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the east, forming a horse shoe of about one hundred miles extent, so that if the waters in the bay should rise one or two hundred feet, there would be but few chances for inundating the country south of this high land. On the east side these high lands enclose several important lakes, and the country is being rapidly settled under the homestead laws. As my instructions were to explore to the west shore of Traverse Bay, I must leave the east shore for future exploration. Although this elevated land presents many attractions to the pioneer farmer and fruit grower, the greatest interest in fruit growing is at present concentrated in what is known as

THE PENINSULA. This is a strip of good farming land from one to three miles wide, and about sixteen miles long, stretching in a north-easterly direction between the two arms of Grand Traverse Bay. The land is a sandy and gravelly loam, with many limestone and some granite boulders interspersed. It is covered with a heavy growth of maple, birch, basswood, and elm, interspersed with balsam fir, and cedar. The general surface of the Peninsula consists of ridges running north and south in the form of well curved turnpikes, of from one-eighth to one-half mile in width, and from fifty to two hundred and fifty feet above the bay. A section of the Peninsula cut crosswise would present à succession of elevations nearly like the following: West Bay.

East Bay

At the widest portion there are six of these ridges, and at the narrowest one or two. The valleys running north and south make nearly level thoroughfares for roads, while the cross roads are of such gradual ascent as to require little or no grading to make them safe for travel ; every part of the peninsula is therefore accessible and adapted for horse-boeing husbandry. The soil is similar to that on the Leelanaw peninsula, the highest land being the richest in vegetable mould, and the whole permeated with lime. There are some springs and creeks, and near the Old Mission is a lake some twenty-five feet higher than the bay. The water of the wells and streams is of course affected by lime. The bay water is, however, pure, and so clear as to make pebbles visible at great depth. The farmers usually use rain water for drinking purposes.

The removal to this Peninsula about seven years ago of Mr. George Parmalee, one of the pioneers of fruit growing in Benton Harbor, and Mr. Parmalee's enterprise in planting and cultivating a very extensive fruit farm has bad the effect of drawing attention to this favored tract of land as specially adapted to fruit culture. There are now about twenty-five farmers making a specialty of fruit growing, while about 100 more, whose farms are used for general purposes, but who are extending their orchards as the most promising in results of any part of their farms. There are about one hundred and fifty voters, but at the election of 1874 all the votes cast were on one side in politics, in the township. There is no place on the whole peninsula where intoxicating liquors can be purchased. There is not a physician or medical practitioner living there, those who have come, finding no demand for their services, have left. Mr. and Mrs. Parmalee were both invalids of long standing when they arrived in 1867, but were soon restored to good health. The universal appearance of the people on this Peninsula, as in Leelavaw county, is that of robust health. The air is pure and bracing, producing a keenness of appetite, a clearness and floridness of complexion, an elasticity of step, and a buoyancy of spirits generally supposed to be attainable only at the Rocky Mountains or at the sea-side, but which are here within a day's journey of any portion of Michigan.

SOME OF THE FARMS ON THE PENINSULA. Mr. E. P. Ladd, who has done much as a pioneer fruit-grower on the Peninsula, has a farm on the road about two miles south of Old Mission Bay, and at an elevation of about 270 feet above water level,—about sixty acres oleared and under cultivation. He has succeeded well with plums, having adopted the jarring process for destroying the curculio. He raises about three bushels of plums on each bearing tree of the Smith's Orleans variety. They are ripe here early in September. Coe's Golden Drop ripens in the latter part of the same month or early in October. He also grows the Lombard plum successfully. The Yellow Spanish Cherry does well here; being very hardy, it was uninjured by the frost of 1872, when most of his sweet cherries were injured. Mr. Ladd has grown hops seven or eight years for the Chicago market. His crop on two acres weighed 3,080 lbs. He has succeeded in raising Rogers' Hybrid Grapes, Nos. 4 and 15; also Ionas, Delawares, Isabellas, and Concords. Crevelings did not do so well here. Concords, Hartfords, and Ionas yield the most profitable crops.

Mr. Windsor Golding has a fine apple orchard. Trees planted i2 years ago last spring. They are now bearing an average of ten bushels to the tree.

Mr. Thoe. Tyler has 20 seedling peach trees, eleven of which yield him $330 a year.

Mr. William A. Marshall has a farm of 210 acres near that of Mr. Ladd. He came ten years ago and purchased the farm of Mr. Ladd, who planted the orchard now in bearing. Some of the land on this farm had been cleared by the Indians. It raises 600 busbels of rutabagas to the acre. The 10-acre apple orchard is on the central ridge of the peninsula. The trees are two rods apart and the land between the trees has been cultivated without cropping for the past six years. The last farm crop taken from this orchard was 1,000 bushels of potatoes. The trees have been carefully pruned, and there are no bad crotches. Eighty golden russet trees yielded 380 bushels this year. Other varieties yielded in similar proportion. This orchard was awarded the second premium by the State Pomological Society. Mr. Marshal has also succeeded on this elevated land with Diana, Delaware, Rogers' No. 15, and Salem grapes.

Mr. Alexander Porter has a farm opposite Mr. Marshall's, and on the same ridge, he has a fine young orcbard with some trees in bearing. He has apples, pears, plums, grapes, and peaches. Of his 800 apple trees 50 were planted ten years ago and have done well. They now bear 75 bushels a year, many of them being Northern Spy and Willow Twig, are not yet in bearing. The Jonathan, Winter Pippin, and Vandevere have borne the best. They commenced bearing the second year after planting, and have borne full crops every year since. Mr. Porter believes in high cultivation and manuring. He puts coarse manure around the trees for mulch. After a while he throws earth upon it. When well rotted, he plows it in. Three hundred trees were planted in 1873 and 300 in the spring of 1874. His 300 trees set in 1869 are doing remarkably well, and begin to yield a profit. The Golden Russets, Wagners, Fameuse, and some of Tallman's Sweet have been bearing for two years. One tree of the Perry Russet bore last year. Mr. Porter spoke highly of the Red Canada and Jonathan for this climate, being nice looking apples, and sour enough for any purpose. He showed us fine samples of Strawberry, Spitzenberg, Greening, and Golden Russets.

Mr. Tuttle has a vineyard of Concord, Delaware and Rogers' Nos. 4, 9, 15 and 19, 1,000 in all. They all appeared to do well in this locality. On the game farm was an excellent plum orchard, principally egg plums, judging from the form of the trees. Also, acres of gooseberries, blackberries, black cap and Clarke raspberries.

Mr. J. M. Pratt (who rendered me valuable assistance in showing me tho varions places of interest) has a nice location open to Old Mission Bay. One orchard planted five years ago, consisting of Golden and Perry Russets, Snow, Tallman's Sweet, Maiden's Blush, is coming into good bearing. Mr. Pratt's plan is to cultivate between his peach trees till July 1st and then to sow buckwheat, which checks the growth and gives the wood a chance to ripen. He finds that trees so treated are not injured by the frost, even if the snow blows off. Mr. Pratt has a handsome vineyard on a natural terrace, with eastern exposnre, on which I found grapes uninjured by frost as late as November 11th.

Mr. Enoch K. Wait has an excellent location north of the Old Mission House. One hundred and twenty acres under cultivation; forty-five acres in apple trees, mostly planted in 1872. Some trees planted in 1864 are in good bearing. Plapted 30 plum trees last spring, and intends to plant more next. Sold $100 worth of strawberries and raspberries this summer. This farm is on one of the high ridges, and adjoins the farm of Mr. George Parmalee.

Mr. George Parmalee has 400 acres of land located north of Old Mission Bay, and extending out to Mission Point. It is so located that wind, coming from whatever quarter it may, must pass over deep water before it can reach his farm.

The land is mostly high. A ridge about a mile long, runuing north and south in the form of a turnpike, about half a mile wide, runs through the farm, with an average elevation above the bay of about 200 feet, the highest ridge point being probably 250 feet high. The site for the residence is well selected, commanding a fine view of the harbor and bay, but sufficiently protected by the abruptness of the shore and by forest trees to defy the storm. Formerly an Indian clearing, there are ten apple trees that have the appearance of being over fifty years old. They were thickly sodded around when Mr. Parmalee took them in hand, and were not very productive. Since they have been caltivated and pruned they have borne regularly about 150 bushels of apples each year. From bis grafted trees, planted five years ago, Mr. Parmalee gathered this year 95 bushels of choice apples, and from his young pear orchard 21 bushels of pears. The pear trees show well for next season,—where there was one blossom bnd a year ago, there are now about fifty, and on an orchard of 1,100 pear trees there is a prospect of a very profitable crop. Mr. Parmalee has about 100 acres planted with apple trees, 40 trees to the acre; two and a third acres of cherry trees.

In regard to cherries, Mr. Parmalee says a little extra care in gathering them is a great advantage. Cherries should be cut with a scissors and never pulled from the trees. In pulling them off there is not only danger of crushing the cherries, if ripe, but there is danger of the buds intended to produce blossoms the following year being broken off at the same time, while careful

gathering will cause the cherries to keep good ten days longer than when roughly handled.

Mr. Parmalee says the land on his farm, and it is similar throughout the peninsula, is so porous that it can be plowed immediately after a shower, or as soon as the snow has melted in the spring. Yet, potwithstanding the limited rainfall of the past summer, nothing suffered from drouth wbere properly cultivated.

One of the most promising farms on the peninsula is that of Mr. H. T. Brinkman. It is adjoining Mr. Parmalee's orchard on the west and runs on to a portion of the main north and south ridge. Two hundred of Mr. Brinkman's pear trees were planted seven years ago and are now coming into good bearing. Two hundred were planted three years ago and are looking finely. He has about 2,000 apple trees, between 500 and 600 peach trees, 200 quince trees, 100 cherry trees, and 130 plum trees. Mr. Brinkman is a very industrious, persevering grower, and feels sure of success.

One of the best farms on the Peninsula is known as Grove Hill, owned by Messrs. Reynolds and Tracy. It is located on the west side of the Peninsula. Prof. Tracy, formerly of the Michigan State Agricultoral College, in partnership with Mr. Reynolds, have several hundred acres of land which they are clearing and planting with fruit trees. They have adopted the block plan, placing each variety of fruit by itself in a square. They planted 2,200 appletrees two years since, 40 trees to the acre, also 2,200 pear trees which are set out one rod apart one way and 20 feet the other, in quincunx order. The apples are selected on account of their quality for dessert fruit. They have set Northern Spy stocks to be top grafted with Canada Red. They also propose to plant largely of Grimes' Golden Pippin and Goiden Russet. The leading varietits of pears are the Bartlett, Beurré d'Anjou, Lawrence, and Flemish Beauty. Among their farm crops, they produced this year forty tons of pure Hubbard Squash, intended for the Detroit and Boston markets.

EXPERIMENTAL OR TEST ORCHARD. Messrs. Reynolds & Tracy, in addition to their general orchards, have devoted sereral blocks to testing various kinds of fruit. They have one each of eightyeight rarieties of pears. On another block they have seventy-two varieties of apples. These experimental orchards may result in important discoveries as to the adaptation of this soil and climate to hitherto untried varieties.

ALDEN FACTORY. Messrs. Reynolds & Tracy are also running a drying establishment on the Alden plan, where fruit and vegetables, especially pumpkins, are being dried on an extensive scale. The pumpkins or squash are dried and subsequently ground into meal and sold in convenient packages.

RESTORING TREES DAMAGED BY EXPOSURE. Mr. J. M. Pratt showed us a row of 29 apple trees which, when received from the nursery, had evidently been injured by exposure of the roots. He claims to have resuscitated them by dipping the roots in a clay puddle; then burying the trees ten days in the earth sis inches deep. They were then taken out, planted, and have since made good growth.


I learn the Hon. Perry Hannah expects to have 150 acres of his land on the Peninsula planted with fruit next season. Farmers generally here are planting as fast as their means will allow. Senator Mitchell is also planting largely of apples.

CULTIVATION VS. PEACHES. An orchard owned by Mr. Stickney, showed in a striking manner the injari. ous effects of over or late cultivation on peach trees. A portion of the peach orchard had been under the care of a gentleman who did not cultivate it except in the spring, and allowed the grass to grow around the trees, while another portion had been cultivated late and made large growth. When the cold of 1872 struck the orchard, most of the trees in the cultivated portion were killed down, while those in the grass withstood the freeze and have continued in good bearing ever since. The line between the cultivated and uncultivated trees was very plain, although both sides are under similar treatment now, being in charge of Mr. Barney.

DEPTH OF THE BAY. Mr. Parmalee considers the great depth of the Bay as a principal cance of the extraordinary exemption of the two Peninsulas, Leelanaw county and Peninsula township, from early or late frosts. Soundings show that the bay is as deep below the surface of the water as are the surrounding bills above it, and in some places much deeper, so that if the water were drained out of the bay the hills on either side would rise to the dignity of mountains of over 1000 feet elevation.



The peculiar conformation of the Traverse Bay region, and the fact that its first settlers were for many years cut off during long winters from the rest of the world, made the inhabitants regard the location as a little world by itself, and any one leaving the region for a short time were always described as having gone “outside," and even now that the railroad has placed them in daily communication with the rest of mankind, winter and summer, the habit still prevails with the old settlers, and all visitors are “ from the outside.”

GENERAL VIEW OF THE TRAVERSE REGION. The country I hare attempted to describe in this article differs much from that described in all the former articles. It is, in fact, a little world with characteristics peculiar to itself. Those characteristics are such as to adapt it peculiarly to the production of winter apples possessing superior keeping qualities, and that richness of flavor and brightness of coloring, so much admired wherever they have been exhibited. Even the Rbode Island Greening has a beautiful blush when grown here. It is not the “dull blush near the stalk” described by Downing, but a bright, shining scarlet blush covering in some cases balf the apple, and so delicate is the tint, that there is no other apple with which this Grand Traverse Greeving can be compared. The Golden Rosset, which grows cracked and gnarly in many places, is here a perfect apple in form, and without spot or blemish of any kind. Mr. Parmelee has well said that "the Golden Russet is to the farmers of Traverse a golden nugget." It bears regularly after the second year from planting, and arrires

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