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The States were thus represented:

Michigan...
Ohio.
Indiana.

1860-1862...

1863-1865...

110 New York..
3 Illinois...
3 Colorado:

The number of students was less by twenty than the number in attendance in 1873. The financial troubles that disturbed all classes is perhaps felt by none more than by the farmers who send their sons to the Agricultural College. Of the 121 students, 49 represented themselves as entirely dependent on their own exertions for means of support, and 101 have been accustomed to apply for the privilege of working Saturdays at a compensation not exceeding 12 cents an hour.

1866-1868.

1869-1871.

1872-1874....

2

There has been a gradual increase in the number of students in attendance. Taking three years at a time we had:

185 students.

200

66

287

66

349

66

395

66

The conduct of the students has been good. A word in private has usually sufficed to restrain any waywardness or neglect of duty. The students have manifested a strong interest in their studies, and a warm attachment to the institution. More than half of the students have been members of the College Christian Union, which has sustained meetings, lectures, a Sunday school, and is possessed of a growing library, periodicals, and maps.

The endeavor has been to lead the students to self-control, and the authority vested in the faculty has been used in the way of discipline as little as was consistent, while yet securing regularity of attendance upon duties and general good conduct.

The faculty have it in contemplation to make out a few courses of postgraduate study to submit to the board for their approval. We have had more or less graduates studying at the College since 1871, and full encouragement should be given to our graduates to stay and continue their studies.

Not a few of our students have taken post-graduate courses at the University. Four have gone to Harvard, one to Yale, one to Cornell, one to Germany, and one to the Royal Veterinary College in London. We hope for the time when the division of labor shall be so perfected, and the libraries, apparatus, and collections shall be so complete that no college institution, at home or abroad, shall surpass it in its means of instruction in all the specialties of the College.

The Freshman class was so large that it was divided into two sections in algebra and geometry.

The scheme of studies for the year is given in the table below.

FIRST TERM.

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Sophomores....

Freshman....

8 A. M.

Agriculture 12 weeks. Mental

Philosophy.

Algebra.

8 A. M.

French. Astron-
omy 6 weeks.

Mechanics.

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Analytical Chem Analytical Chem- Analytical Chem-Surveying 7 weeks.
istry.
istry.
istry. English Literature.

Practical Agri- Botany. Praxis Algebra. Geom- Algebra. Geom-
4 weeks.
etry.

culture.

etry.

All the classes have had regular exercises in compositions and declamations. The seniors and juniors have prepared original orations and delivered them before the whole body of students. A fuller detail of the classes will be given in the reports of the several departments.

Alternating with the orations of the Seniors and Juniors, the officers of the college have given addresses to the students on Wednesday afternoons. These have been as follows:

March 18.-Dr. Miles: The History of Legislation to Control Prices.
April 1.-Prof. Cook: Prehistoric Man.

April 15.-Dr. Kedzie: Struggle for Life.

May 6.-Prof. Beal: Beauties of a Frog Pond.

June 3.-President Abbot: Life of Archbishop Whately.
July 22.-Dr. Kedzie: Stimulants.

Aug. 5.-Prof. Beal: Robert Brown, the eminent Botanist.
Aug. 19.-Prof. Cook: Spontaneous Generation.

Sept. 2.-Prof. Fairchild: Honesty in Literary Effort.
Sept. 22.-President Abbot: Cultivation of Taste.

Oct. 7.-Dr. Miles: Architecture of the Cathedrals of Europe.
Oct. 21.-Dr. Kedzie: Meteorology of Central Michigan.

Oct. 28.-Prof. Fairchild: Insurance.

Nov. 4.-W. S. George, Esq., of Lansing: The Value of Accuracy.

The design of these lectures is either to supplement the instruction of the class-room, or more commonly to present to the students subjects which do not come in the regular routine of instruction.

The Society of Natural History is mainly in the hands of the students, although the officers have rendered considerable assistance, and have participated largely in its discussions.

Temporary changes were made in the order of studies to provide for the absence granted by the board to President Abbot. President Abbot was absent in Europe from just after the board meeting in May, 1873, to just before the board meeting in May, 1874. Glad to afford the president this needed rest, the faculty willingly made such changes and took upon themselves such additional duties as were required. Professor Fairchild especially, to whom you confided the duties of president pro tempore, has labored assiduously and with great success to supply the place of the president in his absence, and we desire to express our entire satisfaction with the way in which his duties were performed. Dr. Miles was absent in Europe four months on the return of the president of the College.

At the solicitation of a portion of the students a short recess was given the students at the time of the State Fair of the State Agricultural Society. Comparatively few of the students availed themselves of the privilege of attending the fair. A few, however, went for the purpose of studying the stock, implements, and fruit on exhibition. A few days recess at fair time is virtually the breaking up of college exercises for a week, and many students do not return until the Monday following. The students who remain are forced to be on expense without instruction. On the other hand, the fair is instructive to those who go to study, and the officers of the college are glad, when they can do so, to attend it. Four members of the Board of Agriculture and one member of the Faculty are members of the executive committees of the State Agricultural and State Pomological Societies, and most of the officers are deeply interested in their proceedings, as the published records of the societies show.

Dr. Miles was in attendance on the national convention of Short-horn breeders. Dr. Kedzie attended the centennial of the chemists at Northumberland, Pa., and the sessions of the National Medical Association and the State

Medical Society. Prof. Fairchild represented the college at the National Teachers' Association. Professors Cook and Beal have taken part in several meetings of the State Pomological Society.

As, however, our term continues through the vacation season of other colleges, and as the number of officers is too few to allow of much variation from a fixed order of class exercises, the officers are obliged to decline most invitations to meet with literary or scientific associations.

In addition to his duties at the college, Dr. Kedzie has been an active member of the State Board of Health.

Commencement exercises consisted of a baccalaureate sermon by the president of the College November 8, class day exercises, November 10, and the regular orations and addresses of commencement day. Twenty-one students were graduated. It appears from the class history that the graduates had incurred an average expenditure each of $750. This sum includes all cash payments to the College, the cost of board, traveling, clothing, and books; in fine all their living expenses, except the labor performed in College, for which they received credit on the College books.

The degree of Bachelor of Science was conferred upon Charles L. Bemis, George W. Brewer, William Cook, John K. Gailey, Josephus Groner, Henry A. Haigh, William A. Henderson, J. Wheeler Higbee, Augustus S. Hume, Charles L. Ingersoll, Lovias F. Ingersoll, Henry P. Jenney, George W. Long, Arthur L. Lowell, Ransom H. McDowell, Donald McPherson, George W. Mitchell, Dustin C. Oakes, Martin T. Rainier, William J. Sessions, and John E. Simonson.

The degree of Master of Science was conferred at the same time on James Satterlee, class of '69, Peter H. Felker, Byron D. Halsted, Robert F. Kedzie, Edward M. Shelton, and Dalston P. Strange, all of the class of '71.

The address was an admirable discussion of the money value of an education, by President George P. Hays, D. D., of Washington and Jefferson College. The following brief abstract is taken from the Lansing Republican:

The speaker began by saying there were some questions which ought to be understood, and a prominent one is, "Does Education Pay?"

Young America of the present time has so much confidence in its own ability that they think education is not for them, but for their forefathers. In questions of social life it is difficult to get certain information. As to whether information pays, we will begin at the beginning by enquiring whether it pays for a father to give his sons a common school education. Information on this point was gained by means of circulars, and the answer was that a common school education adds 25 to 50 per cent to a man's money-making power. People often complain of the scarcity of good laboring hands. A common school education furnishes better employment, and leaves it to the ignorant to get the small wages.

An instructive lesson may be learned from our almshouses, jails, etc. In our almshouses ten to one are uneducated. In jails, where common criminals are confined, it is about the same. But in the penitentiary, where the forgers, defaulters, etc., are confined, we find a large number of keen, smart men. Again, the stupid criminal is the one always caught, but those who are educated manage to escape and go unwhipt of justice. These facts may play havoc with the theory that education makes men moral, but it does show that education makes men more successful.

The success that comes from a common school education renders it no longer an object of discussion. But the higher forms of education must now be the battle ground. If college education makes men more successful, then all should have it. Now let us see what proportion of young men from college attain high positions. Young men in college have no more talents than others, but, as some persons suppose it to be otherwise, we will deduct one-fourth for stu.pidity. Now, if college men attain success earlier in life, due credit should be given. Let us look at the ability of our last Congress, and we find a fact of which we should be proud. Corrupt and bad men are there; but the speaker said he would make his protest against the vicious habit of wholesale detracting from the reputation of our public men.

By the census of 1870 there were 2,611,796 males in the United States between the ages of 18 and 24. In 1872 the Bureau of Education gathered college statistics which showed that 17,824 were in college-that is, 1 in 146 go to college. Dropping the one-fourth for stupidity, we will say that 1 in 100 attend college. In Congress the House has 302 members; of these 138 are graduates and 55 have received more or less education. In the Senate, of 72 members, 35 are graduates, and 15 more or less complete education. That is, two-thirds of all the members of Congress are educated.

By college men the speaker said he not only meant college graduates, but all those who have been disciplined by a partial college course. There have been 15 men President of the United States; of these 13 were college men, and two self-made. He said he was now after the gods of those who advocated self-made men. They had claimed Washington, Jackson, Van Buren, and Harrison, but all of these were educated. Taylor and Lincoln are the only two who were properly self-educated men. Thirty-three men have been Secretary of the Navy; 15 were educated, 17 self-educated, the only instance where the latter was in excess. Ten men have been Secretary of the Interior; eight were college men, two were not. Thirty have been Postmaster General; of these 19 were college men, 11 were not. There have been 34 men Secretary of War; 27 were college men, 7 were not. Thirty-three men have been Secretary of the Treasury: 29 were college men, 21 were graduates, and 5 self-made. Among the Cabinet officers 142 have been college men, 61 were not.

He then spoke of the different professions, and said that of those who attain greatest eminence the large proportion were college men; and they will attain eminence sooner by some years. During the war the value of an education was severely tested in our commanding generals. Before the war was half over it was found on both sides that the uneducated were no match for the educated. When the war was over the remaining generals were all West-Pointers. He again stated that a common-school education adds from 10 to 50 per cent to one's success; a higher education will add in the same proportion. Education will add ten years to one's life. That is, it can command success ten years earlier.

A college education costs from $1,500 to $2,500,-at your college here but a little over $700; and any man worth a snap can in one year after get his $1,000. No young man can lose his education by giving mortgage or by robbery. And to parents he would say, that this was the only fortune which they could not waste or be cheated out of by the villainy of others.

It has been found that of 100 men who begin business in our cities, 75 fail; 10 others just make a living; 10 others reach affluence; three or four others get moderately wealthy; and only one in 100 get rich. Every boy and girl

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