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fect chemist. So does not the few themes you write make you a master of style. But they help. They set you in the right way. They begin the skill that continued practice will perfect.
This good, however, will be secured only as you give close attention to your work. Think of what you are doing, and of nothing else. Aim to do perfectly whatever you undertake. Concentrate your thoughts upon it, and you will find it very valuable. Agriculture in all its branches is very suggestive,—very improving to him who thinks as he works. You may not intend to be a farmer. What then may you not own a farm? May you not, if a successful lawyer, merchant, engineer, manage a farm? And then you will find it of the highest advantage, that from actual experience in faithful labor you know what' a day's work is: that you can direct your affairs, and know the quality of work performed.
3d. Again, the work required at the college is yours to establish a good reputation in. Justly or unjustly, your college reputation will cling to you through life. Men have no faith in changes after the close of college life. Were you irregular in reporting, lazy in action, slack in performance, then you will pass for an unreliable, indolent, and shiftless worker forever. People will not divide you off, and say he was good in lessons and poor in the field, or good in the field and poor in lessons. They will very likely put you down at what is worst about you, as they estimate a rope by its weakest part; or at best will make an average of your qualities, and put you down at the mean of all. Least of all will men ever ask if you thought you were sufficiently paid. When men look at a piece of work, they say, "Who did that job?" They look at it as it is, without regard to the price paid for it. They say, "He is the man for me;" or, "I don't want any of that man's work." It is worth your while to secure for yourself the reputation of regularity, trustworthiness, efficiency, excellence.
4th. Again, the labor is yours as a grand opportunity for the acquirement of proper habits of work. The young do not appreciate the value of good habits, the bondage of evil ones. Habit seems to them a rope of straw. But it is not so. It is a second nature, said the observing Aristotle. Man is a bundle of habits, said the moralizing Paley. You may think you can slight lessons here, and be accurate as a business man hereafter. It is almost impossible. You cannot be careless of how you do your work here, and do it well at home hereafter.
Secure, then, so far as regular work three hours daily can give it, the habit of untiring industry. Secure the habit of putting your thoughts and care wholly on what you are doing,-of interesting yourself in whatever you undertake to do, whether it be for yourself or another. Secure the habit of doing everything well, and you will have received the best possible reward for your daily work. These three habits secured, will give you the confidence of all men, and above all, the consciousness of power. They will be sureties of
I have said nothing about wages. They may be important to some of you, but they are not of the first importance. If you teach, make as good a bargain as you can about pay, but having made it, forget it while you teach. If you find you are less than half paid, let that make no difference in the quality of your teaching. If you are not appreciated, nevertheless always do your best. Do it in everything. Take pride in your work. Do a good job.
On this point I can not do better than quote from John Ruskin, the emi
neat writer upon art. He says, "All healthy people like their dinners, but the dinner is not the main object of their lives. So all healthily-minded people like making money,―ought to like it, and to enjoy the sensation of winning it; but the main object of their life is not money; it is something better than money. ** * Good doctors would rather cure their patient and lose their fee, than kill him and get it. And so with all other rightly-trained men. Their work is first, the fee second,-very important, always, but still second. But in every nation, as I have said, there are a vast class who are ill-educated, cowardly, and more or less stupid. And with these people, just as certainly the fee is first and the work second, as with brave people the work is first and the fee second. And this is no small distinction. It is the whole distinction in a man, distinction between life and death in him, between heaven and hell for him. You cannot serve two masters; you must serve one or other. If your work is first with you and your fee second, work is your master, and the lord of work, who is God. If your fee is first with you and your work second, fee is your master, and the lord of fee, who is the Devil; and not only the Devil, but the lowest of devils, the least erected fiend that fell.' So then you have it in brief terms: work first, you are God's servants: fee first, you are the Fiend's. And it makes all the difference, now and ever, believe me, whethyou serve him who has on his vesture and thigh written, King of Kings,' and whose service is perfect freedom, or him on whose vesture and thigh the name is writtten 'Slave of Slaves,' and whose service is perfect slavery."
INSECTS INJURIOUS TO THE FARM, GARDEN, AND
BY PROF. A. J. COOK OF THE STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE.
The following report is arranged with the express desire that it may become a practical hand-book to every husbandman in our State. It is intended solely as an insect manual to the farmer, gardener, and fruit-grower, which shall give all possible information as to the best means to ward off insect enemies, and will be pruned of all scientific terms and technicalities not absolutely needed for the accomplishment of the desired end. It is greatly hoped that in spreading this information broadcast over our State, all our tillers may be stimulated to practice the measures recommended, for without concerted action to the fullest extent, this important problem of insect injuries can never be perfectly solved. Will not every farmer into whose hands it may fall, every grange, club, and society, horticultural and agricultural, if only for selfish ends, see that every farmer in the vicinity procure it, and then all work together to make it in the largest degree useful?
Those insects which attack our field crops are first considered, next the insect pests of our gardens, and lastly, the enemies of our orchards and vine-yards. In each division the insects are considered somewhat in the order of their importance.
The scientific name of each insect will be placed in a parenthesis, and can be passed over when desired.
In the preparation of this manual, free use has been made of the valuable reports of Messrs. Riley, Fitch, Le Baron, and Walsh; the American Entomologist, Practical Entomologist, and the important works of Harris, Curtiss, and Packard.
The illustrations are from drawings made by Prof. Riley, and so need no praise.
COLORADO POTATO BEETLE.
Doryphora 10-lineata-Say. Sub-Order Coleoptera. Family Chrysomelide.
If any one should doubt that this late comer among our pests takes first rank as an enemy to our field crops, he would only need to glance at the market columns of any of our journals to become speedily convinced of his error..
What signifies the fact that potatoes are quoted, and have been for the past two or three years, even in the rural journals, at one dollar and upwards per bushel, unless it means that the potato beetle is fast converting a common article of diet into a luxury? Nay, more, it asserts that even known remedies are slow of application. Though in this case we have a very cheap and perfectly effective remedy, still, actual observation and the high price of potatoes prove that barely half our farmers make use of it. There can be no doubt that should this article induce all our farmers "to fight the potato beetle by the most approved method," it would add at least $100,000 to the wealth of our State the coming year.
The history of this beetle, that it is a native of Colorado, where it was discovered, named, and described by Say, many years ago; how, on a bridge of potato vines, it infested our western States less than a score of years since, and from thence spread rapidly eastward till it now has actually gained our Atlantic coast, where it only awaits opportunity to take passage for Europe, where it will continue its dreaded ravages in the green fields of the Emerald Isle,all this is already well known.
The natural history of the potato beetle is also familiar to most of our farmers. It comes forth out of the earth as a beetle just as the potato vines are peering from the ground. Sometimes, as the creature stands over the hill, it seems fairly to grin in expectant longing for the rich, tender feast which FIG. 1.
nature is about to spread. With the coming of warm days the female (Fig. 1, d) lays her clusters of orange eggs (Fig. 1, a), sometimes to the number of a thousand, a single beetle which I confined laid over eleven hundred eggs, either on the under side of the leaves of the potato vines, or on blades of grass or
a eggs; ò larva; e pupa; d imago; e wing-cover, magnified; leg. other vegetables near by.
These soon hatch, when the young or larvæ (Fig. 1, b) are found to eat quite as voraciously as the mature beetle. In about fifteen days the young become fully developed, when they pass into the ground to pupate (Fig. 1, c). After about ten days of such quiet they come forth in the beetle state, and from their freshness it might be thought that the old-time beetles had been absent to get a new suit, and had just returned to show their finery.
These beetles, with their bright bands of yellow and black, mate, deposit. eggs, and soon die, behaving in all respects as before. So, too, the larvae and
pupæ. These again are followed by a third brood, which completes the ruinous work for the season; but the pupa of this last brood do not come forth in ten days, nor do they die; but, resting quietly beneath the earth, seem to be gathering strength for a miserable repetition of the previous year's abomination.
WILL THEY REMAIN WITH US?
It is hoped by many that these incorrigible pests will not be long among us, reasoning from analogy, as many insects (like the Hessian fly) have been quite as destructive for a ume, and then have almost entirely vanished. We may reasonably hope that the insect enemies of this beetle, which are rapidly increasing, will lessen its numbers yearly; but that we shall ever be rid of it is reckoning without our host. It will probably remain with us for all time, though as its natural enemies become more numerous they will doubtless hold it in check so that some years the evil will be very slight. Still it is safe to conclude that we shall have to be ever ready to give it battle, and well may we be grateful that such efficient weapons are at our command.
Inasmuch as Paris green is so practical, so efficient, and so cheap a remedy for this pest, I shall in this place do what every farmer had better do on his farm,-ignore all other means, such as hand-picking, machinery, etc., as too expensive, and not sufficiently thorough. With a little care, Paris green,-the genuine article, of course, is entirely safe, and we may well welcome the change of its use from our beautiful green-tinted wall-papers, where its poisonous exhalations have long gendered disease and death, to the richer green of our potato-fields.
The two methods which have been tried at the college with the best success as to economy, are either to mix the green with water, a heaping tablespoonful to ten quarts of the fluid, and sprinkle on with a common sprinkler or an old broom; or to mix the green with flour in the proportion of one part of green to six of flour, sifted on when there is no dew on the vines, either through a mulin bag suspended to a convenient handle, that it may be carried and shakesn over the vines, the person making the application walking upright, or with a pail, the bottom being of fine wire gauze or finely perforated tin. Where these methods are used, the whole expense per acre, for both material and cost of application, will not exceed five dollars for the season.
The advantages of the water mixture are ease, safety, even with the careless, and rapidity of application, and that, too, even if the day is windy. Its disadvantages are waste of material, as nearly one-third of the water does not touch the vines, and of course is lost; danger of not stirring the mixture sufficiently often, when the green, being only held in suspension, not dissolved, settles to the bottom, and the preparation becomes too dilute; ease with which the green when thus applied is washed off by heavy rains; and the danger of not applying evenly, as the powder suspended in the water is amassed wherever the drops of water settle. Yet from its convenience, and the ease with which the application may be made, this will quite likely be the favorite method.
After careful experimenting, I have found the flour mixture preferable to all other preparations. The flour makes the green adhere to the vines so that the heaviest rain is powerless to remove it. No second application is needed till enlarged growth of vines demands it. I make the mixture strong,-one of powder too six of flour, so that in making the application we need add only just enough of the mixture that we may be able to see it on the vines. The danger of using the flour mixture consists in the fact that unless used spar