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PEACH AND NECTARINE TREES ON PLUM STOCK, ETC.
and tread the earth down tight; it will be a rare PEACH AND NECTARINE TREES ON thing if they fail to grow. Though, whether from
PLUM STOCK. failure to grow, or from being killed by frost, or In England and some other parts of Europe, where something else, I observed in all these hedges, the the atmosphere is surcharged with moisture, and same unsightly gaps that mark nearly all the live the power of the sun's rays is so feeble that it caufences in the United States. These frequent gaps ses but a moderate development of growth, and but in the hedge are filled up with one, two, three, or an imperfect maturity of the wood on trees of great perhaps a dozen pannels of rail fence, and in the vigor, it has been found advantageous to curtail or joining together of the live and dead fence, holes diminish the expansion of the peach, nectarine, and are very apt to be left, through which that animal apricot, by engrafting them on the plum, which is which strange man permits to run at large, to the a tree of less sap and of much slower growth. The eternal torment of himself and neighbors, will be result of this practice is, that as the plum furnishes very likely to insinuate his porkship about“ roast- so much less sap to support the development of wood, ing ear time.”
the growth is retarded, and the expansion of the tree “ But why don't they fill up these gaps with new greatly diminished. This practice has also been sets, if it is so easily done ?”
applied to the pear by engrafting on the quince, the Exactly the question that I will answer after the hawthorn, and the mountain-ash; and to the apple most approved Yankee fashion, by asking why we by engrafting on the paradise dwarf stock, and on are not civilized, Christianized, rationalized enough other species similar in character. The effect of to enact laws, or rather to repeal all laws, all over this cause is precisely like unto limiting the deve. the Union, that compel one man to fence against lopment of an animal of gigantic race by an allowevery other man's cattle, some of which nothing butance of only that quantum of blood which nature a Cherokee rose hedge would stop, and even that allows to a dwarf or diminutive one; and the final must be free from gates, bars, or gaps? And again, result is as might be expected, not only the curtail. “ if this hedge can be kept from spreading so as not ment of dimensions, but the shortening of the natuto occupy four acres of land in every mile of length, ral period of existence. All the trees, therefore, to and it makes such a beautiful as well as efficient which this dwarfing process is applied produce their fence, why is it not more extensively used ? fruit the sooner, as they sooner attain an unnatural
Exactly the other question that I will answer maturity. They are also much smaller and shorter after the same approved fashion, by inquiring why lived than such as are propagated in the natural
-"what me ?”—Oh, yes--you are the very man way, and engrafted on stocks of a similar and conI mean—I want to inquire if you love peaches, genial character.
WM. R. PRINCE. apples, grapes, and other iruit? " Why, certainly.” Prince's Lin. Gard, and Nurseries, Flushing.
Well, the hedge is not planted just for the same reason that you have never planted fruit trees and STUMP MACHINE.- This machine consiste of a vines.
circular square or oblong cap, supported by three “ And how far north will this rose flourish ?" legs, and has a hole through its centre perpendicu. I cannot say; but I believe that it would be danger- larly, sufficiently large to admit a screw of suitable ous to rely upon it north of latitude 33o. Major size. The length of the screw depends upon the Green, of Madison County, latitude 321°, told me distance the weight is to be raised, or the object to that he had 60 or 70 yards of Cherokee rose hedge which the machine is applied. The nut rests upon growing very thriftily around his yard, in the win- the top of the cap, where iron or steel washers ter of 1831-2, and nearly the whole of it froze to should be placed, to prevent too much friction. death. In the spring he cut it all off, and but here The nut is turned by a lever being attached to it, and there a sprout came up. His house stands on a the length of which will depend upon the purpose high piece of ground—the soil, reddish yellow clay to which the machine is applied." A horse will
-timber, mostly black oak, rather scrubby. Whe- raise forty tons when attached to a lever twelve ther this has any influence, or whether this plant feet long, and lead himself around the machine by will answer for fences further north, I cannot say; a pole from the sweep near the nut, reaching just but I do say to those living further south, it is well forward of the horse, and the machine can be moved worth your attention, and you ought to try it from place to place by one or two men. The con. forthwith. And as your paper, Mr. Editor, circu- venience of the improvement consists in the appli. lates so extensively at the South, if some of your cation of the lever and screw in the manner, and to southern correspondents would give you an article the purposes mentioned. every month upon this subject, it would not be too much of a good thing. It is also worth the trial ANALYSIS OF MARL ON THE HUDSON.—We have whether the “ Michigan Rose” will answer a good often spoken of the immense beds of marl lying on purpose at the North for hedging.
the Hudson river above the Highlands. The follow. Here, upon the prairies of the North West, where ing is an analysis of a specimen made by Mr. Jas. it is supposed there is no timber, fencing material is J. Mapes, for Frederick F. Betts, Esq., of Newburgh. altogether too plenty and cheap to think of using Carbonate of lime,.....
..63.34 hedges yet awhile. But as we contrive to burn up Woody fibre, moss, and decomposed veg, matter, 7.92 cohae räike wee bave pence a year, we shall soon Siron and caregive smaller highly colored with 16.66 come to the necessity perhaps. Solon
Iron, alumina, &c.,
5.42 We regret to say that Mr. R. continues so ill that
1.66 be will be obliged to give up his tour South this season, but we hope to see him there next winter.
EXPERIMENTS WITH CORN.-STINGLESS BEES.
3326 353 " 363 «
10. 1 Il 11. 1
EXPERIMENTS WITH CORN. acreable results, in bushels of 56 lbs.; the grain I PROMISED last summer to furnish you the re- was shelled in January. The loss in weight on the sults of some experiments in which I was then en- sample measures, from the last of October, when gaged with different manures
The husked, to the first of January, when it was shelled, excessive drouth of the season undoubtedly affected was 22 1-2 per cent., on the gross weight, being in the results materially. Yet, as we have small accordance with the results of previous experireason to suppose the past to be the last dry sea- ments. I should state that experiment No. 1 son, they may be as valuable as though the eco- (covering 3-20 of an acre) included the outside row nomic result had been more favorable. It is not on the north side. any single result, but the average of many that Field No. 1, soil a free loam, in places gravelly; must be our guide. The experiments were all con- subsoil sand and gravel. In 1841, in corn ; 5 cords ducted under my own eye, and with all possible half-rotted stable manure plowed under ; seeded to care and exactness. The ground covered by the grass in spring of 1842 on winter grain. Topdifferent manures, varied from one-tenth to three- dressed with 25 bushels ashes per acre; again in fourths of an acre, and was of an uncommonly uni- (244, with 3 cords of compost. Average yield of form character. The different manures were ap- hay 1 ton per acre. April, 1845, sod inverted 8 to plied side by side, in strips through the whole 10 inches deep; rolled and harrowed. May 12th, length of the field. I have reduced the whole to planted with white flint corn, 4 by 3 feet apart. No. 1. 1 acre, no manure......
25 50-56 bushels. TOP-DRESSED AT FIRST HOEING. 2. 1 5 bush. soot, 2 1-2 do. plaster.
Cost $1,25. Gain 43 lbs. 26 37-56
2,00. 49" 26 43-56
31 46-56 5. 1 15 Poudrette (Minor's), a 50 cts. per. bush. 7,50.
32 11-56 6. 1 200 lbs. Peruvian Guano, a 2 3-4 cts. per Ib.
32 21-56 The hen manure was scraped up from the floor (of earth) of the hen-house from time to time, and contained considerable sand, &c.
4 3-12 Same field adjoining the above on south side, sod inverted, rolled, harrowed, and 8 cords of half-rotted stable manure harrowed in, planted as before. No. 7. 1 acre. Stable manure alone.
42 10-56 bushels. 8. 1
" and 15 bush. unleached ashes. Cost $2,00. Gain 80 lbs. 43 34-56
2,00. « 373 « 48 37-56
4 494 " 50 46-56 “ 220 lbs. Guano (Peruvian).
0,50. € 534 « 51 30-54 Your readers can draw their own inferences as seemed intent on clearing their house. A hole in the to the economy of the different applications. The side of the log, about three-quarters of an inch in stable manure costs, spread in the field, $3,00 per diameter, answers the purpose of the entrance as a cord. The concentrated manures are charged, like common hive. They are not so large as the comwise, at their cost in the field.
L. mon honey bee; but they have a neat aspect for an Rahway, New Jersey, January, 12, 1846. insect. As they are such harmless little creatures,
it would please me very much to get a swarm of STINGLESS BEES.
them. But I fear the number is so reduced, that it I LATELY noticed among the exports of Cam- will require an apiary-man of more skill than I peachy, wax, the produce of wild stingless bees; possess, to take the best care and make the most of this reminded me of a notice I had once seen of a them. I wish such a person would
present him hive of stingless bees sent to Dr. Mitchell. The self, and take the colony under his protection. following is the notice alluded to, being an extract Something novel and curious at any rate—perhaps of a letter published in the New York Evening something useful might arise from it? An entomo. Post in 1830, from Henry Perrine, Esq., U. S. Con- logical description is desirable, but this must be sul, dated San Juan, Baptista de Tabasco, Mexico, postponed, on account of its nicety and difficulty, July 20th, 1830, to Samuel E. Mitchell.
until a future day." “I send you by Capt. Powers, of the schooner If Mr. Mitchell made an entomological examinaWashington, a hive of stingless bees, which you tion of this interesting little insect, I never had the may dispose of as you think proper.” Dr. Mitchell good fortune of seeing it published ; indeed, since then says:
“ The have arrived in a lively con- the publication of the above, I have not seen the dition, and though they were received only yester-little Colony in any way noticed. Dr. Mitchell day (Sept. 1st), are now making their excursions to died in September, 1831, and I should think it and from their habitation with great vivacity. almost certain that he left an entomological descripTheir dwelling place is a hollow log, part of a tion of the insect. The probability is that this little natural excavated tree, in which these little crea- colony, by being so much reduced, or by the severity tures delight to live. The little swarm, after hav- of our climate, did not survive through the ensuing ing been released from its imprisonment, came winter. forth, and the members visited the flowers of the Will not some of our enterprising ship-owners contiguous garden. It was observed as a proof of in the Mexican trade, cause to be sent to this countheir economy, that after being immured during the try a few hives of these stingless bees, as there voyage, the notable insects came forth loaded with is much more attention paid and interest felt for bees the remains of their deceased associates, or with in the United States now, than was in 1830 ? I some excrementitious or foul matter. They thus have no doubt they can be placed under the care of
competent apiarians that would watch their habits
CASTRATION OF CALVES. and wants; and if our climate should at first prove I was for a long time troubled about having too severe for them, they should be placed in a calves altered. My family have bred cattle for green-house to winter, where they would be an in- sixty years, and yet always employed a man to teresting and harmless appendage to any gentle castrate all the males that were made steers. I subman's collection of green-house plants. Their in-mitted to this inconvenience myself for a long time. troduction would be only second in interest to the At length I was forced by chance into the performintroduction of the Alpaca, which I am glad to see ance of the operation myself. I soon found there you so much engaged about.
was no mystery about it. East Windsor, Jan., 1846.
A calf that is to be altered, should undergo the
operation as early as possible after being dropped. GROWING WOOL.
Throw him down and let one person hold him; he THE growing of wool is one of the most interest- need not be tied. Have a sharp knife-a pen-knife ing, pleasant, and profitable employments. Our re- is the best. Press the testicle down into the bag. sources and natural advantages for wool-growing Cut through the skin on the back or front side, to are not surpassed, if equalled, by those of any other the testicle ; pull the testicle ont of its sheath and nation. With us, as a nation, the business is yet draw it out, until the cord which attaches it to the in its infancy, as well as the manufacturing of the body is some way out of the body. At about two article. The quantity raised is annually increasing, inches above the testicle in the calf, the cord is and expensive establishments are continually spring- quite small, and enlarges as it goes up: Cut the ing up in various sections of the land; and it is cord at the small part; it will at once draw back reasonable to suppose that the time is not far distant into the sheath. Do the same to the other testicle, when the skill, enterprise, and perseverance of our and let the calf go. people, will enable them to compete with the world If it be a bull that is to be altered, the best way in the manufacturing, as well as growing, of this im- with him is to put him in a narrow stall and tie his portant staple. Our wool and woollen goods will head fast and close to the manger; put a rope round ere long find their way into the various markets of his neck and pass it down, and make a noose about the world, as our cotton and cotton goods have at each hind leg between the forelegs, and draw his hind the present time.
legs well under him, and fasten the knots. So The sale of wool depends much upon the manner fixed he cannot move. His testicles will hang in which it is prepared for market. It should be down, back of his legs. Take the knife and make thoroughly washed, and no dirt of any kind tied up an incision on the front or back of the testicles ; cut in the fleece.
through to the testicle; draw it out until the small For washing I prefer a clear stream, with a gra- part of the cord appears ; cut off the cord at the velly bottom, it being free from either sand or mud. small part. This done to both testicles, the ope Each sheep should be thoroughly soaked in the ration is over. Put nothing in the wound. water, and then suffered to return to the land; then Let it be done in good weather, or if bad weather, they should be thrown in again and the washing house the animal ar l there is no danger, and in a completed. I have never known this practice to in- few days he will be well. In general the things put jure the sheep, and the washers are more apt to get into the wound cause all the trouble. It is cruel to the wool clean than when they are thrown into the cord them, and frequently they are lost by it. Rams water but once. After washing they should not be may and should be altered in the same way, Never driven on a dusty road, while the wool is wet. cord them for mere humanity.
A. S. They should be kept in a clean pasture until shear New York, Feb., 1846 ing, which should take place in from four to eight days after the washing. If they run beyond this ANNUAL MEETING OF ONEIDA COUNTY length of time, the wool will get dirty, and the pros
AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. pects of making a good sale are thereby lessened. The Annual Meeting of the Oneida County Agri. The fleeces should be tied up in a compact, regular cultural Society was held at Trenton, on the 8th of form, and packed away in as neat and orderly a January, and considering the day, which was manner as possible. The wool should be kept in stormy, was fully attended. The following gentlethe dark, as its exposure to the light will in a few men were elected officers of the Society for the endays give it a yellow color.
suing year. Salem, Jan. 20, 1846.
For President, Dolphus Skinner, Deerfield ; Vice PreBUCKWHEAT Cakes.—You gave a method of sidents, Squire M. Mason, New Hartford ; Henry
Rhodes, Trenton ; David Urtly, Western ; Calvary making with soda and acid. These are not in Wetmore, Vernon ; Horatio Seymour, Utica; David every farm house. Here is my method. If you Gray, Marcy; Eli B. Lucas, Kirkland; John J. Knox, wish to have them made in five minutes, take some Augusta ; Henry B. Bartlet, Paris ; Pliment Mattoon, salæratus or pearl ash ; dissolve it and put it into the Vienna ; Corresponding Secretary, John P. Burgett, Utibatter, when mixed ; stir well, and then pour in some ca; Recording Secretary, Benjamin N. Huntington, vinegar; effervescence will at once commence, and Rome; Treasurer, William Bristol, Utica; Managers, directly the batter will be light, and may be baked. Israel Denio, Jr.
, Rome; Lucius Warner, Vernon The cakes will not be as good as if raised with Chauncey. C. Cook, Kirkland; Lewis Benedict, Veyeast, but will be good. When the batter has been rona, Lewis Eames, Lee. put to rise with yeast, and does not,
Some of the premiums awarded were-On winter salæratus or pearl ash and vinegar, and soon the wheat 66 bushels, 56 bush. 54 lbs., and 41 bush. cakes will be light.
T. 19} lbs., per acre. On spring wheat, 34 bush., and
28 bush. 40 lbs. per acre. On Indian corn, 89 bush. I dergoing acclimation. My opinion is, that Novem. 5 lbs., 79 bush. 48 lbs., and 75 bush. 12 lbs. per ber would be the most favorable month for the intro.
On barley, 63 bush. 27 lbs., anà 63 bush. duction of blooded stock, and that they should be 9 lbs., per acre.
B. N. H. fed on hay or corn-stalk fodder, with very liule Rome, January 10, 1846.
grain during the winter, and be kept sheltered. Ii
this course were pursued, I am satisfied that there The above is one of the most flourishing County would not be more than one failure in twenty Societies in the State, and is composed of a very ac- experiments. live, intelligent, and enterprising set of men. The present stock of cattle in Texas is generally a knew that Oneida was famous as a dairy county, mixture of Mexican, and cattle from the United but we were not aware that she was in the habit of States. They each show a distinctness of characturning out such heavy grain crops. It shows, ter. The Mexican (or Spanish) cattle are not so bowever, that the Mohawk Flats and the fertile up-heavy or compactly built, but are taller and more lands are still good for large crops, when judiciously active; nor do they weigh as well in proportion to called upon to yield them. The Society has our appearance when slaughtered as the American best wishes for its success, and we are much cattle. They are more active than our cattle, with obliged to our correspondent for his details. remarkably long, slim, and sharp horns : they are
not so good for milk as ours. A cross of the CATTLE OF TEXAS.
breeds I consider an improvement, and for oxen de. The following letter of President Houston was cidedly so, for it blends the power of the American addressed to a gentleman in this city, and kindly with the sprightliness and activity of the Mexican handed us for publication. It is the best description cattle. There is a fact in the natural history of of Texas Cattle we have yet seen, and we trust its Texas, which has heretofore claimed but little nopublication may serve to call the attention of stock tice, and which seems to me not unimportant. breeders to this interesting section of our country. When the first colonists, under Mr. Stephen F.
Galveston, Texas, Dec. 1st, 1845. Austin, arrived in Texas, they found herds of wild No present to me at this time could have been cattle on the Brassos and its tributary streams. more acceptable than a fine Durham, as it is my inten- There was no tradition of their origin, nor has any. tion to carry out the object which first induced my thing satisfactory on the subject yet been ascertain. location in this country—that of stock breeding. ed. They have receded as the settlements advanced, The present condition of our country, in conse- and are now above the Falls of the Brassos, and quence of annexation to the United States, will principally upon Little River. They are of a leave men free to pursue the more pleasing and pro- brindle or reddish color, and are represented by fitable business of agriculture and herdsmen, than those best acquainted with them as more wild, and, has been allowed for many years to our citizens, when wounded, much more dangerous than the while under the various influences of excitement buffalo. The males have occasionally attached and uncertainty. Fortunately for us, we shall soon themselves to herds of tame cattle, and become very be at rest, when our natural facilities will be inquir- gentle. Calves have been caught by our pioneer ed into, and our resources developed, by those who settlers, and reared. The cross is said to be an imhave capital and possess enterprise.
provement upon our common stock, imparting to Doubtless no country on earth possesses equal their offspring an appearance, in color and proporadvantages to Texas as a stock-rearing community. tion, of the wild cattle. The males I have been as. Stock here requires no feeding either in summer or sured by hunters and other persons, are as large as winter, and costs no trouble nor expense save mark the finest Durhams. I have seen work oxen, said ing and branding. Salting is not necessary, as sa- to be half breeds, much larger than any others lines or licks are in every part of the country; so which have fallen under my observation in the that in fact, an ox weighing one thousand weight, United States or Texas. or the most valuable cow, would not cost a farmer For years past I have endeavored to procure the one cent in its rearing.
full bloods; but in consequence of other duties I Our prairies are clothed with the most nutritious could not use the attention necessary to ensure grasses, sufficient for countless herds. Heretofore, success. I will now renew my exertions with inthe Durhams have not prospered in this country; but creased interest, and I hope it will be in my power this, to my mind, is readily accounted for. "They to produce a cross of the Durhams with the original have generally come by water, and remained on the Texas cow. Should I be fortunate in my efforts, I seaboard, where the insects are more numerous shall be happy to apprise you of the result. than in the interior ; and where, too, the climate is
Sam. Houston. not so congenial to the constitution as the rolling country, not only of cattle, but likewise of horses. INDIAN CAKES.-Boil some corn meal, as mush, Some Durhams have been introduced from Missouri, for five or six hours; then mix it as a batter, and and remained in the interior, about one hundred add some wheat flour to make the cakes hold to. miles from the seaboard, and they have done well. gether and turn easily; and two or three eggs,
There is no good reason why blooded cattle with salt to season; bake on the griddle till brown. or blooded horses should not do well in Texas, if Mush.-It is very common to make mush by proper care be taken of them the first year. The boiling only a few minutes. This is all wrong. It change of climate, from a northern to a southern should be boiled one or two hours, and if longer it latitude, will have an influence upon all animals, as will do no harm. It will be necessary to occasion. experience has shown; this fact being known, ally add some water to keep the mass thin and preshould not be disregarded, while the animal is un- vent burning.
THE GRASS LANDS OF WESTERN NEW YORK.
THE GRASS LANDS OF WESTERN NEW acts as a sponge, and under the influence of frost, YORK.
becomes mixed with ice so as to bear a resemblance If we draw lines from the outlet of Lake Erie to to a honey-comb. Hence, as soon as the fibrous the northeast corner of Wyoming county, and thence roots of the trees (which, while they remain, preto Pennsylvania, the tract of country south and vent heaving) have decayed, winter wheat is actu. west is not generally favorable to the production of ally lifted out. winter wheat. It is of the kind called grass land. What may be the effect of the subsoil plow by At its first settlement, however, winter wheat and producing mixture of the hardpan with the upper all other crops of the Middle States were eminently soil we shall hereafter state from the result of ex. successful, and the region was valuable for abun- perience. It is a common idea that the hardpan dant production, and numerous springs and streams contains lime, and would thus correct the supposed of excellent water, and the peculiar salubrity of its deficiency in the upper soil. Some specimens hav. climate; exempt mainly, as it ever has been, from ing been subjected to severe chemical tests, with a the ordinary diseases of a country recently settled. view to giving the result, it was found that they
At the first settlement of a thickly wooded coun- yielded scarcely a trace of lime. Yet as the deeper try, grain must necessarily be the chief production, hardpan is not so impervious to water as that near for domestic animals cannot be kept in large num- the surface, and as it crumbles upon exposure to the bers. Of all cereal crops, wheat is the most valu- air, there is room to hope that its effects would be able, and receives the greatest share of attention. highly beneficial; and particularly so to the growth But that which necessity reasonably originates, be- of winter wheat. comes, in the course of time, habit, and frequently Spring wheat nowhere yields better grain or in continues in full force long after the cause has greater abundance. Nor is it easy to find any ceased. Thus it was, for many years, a part of the region where, with the same amount of cultivation, farming system in this region to sow winter wheat, can be raised better crops of barley, oats, flax, where experience annually demonstrated that it buckwheat, beans, turnips, carrots, parsnips, and could not succeed under the ordinary mode of culti- potatoes; while as to grass and clover it is provation. The farmers were discouraged. Expe- bably excelled by no portion of the Union. Two dients might have been attempted, but in the new tons of hay to the acre are far from being an unland of the west they could do as they had done usual crop; it is the quantity commonly obtained before. Custom had taught them to like the axe from land well seeded down and occasionally mabetter than the plow, and emigration became the nured. The quality of the hay is excellent. The order of the day. Yet the soil was not exhausted. same retention of moisture which prevents the Spring wheat and a proper system of plowing the growth of winter wheat is admirably favorable to earth into beds so as to drain the soil, were scarcely grass. It is long before a summer drought is felt, known, and yet more rarely practised.
and the grass, suffering little from this cause, grows Strange whims and conceits existed here. Many luxuriantly in the fall, and sprouts up in the spring people believed that not only would cattle and as early as in any part of the State. horses refuse to eat clover hay, but that if eaten it From causes already mentioned, the price of this was poisonous. Others thought that the land must land has greatly decreased. Discouraged by the be seeded down after clearing, and that in the end bad success of bad farming, many are anxious to the good grass would die out, and that it must be let sell at low prices. There are instances where alone, for if once plowed up it would be destroyed half-cleared farms have been sold for $4 to $5 per for ever. And so it would have been. Under the acre, and good grazing farms, with the common operation of a retentive soil, an impervious subsoil, buildings of the country, can very easily be bought and a surface abounding in the inequalities called for $8 per acre, even within twenty or thirty miles cradle-knolls, sufficient plowing to raise the land of Buffalo. Assuming the average price of wheat into ridges, so that the water might escape, was land in this State to be about $40 per acre, five nowhere more necessary; and abundant examples acres of the former can be bought for one acre of now illustrate that it has been followed by effects wheat land. If four sheep can be kept on one acre the most beneficial. It may be added, that the first of the grass land of this region (and most farmers crop raised in doing this, will at least repay the ex- say this is below the average capability), it is easy pense incurred.
for any practical farmer to determine how the profit There has been much speculation as to the from twenty good sheep, after deducting the necescauses why winter wheat cannot now be produced. sary expense, compares with the profit, after similar It is generally supposed, even among chemists, deduction, from the average annual produce of one that they result from a deficiency of lime in the acre of wheat land. soil. But if so, would not the production of spring As neat cattle thrive here, it is found that the wheat be also affected? In fact we must not look butter and cheese of this district, when properly exclusively to chemical causes for an answer to the made, cannot be surpassed. Access to railroads, question. The soil is for the most part light loam, Lake Erie, and the canals, renders transportation to friable, often abounding in vegetable matter, and the seaboard cheap, safe, and rapid, whilst the convery retentive of moisture. The subsoil generally sumption of provisions in the cities of Rochester approaches the surface, and is composed of sand, and Buffalo furnishes a ready market for any surpebbles, and clay, forming an exceedingly compact plus of such productions as are of a perishable mass, or hardpan, scarcely to be broken at all by nature, or too bulky for distant transportation. the common plow, and through which water canno? Probably no great length of time will elapse, before penetrate, except in small quantities. The rain is well-fed beef, mutton, and pork, will be sent hence therefore retained on the surface. The upper soil' to Albany, Boston, and New York, and a larger