« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »
who goes out into the world will find others equally keen, and will stand a sorry chance for success in life without an education. Now to what may we attribute this success by education? A person educated by himself, away from contact with others, goes into the world a big boy. It is college life that educates. A boy is sent to school, but the school boys educate him. College students criticise unmercifully, and though mortifying, it is extremely healthy to the subject. A college is a miniature world; and when a student leaves he is not only four years older in education, but forty years older in experience.
It is a common error that college life is ruinous to morals. Boys are ruined at home, and then sent to college, and the latter receives the blame. The speaker said that in all his experience fewer young men were ruined at college than in any other society of equal numbers.
The speaker here enlarged upon the benefits of literary societies in relation to the success of the members in future life. To know how to tell a thing is of much importance. Knowledge is said to be power; but one half of knowledge is in its prompt recall. In college life one is taught that real merit alone succeeds. It may be said that this is out of place in an agricultural college; and it may be, if farmers do not intend to be men. But it is as important for farmers to be able to tell what they know, and to speak in public, as any professional men.
The speaker closed by saying that he had presented the lowest side of the value of an education, namely, the money value; but that there were higher claims in enlarged manhood, home comforts, and general influence.
Each officer has made a detailed account of what has been done in his own department, in a written report now on file. The Faculty ask leave to refer to these reports for much information, which, but for them, would have found an appropriate place in this paper.
T. C. ABBOT, President.
WM. H. MARSTON, Secretary.
STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE,
To the Faculty:
The following report of classes under my charge during the year 1874, is respectfully submitted.
I returned to the College after a year's absence the 22d of May, and resumed duties the 23d. It is a pleasure to recall to mind the hearty way in which every member of the faculty entered into the plan of giving me the needed rest and the cordial reception given me on my return. I desire to express my thanks to Professor Fairchild for consenting to act as President pro tempore, and my admiration of the way in which the duties were performed by him, and my gratitude to the other members of the faculty also, who, by adding to their own cares made it possible for me to be away.
I have given the Seniors instruction in various branches: in Porter's Intellectual Philosophy, which the allotted time proved too short for; in logie, using Fowler's two volumes, both of which were completed, and the one on Induction thoroughly reviewed; in Andrews on the Constitution of the United States; and in Lockyer's Astronomy. The students have taken a deep interest in each study and have done well in them all.
T. C. ABBOT.
REPORT OF THE FARM DEPARTMENT FOR 1874.
To the President of the State Agricultural College:
The following report of operations in the Farm Department for the year ending December 1, 1874, is respectfully presented.
M. MILES, Superintendent.
The accompanying classified statement of cash receipts and expenditures for the year, marked A, page 16, shows that $3,306 67 of cash receipts of the department proper were paid to the Secretary, and that warrants for $3,093 30 were received from the College for current expenses of the department, leaving a balance on cash account of $213 37 in favor of the department.
The statement marked B, page 17, presents a classification of receipts and expenditures of all kinds for the year.
From this it appears that the following expenditures, including labor of men and teams, charged at $3 00 per day, which is believed to be the actual cost, have been paid for by the department.
If from this the amount charged for board of men at the farm house ($747 40), and paid for by the College, is deducted, we have the sum of $529 81 that the department has paid for permanent improvements and expenses of the College on general account.
The amount of students' labor paid for by the College and charged to the Farm Department for the year is $2,883 07.
Of this amount the sum of $199 16 was for vacation labor, which is charged on the books of the department as work of men, leaving the sum of $2,683 91 to be accounted for as students' labor.
The distribution of this labor has been as follows:
Farm labor on crops and care of stock.---.
Permanent Improvements, College general account: Work on sewers.-
"drains (College grounds)--
Work in shop---.
Total students' labor...
It will be seen that but $1,098 70 has been expended in students' labor on the farm proper, on account of current expenses, while $1,585 21 has been expended on permanent improvements and other purposes than cultivation of crops and care of stock.
Of the items above enumerated $848 09 may be classified as mechanical and engineering labor.
This summary shows the diversified character of the labor performed by students during the year in this department, and that while agriculture has been the leading industry practiced the "mechanic arts" have not been entirely neglected.
The severe drought that prevailed during the summer has materially diminished the products of the farm, yet the results for the year have been, on the whole, quite satisfactory.
The summary of the receipts of the farm for the year, together with the expenditures made for current expenses, is given in the paper marked "C," on page 19.
In the accounts with the farm, the labor of a man and team, for all purposes, has been charged at the rate of $3 00 per day, and the labor of students is charged at the rate of 83 cents per hour.
The following summary of the cultivation, and the account with each crop, is given for the fields of the farm included in the system of rotation:
Field No. 3, corn, 21.49 acres. Commenced plowing May 4 and finished on the 14th inst. One hundred and six loads of barnyard manure were applied, and the soil was fitted for seeding by harrowing and cross-harrowing. May 19, 20, and 21, dent corn was put in with a drill in rows 4 feet 2 inches apart.
In the first hoeing the corn was thinned out to single stalks about one foot apart in drills. The corn was cultivated four times (twice in a row) and hoed by hand to insure a complete destruction of weeds. From the 8th to the 14th of September it was cut up and put in stooks containing an equivalent of 36 hills. Husking was commenced September 29 and finished October 10. The corn was of good quality, but the yield was considerably diminished by the drought.
The account with the crop is as follows:
Plowing and fitting..
Labor on crop.. Labor on manure..
14 42 133 94 138 04
$362 15 21 23
Total yield 1,036 bushels (of 75 lbs. of ears each), an average of 48.2 bushels per acre. The labor on the crop will average nearly 35 cents, per bushel. If to this is added one-half of the labor on manure, the cost in labor would be nearly 36 cents per bushel.
Field No. 5, oats, 17 acres, including 6 acres of marshy river flats that had recently been cleared and drained. The oats are not all threshed, but the yield at a low estimate will be 650 bushels, or an average of 40 bushels per acre. Labor on crop, $152 53.
Field No. 6, meadow, 27, acres. First crop cut from June 29 to July 10; yield, 126,352 lbs.; second crop cut from August 20 to September 9; yield, 39,350 lbs., a total of 82.85 tons, or an average of 3.07 tons per acre. Labor on crops, $166 65 or about $2 00 per ton.
Field No. 8, wheat, following oats, 23 acres, including some four acres on the west part of the field, on peaty soil, that was underdrained several years ago. On this part of the field the straw was heavy and the grain light, reducing the average of the field very much below that of the crop on the upland.
The following summary includes the whole field without any deductions for the comparative failure of the crop on the "muck bed:"
Commenced plowing the oat stubble for wheat August 19, 1873, and finished August 27. September 6 and 7 harrowed lengthwise of the furrow with a lap of one-half, and then cultivated across the furrows with a two-horse cultivator, after which a second harrowing lengthwise of the furrows finished the preparations for seeding.
September 11, 12, and 13, sowed 2,066 lbs of Diehl wheat on 17 acres of the west part of the field, including the "muck bed." September 13, sowed 112 lbs of Fultz wheat on one acre next east of the Diehl. September 15, sowed 247 lbs. of Bald Treadwell on about two acres adjoining the Fultz, and the
remaining part of the field was sown with 270 lbs. Bearded Treadwell. Total seed used, 44 55-60 bushels.
Commenced cutting wheat July 10, 1874, and finished July 14. The wheat was threshed in the field and samples of each variety were saved for seed. No attempt was made to ascertain the yield of each variety, for the reason that the soil and previous cropping of the different parts of the field rendered any comparison of the results with the different varieties of no value.
The account with the crop is as follows:
Plowing, fitting and sowing..
Seed, 44 55-60 bushels @ $1 50..........
Leaving the sum of..
for manure and use of land, or an average of $15 03 per acre.
Total labor and seed.....
Total yield 603 bushels of wheat, or an average of 26.21 bushels per acre. Cost per bushel for labor and seed, 463 cents.
If the seed is charged at the rate of 1 00 per bushel, and the crop credited at the same price per bushel, the account will be as follows:
603 bushels of wheat @ $1 00....
Cost of labor and seed...
$603 00 257 26
Field No. 9. Roots, 23 acres. This field had been recently "stumped," and the surface was rough and unpromising for a root crop. A large proportion of the work in preparing for seeding, and on the crop itself, might be properly charged to permanent improvements, as the field is now in good condition for future crops.
$85 70 126 65
$212 35 67 39
Commenced plowing May 26th, and finished June 20th. Three hundred and nine loads of barnyard manure were spread upon the surface and thoroughly worked in with the harrow and cultivator. After rolling, turnip seed (Purple Topped Swedes) at the rate of two pounds per acre, was sown in drills thirty inches apart.
Plowing and fitting........
Commenced seeding June 25th and finished July 1st. The first hoeing was commenced July 13th, and the plants were then thinned to a distance of 15 inches in the drills. The crop was cultivated four times (twice in a row), and a sufficient amount of hand hoeing was applied to keep the ground free from weeds.
Total labor on crop--
The stand of roots was remarkably good, there being but few vacant spaces in the entire field. The turnips were not large, but of good quality, and the yield was much less than would have been obtained in a favorable season.
The account with the crop is as follows:
$154 90 144 37
114 48 15 75