were highly manured and cultivated and consequently greatly damaged and mostly destroyed by the frost of 1872. The next peach trees planted will be treated differently and will probably succeed better. The present proprietors now have sixty acres planted chiefly with apples. Several long rows of Golden Russets planted four years ago produced an excellent crop this year, the apples being as near perfection in form and flavor as it has ever been my good fortune to witness and test. Trees 18 years old are now yielding 22 bushels to the tree. A fine pear orchard is coming into bearing, also plums and grapes. Hundreds of bushels of choice fruit in cellars and barn demonstrate the productiveness of this farm. The apples will be kept till spring, when they will readily command five dollars a barrel for home consumption in Traverse City, and a still higher price in Escanaba or Chicago. Messrs. Miller are young men, possessed of skill, capital, and energy. They are also running a forty-acre orchard near North port, and make fruit growing their principal business, although other branches of farming are not neglected. Their sites are admirable, their land well cleared, and present those gradual variations of soil and surface so well adapted to mixed farming and especially to mixed fruit farming. They use manure freely around their bearing trees, first for mulching and afterwards, when rotted, for plowing in.
Mr. A. B. Page, on the south side of the New Mission harbor, settled here 18 ycars ago, on a site commanding a fine view of New Mission Bay. He has between 400 and 500 trees, and expects to plant 1,000 more next spring. He has apples, pears, plums, and peaches. He produces, also the Early Rose, Peachblow, and Peerless potatoes. Four years ago he obtained one Peerless potato at a cost of 75 cents. He has increased from this until this year he has 228. bushels of marketable potatoes which he is selling to his neighbors for seed at one dollar a bushel. It is a very solid, white, medium-sized, fine-grained potato, and being mealy and of good flavor, commands a ready sale. It readily yields 200 bushels to the acre.
Mr. Doe, from Illinois, has purchased a forty-acre farm near the Bay, and 160 acres on the high land adjacent, where he intends to plant fruit. He is also arranging for a colony of Swedes.
The Audubon Club of Chicago own a pleasant site here and a neat cottage, around which they pitch their tents in summer, and pursue their sports amid