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ORIGINAL ESSAYS ON POLITE LITERATURE, THE ARTS AND SCIENCES;

A REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS;

POETRY; CRITICISMS ON THE FINE ARTS, THE DRAMA, &c.

Biography;

CORRESPONDENCE OF DISTINGUISHED PERSONS;

ANECDOTES, JEUX D'ESPRIT, &c.

SKETCHES OF SOCIETY AND MANNERS; PROCEEDINGS OF PUBLIC AND LITERARY SOCIETIES;

POLITICAL SUMMARY, LITERARY INTELLIGENCE, &c. &c.

LONDON:

PRINTED FOR THE PROPRIETORS,

By W. Pople, 67, Chancery Lane,

AND PUBLISHED AT THE LITERARY GAZETTE OFFICE, NO.362 (EXETER CHANGE), STRAND;

SOLD ALSO BY BELL AND BRADFUTE, EDINBURGH; JOHN CUMMING, DUBLIN ;

AND ALL OTHER BOOKSELLERS, NEWSMEN, &c.

1820.

TO OUR READERS.

Ir

r is the custom of periodical works to say something to their Readers at stated periods; such as the close of the year, the end of their volumes, the commencement of a new series, or the completion of a century's publications. As we hardly expect, personally, to enjoy the last mentioned opportunity, we are prone to seize the occasion of our attaining to the fifth year of our age, most cordially to thank our friends for nourishing us into so stout and vigorous a constitution, as to leave little doubt upon our minds, that this centenarian delight will be experienced, literarily, by our heirs and successors. To them we shall bequeath it, in trust, to dilate upon the influence their labours have had in diffusing a taste for literature, and in promoting, with letters, the dearest interests of Soeiety; in encouraging all the beneficent arts of Peace and Civilization; in propagating a knowledge of Science; and in spreading over the mass of mankind a love for those pursuits which refine, and ennoble, and bless humanity. Ours is a humbler duty. Through the kindness of our public reception, we have established this new species of literary production in a degree of reputation which our most sanguine hopes could not have anticipated for any thing in the lowly form of a weekly journal, and invested it with a weight and importance which we can without presumption declare is felt through almost every ramification of the subjects embraced by our plan, at home and abroad. Convinced that nothing could have obtained for us this enviable distinction, but the strictest devotedness to truth in all we write, we have made truth the basis of our labours and in Truth, the indispensable principles of Independence and Impartiality are comprehended. Thus, at the end of four years, no readers of the Literary Gazette can say that it ever deceived them, by its report or misrepresentation of any fact.

Our Index for 1820 (to be given in an early Number) will best exemplify our zeal and diligence in providing for the general gratification of our subscribers: our success attests that our exertions have not passed unnoticed nor unrewarded: and we shall only add, that as we grow in time our strength increases, and our sphere enlarges so much, that we can now with ease accomplish what was wont to be difficult or impossible. We therefore look forward to the possession of a power which may extend our utility and enhance our value: and as proof that we are not inclined to slacken in our career, we shall only observe, that within the last two months, Original Letters from Paris, the admired essays entitled Wine and Walnuts, the first accounts of Discoveries in the Arctic and Antarctic Circles, the important Experiments on Galvanism, Magnetism, and Polarity, the only details of the Royal Society of Literature, and many other matters of great general interest, have appeared in our columns.

We trust we may take leave, without imputation of egotism. In this stirring commercial country, every dealer, to obtain even due notice, must describe his wares, and adopt means to make them known. Beyond this, we despise effort; and resting on the character of the Literary Gazette, bid our Readers Farewell!'

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AND

Journal of Belles Lettres, Arts, Sciences, etc.

This Journal is supplied Weekly, or Monthly, by the principal Booksellers and Newsmen throughout the Kingdom: but to those who may desire
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No. 154.

SATURDAY, JANUARY 1, 1820.

REVIEW OF NEW BOOKS.

which took 35 days to perform on dro-
medaries, to Mahass and back again,
the author says—

graves made before their eyes: there were,
however, several tombs of this description
dispersed over the plain. Being satisfied
which he was content.
with my guide, I gave him one piastre, with

PRICE 8d.

shef to accompany me, but knew nothing of my business; which was really true; for I had never allowed him to see me taking notes during our journey.

Travels in Nubia; by the late John Lewis Burckhardt. Published by the In two hours and a half we came to a The two brothers, the Kashefs Hosseyn and Association for promoting the Discovery plain on the top of the mountain, called Mohammed, had come to Mahass, in order of the Interior of Africa. London. Akabet el benat, the rocks of the girls. to besiege the castle of Tinareh, which had 1819. 4to. pp. 543. Here the Arabs who serve as guides through been seized by a rebel cousin of the king of these mountains have devised a singular Mahass. The latter being Hosseyn Kashef's Burckhardt has excited an interest mode of extorting small presents from the father-in-law, the Kashef was bound to come in the British public only inferior to traveller: they aliglit at certain spots in the to his aid, and had accordingly brought with poor Mungo Park; and has been so very Akabet el benat, and beg a present; if it is him about sixty men, with whom I found often the subject of articles in the Lite- refused, they collect a heap of sand, and him encamped, or rather hutted, on the rary Gazette, that our readers must be mould it into the form of a diminutive tomb, western side of the river, close under the familiar with the leading features of his and then placing a stone at each of its ex-walls of the castle, while his brother Molife and pursuits. This would induce tremities, they apprize the traveller that his hammed had possession of the eastern bank, tomb is made; meaning, that henceforward, with an equal number of men. They had us to dwell very briefly on these points there will be no security for him, in this been here for several weeks, and had often at present, even were we not influenced rocky wilderness. Most persons pay a summoned the castle, to no purpose, alby another consideration of more irre-trifling contribution, rather than have their though the garrison consisted only of fifteeu sistible temporary importance. It is, men. They at length conceived the idea of and we have reason to anticipate will cutting off the water from the besieged, by continue to be, a marked characteristic placing close in shore, just below the castle, of our Review (from the superior access a vessel, which they had sent for from Argo, and on board of which they put some men to the novelties in literature with which March 13th. The eastern mountains armed with musquets, who were protected we are favoured,) to be at least the again approach the river, and consist here, from the fire of the garrison by a thick awnearliest reporter of the cases of new as at the second Cataract, of grunstein. We ing formed of the trunks of date trees thrown publications. In executing this task, followed the narrow shore in an easterly di- across the deck; these men, by their fire, we trust it will be readily allowed to rection, and passed several of the villages of having effectually prevented the besieged us; that any defects in our first notice of of mats, made of palm-leaves, fastened to rison was under the necessity of making proMahass. The houses are constructed only from obtaining water from the river, the gar& work, should be pardoned in considera-high poles, the extremities of which rise posals for peace, pardon, and safe conduct tion of the speed with which we bring considerably above the roof. The counte- were promised them, and the castle was surit before the general tribunal, and nances of the people are much less expressive rendered on the evening preceding my arrival. show, if not immediately preceding, of good nature than those of the Nubians; contemporaneously with its appearance, of what kind and nature it is. As this highly valuable volume, therefore, is only published to-day, we hope that extracts rather than an epitome will be accepted from us as efficient service.

The life and travels of Burckhardt occupy 92 pages; next follows a journey along the banks of the Nile, from Assouan to Mahass, on the frontiers of Dongola; then a description of a journey from upper Egypt through the deserts of Nubia to Berber and Souakin, and from thence to Djidda in Arabia; and the whole conclades with an appendix, containing an Itinerary from the frontiers of Bornou, by Bahr el Ghazal, and Darfour, to Shendy-some notices of Soudan -rocabularies of the Bergho and Bornou languages and a translation of the notices on Nubia in Makrizi's History of Egypt: the whole illustrated with maps and other elucidations.

We shall make our selections from the travelling narratives, without much attention to order. Leaving Seras, in his Nubian journey from Assouan,

VOL IV.

in colour they are perfectly black; their lips
are like those of the Negro, but not the
nose or cheek bones; numbers of the men
50 quite naked, and I even saw several grown
up girls without any thing whatever round
the middle. The Nubian language here has
certainly superseded the Arabic, which none
of the peasants understand.

When I reached the camp of Mohammed Kashef, he was not present, but occupied with his brother, in taking possession of the eastle. His people crowded round me and my guide, desirous to know what business had brought me among them, and supposing that I belonged to the suite of the two Mamelouk Begs, of whose arrival at Derr they had already been apprized. Shortly In approaching the place where the Nu- afterwards Mohammed came over from the bian governors were encamped, I found se- opposite bank with his suite, and I immeveral of the villages deserted; their former diately went to salute him. Born of a Darinhabitants had preferred abandoning their four slave, his features resembled those of cotton-fields, and their prospects of a har- the inhabitants of Soudan, but without any vest, to submitting to the oppressive conduct thing of that mildness which generally chaof the followers of the governors, whose racterises the Negro countenance. On the horses and camels were now feeding amidst contrary; his physiognomy, indicated the the barley, while the mats of the deserted worst disposition; he rolled his eyes at me houses had been carried off to the camp, to like a madman; and, having drank copiously serve as fuel. After a ride of four hours, of palm-wine at the castle, he was so intoxwe reached the camp of Mohammed Kashef, icated that he could hardly keep on his legs. opposite the Wady Tinareh, a cluster of ham-All his people now assembled in and around lets, situated round the brick castle of that his open hut; the vanquished rebels likewise name, and the chief place in Mahass; here came, and two large goat skins of palm wine was the termination of my journey south-were brought in, which was served out to wards. I had told my guide to be cautious the company in small cups neatly made of in his answers to Mohammed Kashef, and if calabashes; a few only spoke Arabic; the he should be questioned respecting me, to Kashef himself could scarcely make himself say that he had been ordered by Hassen Ka-understood; but I clearly found that I was

very ar

were sold to a merchant of Siout. Another continued its course northward, and was seen beyond the cataract at Assouan, at Derau, one day's march north of that place.

his first narrative.

of seeing the king of Mahass, a mean looking black, attended by half a dozen naked slaves, armed with shields and lances. From hence, along the Nile to Sennaar, about thirty-five days journies, there arc upwards of twenty kings and kingdoms, every independent chief being styled Melek. The power with which Mr. Burckhardt concludes The remainder of our quotations here of each of these petty sovereigns is are from the general remarks on Nubia, bitrary, as far as relates to exactions upon the property of his own subjects, but he dares not put any of them to death, without Wady Kenous, and Wady el Nouba (often Nubia is divided into two parts, called entailing upon his own family the retaliation named exclusively Sayd); the former exof blood by that of the deceased. All the tending from Assouan to Wady Sebona, and respectable inhabitants of Mahass are mer- the latter comprising the country between chants; they buy slaves in Dongola, Berber, Schoua and the northern frontier of Dónand in the country of the Sheygya, and dis-gola. The inhabitants of these two divisions patch a caravan to Cairo twice a year; are divided by their language, but in manMahass is the nearest place in the Blackners they appear to be the same. rive at Cairo; the distance is about a thou-sent Nubians derive their origin from the country, from whence slave traders ar- According to their own traditions, the presand miles. worth from twenty-five to thirty Spanish after the promulgation of the Mohammedan A male slave in Mahass is Arabian Bedouins, who invaded the country dollars, a female from thirty to forty. At creed, the greater part of the Christian inCairo they sell at a profit of one hundred habitants, whose churches I traced as far as and fifty per cent.; and the merchandize Sukkot, having either fled before them or taken in return produces from two to three been killed; a few, as already mentioned, hundred per cent., or even more under the embraced the religion of the invaders, and present circumstances, as the Mamelouks their descendants may yet be distinguished are eager purchasers. at Tafa, and at Serra, north of Wady Halfa.

*

the topic of conversation. The Kashef, alinost in a state of insensibility, had not yet asked me who I was, or what I came for, In the course of half an hour, the whole camp was drunk musquets were then brought in, and a feu-de-joie fired with ball, in the hut where we were sitting. I must confess, that at this moment I repented of having come to the camp, as a gun might have been easily levelled at me, or a random ball have fallen to my lot. I endeavoured several times to rise, but was always prevented by the Kashef, who insisted upon my getting drunk with him; but as I never stood more in need of my senses, I drank very sparingly. Towards noon, the whole camp was in a profound sleep; and in a few hours after, the Kashef was sufficiently sober to be able to talk rationally to me. him that I had come into Nubia to visit the I told ancient castles of Ibrim and Say, as being the remains of the empire of Sultan Selyin; that I had had recommendations from Esne to himself and his two brothers, and that I had come to Mahass merely to salute him and his brother, conceiving that I should be guilty of a breach in good manners, if I quitted Say without paying my respects to them. Unfortunately, iny letters from Esne, addressed to the three brothers, were in the hands of Hassan Kashef, who would not re-distant from Mahass, with but little Bornou is said to be 25 or 30 days turn them to me when I quitted Derr, saying water on the roadthat I should not want them, as he had not given me permission to go beyond Sukkot. My story was, in consequence, not believed: You are an agent of Mohammed," said the Kashef's Arabic secretary; " but, at Mahass we spit at Mohammed Aly's beard, and cut off the heads of those who are enemies to the Mamelouks." I assured him that I was not an enemy of the Mamelouks, and that I had waited upon the two Begs at Derr, who had received me very civilly." The evening passed in sharp enquiries on one side, and sat up late with his confidents, to deliberate what was to be done with me, while I took post with my camels, under cover, behind his hut. No one had the slightest idea that I was an European, nor did I, of course, boast of my origin, which I was resolved to disclose only under the apprehension of im- ten months in the year merely on straw, and service, consisting chiefly of their own rela

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Dongola is noted for its breed of horses, great numbers of which are imported by the people of Mahass; they are chiefly stallions,

*

At present, the political state of the country may be said to be, nominally at least, the Bosnians, sent by the Grand Signior to Nubia, same as when Hossan Coosy (a leader of some and, in short, what the Normans were to Egthe natives seldom riding mares. land) took possession of it. The present gofinest I have seen, possessing all the supe-Soleyman, and had acquired some reputation is originally from Arabia, and is one of the vernors, Hosseyn, Hassan, and Mohammed, rior beauty of the horses of that country, from his vigorous system of government. are his descendants; their father was named with greater size and more bone. All those The title of Kashef, assumed by the three which I have seen had the four legs white, brothers, is given in Egypt to governors of there are very few of them without this dis-bute of about 1201. into the treasury of the as high as the knee, and I was told that districts. The brothers pay an annual trievasive answers on the other; and the Kashef/ tinctive mark. Prime stallions bear a high Pasha of Egypt, in lieu of the Miry of Nuprice, from five to ten slaves being paid for bia, for which the Pasha is accountable to climates, not even at Cairo, though Moham- this tribute was seldom paid, but Mohamonc. These horses do not thrive in northern the Porte. In the time of the Mamclouks, Grand Signior, for which he gave 750 Spanish three years. med Aly has lately sent one as a present to the med Aly has received it regularly for the last dollars. The greater part of them are fed for The three Kashefs have about

The breed

minent danger.
in the spring, upon the green crops of bar-
He is compelled by these rude go-into Dongola, are all mounted upon these
ley. The Mamelouks, since their irruption
vernors of Nubia to change his route.

The inhabitants of Mahass pretend to be descendants of the Arabs Koreysh, the tribe to which the prophet Mohammed belonged, and who, as is well known, were partly Bedouins, and partly husbandmen. It is the tradition of Mahass, that a large party of Koreysh took possession of the Wady at the same period when numerous Bedouins from the cast invaded Egypt and Nubia. The chief, or king of Mahass, is of the family of Djama. He collects the revenue of his kingdom, and pays tribute to the governors of Nubia, who receive, annually, from cach of the six principal places in his dominions, five or six camels, as many cows, two slaves, and about forty sheep, besides making extraordinary requisitions. I had the honour

horses.

one hundred and twenty horsemen in their

tions, or of slaves; these troops receive no casionally, and they are considered to be regular pay; presents are made to them octhe hippopotamus is very common in the There are no clephants in Dongola;, but upon duty only when their masters are upon river. Its Arabic name is Barnik, or Farass-governors; but they are almost continually a journey. Derr is the chief residence of the el-Bahr; the Nubians call it Ird. It is a name of Korbadj, are made of the skin of the dreadful plague on account of its voracity, hippopotamus, and form an article of commerce and the want of means in the inhabitants to with the Sennaar and Darfour caravans. destroy it. It often descends the Nile as far as Sukkot: the peasants, as I passed, told me that there were three of them in the river between Mahass and Sukkot. Last year several of them passed the Batn el Hadjar, and inade their appearance at Wady Halfa and Derr, an occurrence unknown to the oldest inhabitant. One was killed by an Arab, by a shot over its right eye; the peasants ate the flesh, and the skin and teeth * The whips known in the Fast under the

north of Benisouef have the same origin: they are the descendants either of Moggrebyn or * The greater part of the Egyptian peasants Arabian tribes. In Egypt I have even met with the descendants of Syrian Bedouins.

Beg, after driving the Mame louks into the + When the Turkish troops, under Ibrahim Wady Halfa, the three princes retired with their followers into Dongola, and remained there till eastern mountains, occupied Nubia as far as the Turks withdrew towards Assouan, when they returned to Derr.

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