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86

A DRILL CULTIVATOR AND MARKER.

the macrophylla, we could have time to labor much a state of rest. In the position of the holder above at other improvements. Just think of three-quarters described, the effort is not so much confined to the of a mile of fencing per hand, and calculate the arms as otherwise it would be, and actually causes cost. Why, sir, the yearly cost would put in the no more fatigue than ordinary plowing. This im. ground a hedge, and one-tenth the expense would plement is evidently not adapted to uneven or stony keep it up as long as we should live. Besides, land; and where these difficulties exist to such an timber is more scarce in some regions, and getting extent as not to be easily remedied, it will be better so in many others, which will cause an increase of to avoid them altogether, by adopting other modes expense;

of culture. I might say something of pasturage, of its saving That strawberry vines are not materially injured of corn, of its ability to keep up stock, &c. But I by the feet of the horse I have proved by experiam tired of writing, and I suppose my friends are ment; whether if the implement were used for tur. of reading. I therefore close by subscribing myself, nips, beets, &c., this objection would be valid, I Edwards Depôt, Miss. M. W. PHILIPS. cannot say; but should venture to presume that

the damage, if any, to single plants, here and there, A DRILL CULTIVATOR AND MARKER. would be much more than compensated by the sav.

I HAVE now at the Fair of the American Institute ing of labor and other advantages. For these two implements, the one denominated a Drill Cul. crops, it is suggested, that three harrow teeth, set at tivator, and the other a Drill Marker and Vine three inches apart, would be a very good substitute Layer, of both which I believe myself to be the ori- for one of the shares. With this alteration the ginal inventor.

wheels might be unnecessary. Having cultivated four acres of strawberry plants with these implements during the last two seasons, I will briefly describe the method of their use. In the first place, some slight inequalities in the surface of the ground were removed by a common road scraper for filling ruts. For marking the ground in drills I used the cultivator with the eight wooden teeth and the wheels. When sufficiently smooth and even, a line was extended on one side of the field, and a mark drawn by it for the outside tooth of the implement. It being then taken up, was stretched close on the ground, as a guide to the rider, where the horse should walk, to bring the outside tooth to follow the mark already drawn;

DRILL CULTIVATOR.-Fig. 21. and the process was continued, crossing the field Description.6 b b b b, Shares to run between back and forth until the whole was finished. The the drill. The wheels are about one foot in dia. unexpected ease with which the implement was meter. 1,d, A cross-bar, connecting the handle; 2, managed, surprised me, and I was not a little grati- a wooden tooth, of which there are eight belonging fied to find that none of the many present could dis- to the implement, to be inserted at å a, &c., one tinguish those marks in which a tooth had returned. foot apart, for marking out the ground. For this The guiding is rather a nice matter, yet by no purpose, however, the marker mentioned below means difficult, much less impracticable, as had might be ted. 3, The share or tooth formed been predicted. It requires, however, a slow horse like a coulter, and bottom piece without a mould and a careful rider.

board. It is laid with steel and made sharp. 4, Another objection was, that the horse would in- The wheel d, in halves, and the manner of applying jure the plants by treading on them; but the injury it to the axle e, by bolts and screws. To the under really sustained is found to be of little or no conse- side of the axis is nailed a piece of sheet iron or tin quence. Strawberry vines, when trodden down, to diminish the friction of the wheel. will rise again like grass. The implement is regu- fastened at one end by a nut to the bolt passing lated by one of the handles only, usually the left. through one of the thills and cross-piece, and at the The holder, walking behind the wheel, grasps the other to the axle. pin of the handle with his right hand, which is The other implement, the Vine Layer, is almost brought to rest against the thigh, a little below the indispensable for cultivating strawberry plants in hip, and the upright part with his left. The reason drills. The plants are, at first, set in the drills

, 10: holding it thus will be understood, if it be con- about two feet apart, in holes made for them by a sidered that the shares will run at the depth the sharpened stick. Should any fail to live, their wheels will allow, and no deeper, without the least places may be ascertained by the marking side of attention on the part of the holder, and that nothing the implement, and again supplied at any time, remains for him to do but to prevent the implement although the original marks may have become from tending to the right or left. If the shares run obliterated. too deep, an addition is made to the circumference When the vines have commenced running, and of the wheels by sheet iron bands or otherwise. before the young plants have taken root, the vine

In estimating the effort required to govern the layer is drawn lengthwise of the drills, each pair machine, it should be recollected that the slightest of pins including between them the several plants

. force nay change the direction of a moving body, The operation may be deferred so long as the sur. such as would ħave no perceptible effect upon it in face of the ground is dry, for not a plant will strike

C, A brace

METHOD OF FASTENING HORSES.

87

its roots ; while the larger and heavier the young mediate-consequently the vein should be left free, plants become, the more sure are they to remain or with no extra pressure. where the implement leaves them. Repeat the ope My plan is to have a ring in the back of the ration throughout the season, as often as necessary, manger, about as high as the horse naturally holds always drawing the implement in the same direction. his mouth, giving length for him to reach for food If a few plants that have become a little rooted in in all parts of the manger or box, and when lying the drills are torn out occasionally, it is of little down the head cannot touch the ground or bottom. importance, it being the general good of the whole The horse rarely stretches himself out and places that we have in view. Continue the use of this im- his head flat, except when a hot sun is practising plement until the plants are as thick as possible in mesmerism upon him. The danger to be avoided is the drills, and about two inches in width. The permitting the horse to stretch himself out in the plants will thus cover the ground beneath them, stall, and to endeavor to roll. This he usually will and almost entirely prevent the growth of weeds and after a drive, when warm, as his skin itches, and grass. To confine the rows afterwards to the re- he rolls to allay the pricking. If the halter is long quired width, blades are set in the implement in place the chances are he gets cast, and, if in a bad posi. of the pins, to cut off the runners as they grow. tion, the owner has the satisfaction the next day of The shares of the cultivator will do this, but not so helping him out of the stable, never to return. By accurately: To avoid injuring the leaves of the tying to the front of the manger you cannot give plants in the drills, the blades are formed by flatten- length sufficient to enable the horse to reach food ing out the lower end of a pin similar to the others, in all parts of the manger, without incurring the risk making it a little hooked, and so setting it, that the of his putting his head on the ground and attemptvines will readily slip on the cutting part. ing to roll. By tying to the back of, and across

As a horticultural implement this may answer the manger, there is no risk of the horse getting his not only for laying out strawberry beds and turning foot over the halter, a common accident when tied their runners, but at the same time as a marker for in the old way.

SY. all sorts of beds.

Oyster Bay, Queens Co., Jan., 1846.

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We deem our correspondent's plan quite objectionable. If the halter be long enough to permit the horse to lie down, he may as well be tied to the front of the manger. If he be tied short to the back of the manger he cannot lie down at ease; his head must be quite elevated. When he lies down, no pressure will be brought on to the poll, but all on to

the jowl. But pressure on the poll does not impede DRILL MARKER.-FIG. 22.

circulation ; on the throat it does. If the halter be Description.—an, Teeth or markers, set one foot loose and the horse be tied short, pressure may, and apart. bb, Pairs of pins about 6 inches in length most likely will, be made on the jugular vein, and round and smooth, inserted on the opposite side to the difficulty apprehended by our correspondent

These pins are two inches apart, and are set may occur. Now with a weight, when the horse one foot apart, exactly opposite the markers on the is standing, no pressure is exerted, as the weight other side. 2, Is a blade for cutting off superfluous rests on the bottom of the manger. When he runners 3, One of the teeth or markers formed of backs or lies down with his head on the floor, the wood, fastened to the head of the implement by an weight is raised. A very light weight will keep iron pin.

the halter straight, and from under the horse's feet; In this implement I make no claim to the inven- and if light, the horse can lay his head down, and tion of the markers, any further than their combina- the head's mere weight will be enough to hold the tion with the blades and pins; they are merely inci- weight suspended, and no muscular force need be dental, and the implement would be complete with. exerted for that purpose. Our correspondent's plan out them.

PHILETUS PHILLIPS. prevents the horse from being halter cast, but it Middletown Point, N.J., Oct., 1845.

does not permit him to lie at ease. Our plan does

both—and the weight only is held up by the head METHOD OF FASTENING HORSES. when the head is flat on the floor. Our experience I OBSERVE in the January No. of your paper a is too long to permit us to doubt the goodness of sensible article upon the Stable, yet not in full ac- our plan. cordance with my experience and opinion. You Horses will constantly, day and night, in sunny recommend tying the horse to the front of the stall, and in clondy weather, lie flat down with the head passing the rope through a ring with a weight on on the ground or floor-give them a chance and the end. Many horses cannot endure a pressure on they will do it whenever they lie down.

With a the head, back of the ears, as is observed in a case tired horse, it is absolutely necessary that he should of what is called fits or blind staggers, when pro- have full rest, to recover soon. If he can lie flat duced by having the check rein buckled tight, and down, he can rest more perfectly. The weight the horse warmed by a sharp drive, the veins be- should be so arranged that the halter rope is always come enlarged, and the pressure of the headstall straight, and should never press on the head except upon the vein, back of the ears, retards the circula- when the horse backs in the stall or lies flat down. tion, and the horse is in great distress, when by re- This at once prevents all chance of the horse being moving the check rein and headstall, relief is im-1 halter cast; and yet permits perfect rest.

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88

PARM AND VILLA OF MR. DONALDSOK. FARM AND VILLA OF MR. DONALDSON. Revolutionary memory, who was Secretary of War

WITHIN the past ten years, there has been quite under Mr. Madison. Though the author of several a revolution in the Northern States with respect to useful works on practical Agriculture and Gardencountry life; it is now rapidly assuming here the ing, Gen. Armstrong will perhaps be better known rank it has so long held in Great Britain, and in hereafter by his celebrated Newburgh Letters, adsome parts of the Continent. In England, especially dressed to the Army of the

Revolution, when about where the love of rural pleasures pervades all clas- to be disbanded by Gen, Washington. An interses, the most afluent and noble of the land seem to esting relic of the early

days of our Republic was consider their town houses as merely temporary ac- recently brought to light at Blithewood, by the commodations during the whirl of the fashionable removal of a partition wall. We annex an engravseason, and the sitting of Parliament, after which ing. they fondly return to their ancestral castles, where

It is a large copper for many generations all that wealth, taste, and skill

button, supposed to could contribute, have been accumulating to make

have been worn by the their homes desirable. The opulent merchant, too,

officers of the army, and as soon as the hour on 'Change permits, seeks his

evinces their great atcherished suburban villa; and even the toiling me

tachment to Washingchanic and pent-up tradesman look forward with

ton. The motto, “ Long impatience to the period when they shall escape

live the President,” enfrom the din, dust, and vexation of the city, to en

circles the letters “ G. joy the pure air, fresh verdure, and blooming shrub

W

W.," and the whole inbery of a cottage. Too much of the wealth of this

scription is embraced great and growing Republic is lavished in the finery

by a chain, in each link of town houses, and how often do we see gentle letter of one of the glorious old Thirteen States of

Fig. 23. of which is the initial amidst the turmoil and heat of the city, the dull rou- the Revolution. tine of business, as mechanically as if on a treadmill; with countenances seamed with care—often prematurely sinking into haggard dyspeptics, when they have within reach the ever varying and refining pursuits of the country, where their

health may be

renovated, after the wear and tear of city life, and their children receive that best inheritance, the mens sana in corpore sano-health of body with health of mind.

We hail with pleasure the evidence of an improving taste in country life in America; but above all, bringing the various sciences of chemistry, geology, botany, animal physiology, &c., to the aid of

D the farmer, and making them his efficient handmaids. Even sublime astronomy has at length become subservient to agriculture. The celebrated philosopher Arago, was enabled to predict in Europe the severe

GATE-LODGE.-FIG. 24. winter of '44 and '45 in time to prepare against its rigor. How much expense and suffering would have been obviated, could the wide reaching drought of last summer have been foretold! With these explanatory suggestions, our readers will perceive why we occasionally visit and describe highly improved places. We anticipate much good to agriculture from gentlemen of wealth and leisure; indeed, they are its most liberal patrons. We cite one evidence of this. A few persons in this city have recently contributed nearly $10,000 for the importation of Alpacas from South America; and we hope soon to see a subscription on foot, for establishing an agricultural college where farmers' sons may be properly educated for their profession, and be taught to follow it through life with the same pride and pleasure as did the good and great Washington, who emphatically pronounced it " the most healthful, the

GARDENER'S HOUSE.-Fig. 25. most useful, and the most noble employment of To visit Blithewood, we landed at Barrytown, man.”

two miles below, and in approaching it, the gateBlithewood, the residence of Robert Donaldson, house or lodge (fig. 24) was the first object tha Esq., is situated in Dutchess County, on the Hudson attracted our attention. It is a hexagonal brick river, about a hundred miles above this city. It building, stuccoed and colored in imitation of freewas formerly the seat of General Armstrong, of stone; and strikingly placed on a terrace in the

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FARM AND VILLA OF MR. DONALDSON.

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midst of a group of forest trees, it is no less orna-highly finished painting, by a Flemish Master ; tomental than useful. An excellent macadamized gether with some portraits by Leslie, and some road leads through the estate from the lodge to the carefully made copies of well known pictures. But mansion.

more striking than all these is the Landscape WinSoon after entering the gate, we lose sight of all dow, a novelty introduced by Mr D., which quite boundary walls and fences, and pass the gardener's took us by surprise. It is an oval plate glass, 3 by house (fig. 25). This is in the Cottage Gothic style, 41 feet, inserted in the wall, and surrounded by rich and with its pointed and projecting gables, and mouldings, in imitation of a picture frame. One miniature porch, covered with honeysuckles and feels that the natural beauties here revealed surpass Boussault roses, it has a very neat and pretty even the glowing composition. appearance.

Walks lead away in the most alluring manner, Approaching the house, the road winds among for two miles, through the varying scenes of this white pines, through which may be seen the grace- place, along which rustic seats and pavilions are ful slopes of the grounds, and the noble masses of placed, at the best points of view. We give a wood." The view which is disclosed, as you sweep view of one of them on the Sawkill (fig. 26). round to the river front, assures you that nature has The spring house, which is in course of erection, been lavish of her beauties here. Our readers will on the verge of the spacious lawn, will be very or. get a very good idea of the view presented at this namental. The water flows through a water lily, point by looking at the frontispiece to Downing's into a sculptured shell, from the scolloped lip of Landscape Gardening and Rural Architecture. which it falls as from a dripping tazza.

The Kaatskill mountains, on the opposite side of The garden, 'which is in the geometric style, the river, reach a height of nearly 4,000 feet, and though near the house, is concealed by hedges and the range may be seen for fifty miles, clothed in the shrubbery. The upper plateau is devoted to fruits enchanting hues that distance ever lends to bold and flowers, and the terraces are given up to vegemountain scenery. The unusual width of the river tables. The green-house and fruit houses, 90 feet here—the wooded isles-the promontories, with long, are so arranged as to present a very handsome their quiet bays—the spires of the neighboring vil- architectural appearance. Besides a great variety of lages-the Mountain House—all combine to form a foreign grapes, the fig, apricot, nectarine, plum, landscape of extraordinary attraction. The scenery along the Sawkill, which forms the southern boundary of this place, reminds one of Trenton Falls. The stream descends in cascades and rapids, 150 feet in a quarter of a mile. A lake has been formed about half way up its course, through the estate, the placid waters of which contrast finely with the rushing cataracts.

By an overshot water wheel which could
be made ornamental, and a simple hydraulic
machine, a portion of the water of this stream
might be forced up to the adjoining height,
and thence conducted to the house, garden,
stables, and cattle yard; it might also be
made to irrigate the grass land, and to form
fish ponds, and jets d'eau.

The dwelling house is 160 feet above the
river. It is a low, but most commodious
structure, embosomed in trees, stuccoed and
colored in imitation of freestone, with a deep
verandah on three sides, and a boldly pro-
jecting and richly bracketted roof; and what.
ever may have been its original plan, it has
been so enlarged and transformed by its
present owner, as to present a most inviting
aspect. The interior is very tastefully ar-
ranged; but on this we cannot enlarge, and
confine ourselves to a description of the pic-61
ture room-an apartment on the river

RAVINE WALK-FIG.. 26.
side of the house, 16 by 32 feet, of a high pitch, and and peach, are grown in these houses as espaliers,
receiving its strongest light through an ornamented and dwarf standards.
sash in the ceiling. In this choice, though limited The Farm.—This comprises 125 acres. The soil
collection, there are the Picnic Party in Epping For- varies from a sandy to a clayey loam. Parts of
est, by C. R. Leslie; a Landscape, by John Both; the outer lots, where the subsoil was so adhesive
the Billet Doux, by Terburg ; tbe Luie Lesson, by as to retain the surface soil, have been subdrained
Gaspar Netcher; a most lovely Madonna and Child, with the small stones gathered from the sur.
supposed to be by Luini ; the Physician and Invalid, face. These lots can now be worked at the earliest
by the elder Palamedes; the Benevolent Family, al opening of spring; and though forming a very sa

90

SCRAPS FROM MY NOTE BOOK.—No. 2. perior soil for grass ; they yet yield very heavy foundation of the building over it, then lay up the crops of small grain. As an evidence of this, walls. The walls should be hollow, as they are although the season of 245 was very unfavorable to stronger than solid walls, and they save nearly oneoats, we here saw a lot which turned out 50 bushels third of the brick. The finishing plaster can then to the acre. Since acquiring possession of this place, be laid on inside without the expense of furrowing ten years since, Mr. D. has doubled the crops; and out and lathing, as hollow walls are always dry. though he has occasionally used alluvial mud (limed) The stucco is also more lasting and not likely to from the Sawkill, as a topdressing, and also plaster peel. The stucco can be painted a handsome fawn and ashes, and applied guano and poudrette to the color by dissolving burnt ochre in sweet milk. hoed crops, with satisfactory results; yet his main We saw here a most useful labor-saving machine, reliance for keeping up the fertility of his place, first introduced at Mr. William B. Astor's villa, for has been the barnyard. To this place all weeds, cleaning gravel walks. With this, a man, a boy, fallen leaves, butts of cornstalks, and offal of the and a horse, may do the work of twenty men. farm, are gathered, and through these the wash of We here annex an engraving of it. It is very simthe barnyard leaches. We think Mr. D. has gone ple in its construction, and costs about $10. through unnecessary trouble and expense in plowing in manure on the slopes and banks to get them into grass, instead of pasturing South-down sheep, which might easily be done in hurdles. The growth of the sheep would in a single season defray the expense of the arrangement, and the sod would be left by them, topdressed and fertilized in the simplest and most efficient manner. We have often seen flocks of sheep pastured for this purpose on the lawns of the finest estates in England.

The farm-buildings are judiciously placed near the centre of the land, and well constructed for sheltering the cattle and saving the manure. The boundary walls are well laid, and the expense and unsightliness of cross-fences have been greatly avoided by soiling most of the cattle.

In stock Mr. D. has confined his attention to rearing a herd of milch cows, having with consi- MACHINE FOR CLEANING GRAVEL WALKS.—FIG. 27. derable care and expense selected the best milkers among the native cows that he conld purchase, Mr. Downing has kindly permitted us to make which, with one or two Ayrshires, he has crossed casts of the illustrations above, from the cuts exewith his imported bull, Prince Albert, a noble Dur-cuted for his “ Landscape Gardening and Rural ham selected for him with much judgment, by his Architecture," a work which we cannot too highly brother, Mr. James Donaldson of this city, when and too often recommend to the public. in England in ’41. Among the cows there is a most extraordinary animal, called Kaatskill, from her na SCRAPS FROM MY NOTE BOOK.- No. 2. tive mountains. She shows a dash of Holderness The Cherokee Rose Hedge.-South of Natchez, blood in her veins, though she is supposed to be a for miles, I rode between continuous lines of hedges native. We conversed with her former owner, of the “ Cherokee, or nondescript rose," then, Mr. Hendricks of Red Hook, who assured us, that March 1st, in full bloom, of pure white fragrant this cow had, while in his possession, given 38 flowers, single, with bright yellow centres, and rich quarts of milk per day, on grass-feed alone; and bright green foliage, that gave the whole a most had made 18 1-2 lbs. butter in one week. On two lovely appearance; but the beauty of the scene was of the days the butter weighed 6 1-2 lbs., and had greaty marred by the fact that blossoms and foliage not a spell of unusually hot weather ensued, which could not disguise that the whole was in a most prevented her from feeding well, she would doubt- slovenly state of keeping; for the long straggling less have made 22 lbs. of butter in a single week. runners have grown up some ten feet high, and This cow received the first prize of the New York bend over upon each side, till the fence is often 25 State Ag. Society, at their annual show of 1844, or 30 feet wide, and owing to the hardness and as the best dairy cow exhibited.

sharpness of the briars, is as impenetrable as a stone We could say much more of Blithewood; but wall for all kinds of stock, negroes included. should any of our readers chance to visit it, they Dr. Phillips and Mr. Affleck, who were my trawill feel how inadequate words are to convey an velling companions, assured me that a good fence idea of its varied scenes, some of which are worthy could be made in four years from the cuttings of the pencil of Ruysdael or Claude.

this plant, and that by proper attention every year, Stucco.---We thought the Stucco used by Mr. D. it can be kept within reasonable bounds. I did not, in his buildings of a superior kind, and copied his however, see an instance where it was. I saw recipe for making it. Take pure beach sand, and many places where the runners had climbed up add as much Thomaston lime as it will take up, some convenient tree at least thirty feet. then sufficient hydraulic cement to make it set, say To get a fence started is a very easy matter, as it about one-fifth of the whole mixture of sand and is only to take those long runners and cut them up lime. To prevent the cement attracting moisture, with a hatchet on a block, into slips about a foot put a strip of sheet lead or zinc as wide as the long, and lay these in a furrow, with one end out,

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