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138

DEAD ANIMALS.-A LESSON ON PLOWING.

is a general rule to sow the seed in beds and then and use of this most powerful of fertilizers, when transplant. A recent and much superior practice common sense and decency fail to do it: is, to sow from three to five seeds in the places Whenever it is desirable to hasten decay, and where you wish one plant to grow. In this case rapidly turn animal matter into manure, sulphuric the largest and most thrifty plant only is left stand- acid may be used. This would be too expensive ing. After it gets three to four weeks old, the (although the acid is cheap) for farm purposes, but other plants are pinched off or broken down. may be employed for the garden, where expense is Grown in this way the heads are said to be much not so important. It is frequently desirable to have larger and finer than when the young cabbages are a rich manure in the garden, and it is not at hand. transplanted, as it is contended that however care- Animal matter put into sulphuric acid will in a fully the process may be performed, the plant re- few hours furnish it. Every house will supply ceives a check in its incipient state which it never much refuse animal matter. To this rats, mice, entirely recovers. There is reason and philosophy moles, feathers, hair, bones, horns, &c., may be in this, and we should be glad if those engaged in added. If the garbage of a slaughter-house can be the culture of cabbages would make experiments got, it should be. All these will soon be reduced the present season between different rows, side by to an available state, be inoffensive, and will add side, sowing the seed as above, and in the usual great fertility to the soil where used. The requi. method, and then transplant.

site quantity of acid may be ascertained by experi

ment--about 10 or 15 lbs, is usually allowed for DEAD ANIMALS.

100 lbs of animal matter, At all seasons of the year dead animals are to be seen hung up on fences and on trees; and espe

A LESSON ON PLOWING. cially is this the case in spring. On every farm VISITING the farm of Edward J. Woolsey, Esq., where sheep are kept, dead lambs are suspended in at Hellegat Neck, one day the past inonth, we were the beautiful, blooming, and fruit-bearing orchards conducted over it by his manager, Mr. Samuel -how shocking !-to annoy the sight and smell, Pate. He has just begun his operations there, and. and waste the farmer's means. Dogs and cats will one of these days make it one of the most protoo are frequently hoisted into view in the same ductive places that adorn this neighborhood. He annoying and disgusting manner. If horses, cattle, showed us a field of about twelve acres, the most sheep, or hogs die, they are drawn out of sight, thoroughly sub-drained of anything we have yet but not out of smell, and are still sources of dis- seen in the United States. It was originally a deep gust. Why is all this? If the farmer be so un- morass ; now it is a firm, dry, meadow. But as we fortunate or so negligent as to lose an animal, hope to be favored with an account of the operation should he be so wasteful as to permit the carcase from Mr. Woolsey himself one of these days, we to decay uselessly in the open air, to the great an- forbear further observation upon it. noyance of his family and every passer by? Does Mr. Pate is a Scotchman, and having several he not know that animal matter is the best and Scotch plowmen, with Scotch plows at work, to richest of manure ? Animal matter contains every gratify our curiosity he invited us to see them opeo element that is necessary to grow every plant rate. The work was not done for show, but was known. In it are phosphate and carbonate of such as characterizes the every day operations of lime, ammonia, carbon, in short, in the best form, good plowmen in Scotland; and if all were not as all the essentials of vegetable growth. Its putritive well done at home, they would be dismissed by their power is great, and if added to the compost heap employer for awkward workmanship. The field hastens fermentation, and adds greatly to its rich in which we found the men at work was about 40

Whenever a fowl, cat, dog, sheep, pig, rods long, of a rich loamy soil, and coated with a horse, or cow dies, let the carcase be cut up, and tough old sward. Here the men set in and run the bones broken, and the whole added to the their furrows from end to end, as straight as one manure heap. The carcase of a single horse will could draw a line, turning them 6 inches deep, and turn loads of useless muck or peat into manure, 11 inches wide, slightly lapped, and packing them richer than any ordinary barn-yard dung. Why up one after the other all day long, with a single then suffer it to decay uselessly and annoyingly? pair of horses, each plowman driving his own It is true it is not lost, for the gases that taint the team, and not varying throughout their work, as air are appropriated by plants; but the farmer who we could discover, a single inch in the thickness of owned the animal gets but a small portion of what width of their furrow slices. We have seen as good should be all his own. Why, then, will he waste plowing in Great Britain, but never anything like the dead energies of the horse, when he has lost it before, as a whole, in the United States, though the living ones? If our readers will heed what we we have often been present at the most celebrated say, they will not suffer dead animals to annoy the plowing matches. There were no snake trails, of eye and disgust the nose hereafter. Bury them in ram's horns here, or half-turned sods, or untouched the manure heap; add some lime to quicken decay, ground, or skipped places; but the whole was as and charcoal dust or plaster to absorb the gases, thoroughly and evenly done as it would be possiand much will be gained to the good appearance of ble to accomplish with the most careful spading: the farm, the quality of the manure, and the quan- and when harrowed with the fine double harrow, tity of the crops grown; and much to the purse of the surface of the field had the appearance of a the farmer. If your neighbor be so improvident as well-dug and fine-raked garden. to waste a dead animal, beg it of him, that it may People may say what they please, yet we con: not be detrimental to health and useless to vegeta- tend that good plowing is not only the first, but tion. Laws should be passed to compel the saving the most important part of the operations on the

ness.

are wood. THE BUSH PULLER, -DUTTON CORN. -NURSERIES OF MESSRS. HOVEY & co. 139 farm, and without it nothing else can be thoroughly We are in want of a first quality of Dutton Corn well done for the crop. It would be well for our for seed. Who has it for sale ? farmers if they would take lessons on plowing, at least so far as to enable them to draw NURSERIES OF MESSRS. HOVEY & CO. straight lines (for these are rarely seen in the Uni We visited these extensive nurseries last July. ted States), and stir and pulverize the ground well. They are situated in West Cambridge, a few miles We should be glad to get hold of the plow handles out of Boston, and contain upwards of 35 acres of ourselves under Mr. Pate's instruction, and only a great variety of soil, from a light sand to a heavy regret that our numerous avocations elsewhere loam, lying upon a substratum of heavy clay, varyprevent our doing so; but as it was, we did ing in its depth from 2 to 10 feet from the surface. absolutely stay long enough to turn a short furrow; This substratum is of great service to the nursery, yet, in comparison of those of the canny Scotch- as a sufficient quantity can be brought up any time men, we will candidly acknowledge it did not do by the trench plow or deep spading, to temper the us much credit. Our readers, however, will please surface soil to such a consistency as to suit any bear in mind that we are now somewhat out of variety of shrub or tree; and the ground being practice, and that we are unluckily more at home thoroughly sub-drained, the operations of the nurwith the pen just at this moment than with the sery are never impeded by an excess of moisture. plow handles. We trust this will not always be The ground slopes from ihe south-west to norththe case.

west, and is exposed to all the cold winds of the One of the men whom we saw at work there country, which the Messrs. Hovey think is quite is desirous of obtaining a permanent situation as a an advantage in enabling them to rear hardy trees. farmer. We were witnesses of his plowing, and Mr. C. M. Hovey has recently returned from an can recommend that, and as for the rest we will excursion to Europe, a very interesting account of refer to Mr. P. Any one employing him might be which he has published in a series of numbers in sure of one thing on his farm, and that is-straight his Horticultural Magazine. While abroad, he furrows.

made arrangements to add largely to their collection

of fruits, &c. Especial attention is given here to BUSH PULLER.

pears, they having the enormous number of 400 to 500 different kinds, from every good source in Europe and in our own country, for the purpose of testing their genuineness and qualities. Some of these we saw in bearing, and very fine specimens they were. We think they will have some new and choice ones for sale in a year or two. It is their intention to reject the indifferent, and propagate the good varieties only. We noted several other kinds of choice fruit trees here, among which are the May and new and black Bigareau

cherry; the Icknorth, Imperatrice, Fellemberg, FIG. 40.

Royal Nouvelle, Thomas, and other plums; FasThis is a very useful implement to attach to tolff raspberry, Victoria currant, &c., &c. We bushes, clumps of roots, and bogs, for the purpose

found the Victoria rhubarb here of immense size, of pulling them out of the ground. It is made with and of fine quality. This, with Downing's seedtwo, three, or four claws. These are hooked to the ling, which is an earlier variety, are considered the bush close to the ground, an ox-chain is then only two sorts now worth cultivating by those who hooked into a hole at the other end of the puller, desire a superior quality the cattle attached, when the bush and roots are easily hauled out. It also answers very well work in the nursery, never using the plow or the pulling out small stumps. It will do the work of cultivator, but instead of these implements, the half a dozen men in clearing and grubbing spade. They think that they can thus bring for Price $3 to $4.

ward their trees in a superior manner, the ground is

so much better worked. As we have no experience DUTTON CORN.-Mr. Frederick Plumb, of Sals- in this matter, we must leave nurserymen to decide bury, Conn., says that he received an ear of corn for themselves which are the best implements for from a friend, who said it was from the Rocky their use. Mountains. The grains of this ear were covered They have originated another seedling straw. with a husk. He has improved it by cultivation, berry, which they call the Boston pine. It is of fine and thinks it will soon be entirely free from husk, flavor, though not so large as the Hovey seedling, and will be in perfect resemblance of the Dutton The green-house department here is very extencorn, which Mr. Plumb esteems as the best kind for sive. The large conservatory, or show house, is of the Northern and Eastern States. He planted, aa chaste, neat architecture, 84 feet long, 22 feet few years since, ten acres of Dutton corn, ten wide, with a span roof, and well constructed acres of the yellow eight-rowed, ten acres of the throughout, being one of the most expensive in the twelve and fourteen-rowed white, and ten acres of country. Another large house is 84 by 25, with a eight-rowed white. The Dutton proved a much span roof. Besides these there are some smaller better crop than either of the other varieties. Next houses, making a rich and varied display of plants. to the Dutton, Mr. P. prefers the eight-rowed yellow. I The camellias were worthy of all admiration.

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140

PARING PLOW.- AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATION.

upwards of 2,500 varieties of the best foreign and the land. Paring and burning is a very ameliorat. native, some of the largest of which we noted were ing process for stiff clay soils; it changes their 8 to 10 feet high. Nor was less attention given to mechanical texture almost entirely, and renders roses. Here we found 1,200 varieties, the most them friable and suitable for cultivation. The superb of which we thought was La Reine-worthy paring plow is also an excellent implement for indeed of being the queen of her species. Messrs. cutting off meadow-hogs and grass bunches, and Hovey & Co. have taken the first premiums of the turf for covering a grass plot. Massachusetts Horticultural Society for three years past, for the best show of rare roses, and if we may AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATION. be permitted to judge by what we saw here, they Since our last the Society has had two meetings well deserved them.

per month, instead of one. At that on the 18th of Mr. C. M. Hovey politely conducted us over the March, Mr. Pell moved that a Horticultural de premises, and pointed out many other things worthy partment be connected with the Society to make of notice ; but we regret to say, that the weather exhibitions, and stated that they would be well was excessively hot, and we had been so greatly supplied and patronized, if premiums be offered to fatigued by several other excursions during the day, the amount of $400 or $500, and fruits, flowers, before reaching these nurseries, that we felt little and vegetables be included in the exhibitions

. inclination to take notes, and have doubtless forgot- The money necessary might be expected to be adten many things which we ought to mention. Yet vanced by members, as the constitution does not this we remember, he has recently built a beautiful allow the Society to appropriate money not in the pointed Gothic cottage, and is now tastefully adorn-treasury. A similar Society was commenced in ing the grounds around with choice flowers and Boston a few years ago, from humble beginnings, shrubbery, and within this we were hospitably en- and the income of the exhibition the past year is tertained, and shown one of the best horticultural said to have been $18,000. libraries we have seen in this country. Many of The resolution was adopted, and the following the works are rare, and others exceedingly rich and Committee appointed to carry it into effect :-R. R. gorgeous in exquisite colored engravings, of supe- Delafield, s. T. Jones, Alex. H. Stevens, T. A. rior fruits and flowers. Mr. Hovey is the editor of Emmet, Wm. S. McCoun, Hugh Maxwell, J. F. the Horticultural Magazine, published in Boston ; a Sheafe, Shepherd Knapp, E. K. Collins, James work too well known and highly regarded by the Boorman, Jas. Lenox, Ambrose Stephens, R. B. public to need any further notice of ours.

Parsons, and R. L. Pell. These gentlemen have an agricultural implement Mr. Van Epps made some further explanations and seed store in Boston, where they do an exten- in regard to the silk business, showing that the sive business in their line. With all these varied multicaulis had done well in Washington, D. C., occupations they doubtless have a pretty active life where he had 20 acres set out, and intended to in

. of it, and we can only hope it may prove as profit- crease his plantation to 100 acres. Dr. Underhill able to them as busy.

said that however well this variety of mulberry

might succeed elsewhere, it could not be depended PARING PLOW.

upon to stand the rigor of the New York winters.

Mr. Seeley addressed the Society on the influ. ence of electricity on vegetation, and thought that the causes of failure were owing to the erroneous manner of applying it to growing plants.

At the meeting on the 1st of April, various grafts, seeds, and vegetables were offered for distribution among the members. Of the latter there were some fine large stalks of the pie-piant from Mr. Pell, who said that by selecting roots in the fall and placing them in the loam under the shelves of the green-house, you can have a supply of this plant from the latter part of February to June

whereas it is now to be had only during the latter FIG. 41.

month. THIS plow is used for paring turf lands pre Dr. Gardner presented from the publishers, the paratory to burning. The share is thin and flat, Messrs. Harper, a copy of his Farmers' Dicmade of wrought iron, steel-edged. It has a lock. tionary. coulter in the centre, and short coulters on the out Chancellor McCoun, having been called to the ward edge of each wing of the share, cutting the chair, read the report of the committee to whom turf as it moves along into two strips about one was referred the offer of Gardner Howland, Esq., foot wide, and as deep as required, there being a of his farm on Long Island, for the use of the Soci

. sliding apparatus put on the end of the beam in- ety. The report takes the ground that the Society stead of a wheel to regulate the depth of cutting is not sufficiently advanced at present in its means This is much preferable to a wheel for this particu- and resources to safely assume the responsibility lar purpose. After the turf is pared off into strips, of managing a farm; and that it will be advisable, men follow with sharp spades and cut it into suita- in the present stage of its career, to confine its ble lengths, say of two or three feet. These pieces labors to the investigation of new truths, and the they then throw into heaps after drying of which elaboration of important principles, leaving their they are burned, and the ashes spread broad-cast on practical application to individual enterprise. The

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report expressed the hope that hereafter, when the At the meeting on the 15th of April, the CorresSociety found itself more completely established ponding Secretary, Mr. Green, read a letter from in all its departments, enriched in resources, and Baron Von Spech, of Upper Bavaria, accompanied protected by legislative incorporation, it will be by a treatise on sheep and another on hops, writenabled to add to its other endowments a pattern ten by that nobleman. farm. The report, with its accompanying resolu Mr. Howland presented a basket of large, delitions, was adopted.

cious strawberries, perfectly ripe, and of the most Dr. Stevens made some observations respecting exquisite flavor and fragrance—together with a the use of whale oil soap, and stated that much plant containing the berry in all stages, from flower injury had resulted from its application to trees, by to ripe fruit. They are the monthly strawberry. the too great acceleration of their growth. As to Mr. Howland received the plant from Mobile about the worms, no liquid was efficient against them, eighteen months since. The plant is very healthy for they deposit their larvæ under the inequalities and vigorous, and bears luxuriantly. of the bark. A solid coating was, in his opinion, Mr. Bradish presented for distribution and expethe only efficient protection. Dr. Underhill had rimental planting a small parcel of potatoes from found security in scraping his trees in the winter Ocaña, a table land in the highest part of New with a dull hoe [a scraper for this purpose, such as Grenada, S. A., and in about 309 lat. N. They is found at the agricultural stores, would be better], were dark in color, and of small size. and then paint them with soft soap, and afterward Mr, Griffin detailed some experiments he had he had found a solution of potash—a pound to six made last summer with various kinds of manure or eight quarts of water—answer every purpose. upon corn.

He planted corn with guano, pou. Gov. Edwards, of Connecticut, then was called drette, stable-manure, and ashes. That with guano up, and gave a very interesting account of his was far the best, poudrette next, and ashes last. raising an entensive variety of early and late pear Some of the corn which he had soaked thirty-six trees from the seed. He recommended that fruit hours before planting, in guano-water, grew the trees should be raised in this way, and stated the greenest and thriftiest ; but he did not know that it probability that the race of a tree became, in a cer- yielded any more than that guanoed in the hill tain number of years, enfeebled and finally extinct, The ground was clayey, and not particularly and it was therefore necessary to renew the trees adapted to the potato. from the seed. [We consider this false doctrine Mr. Howland had tried an experiment with corn entirely. If fruit trees are properly taken care of last year. He divided a ten-acre lot into three secthey will never run out, any more than animals or tions. The first he gave a top-dressing with stable man himself.] He had also planted the seeds manure planting; the second lime before plowing ; of the two native species of grape-fox and frost the third he first plowed and then dressed with lime. from which he had raised a great variety of fine This he found to be decidedly the best. fruit. Altogether, cultivating the native fruits of Mr. Lawrence exhibited a model of his newlythis country had been too much neglected, and he invented park-gate, which can be opened without earnestly recommended it as being among the sub- dismounting. It is very ingenious and simple, and jects most worthy of attention. Dr. Underhill must work well. agreed with Gov. Edwards on the necessity of cul. Dr. Gardner mentioned that some noise had been tivating American fruit, especially in regard to made in this country regarding a new kind of prograpes. Foreign grapes, except under glass, can- vender used in Germany, and which was said to not be cultivated in our climate. The winter be far more nutritious than any other kind of green freezes them and the summer scorches them to fodder, not excepting clover. This was known death. All the hundreds of thousands of dollars under the name of spurry, and in several instances expended in the experiments with foreign grapes persons had sent to Europe for the seed. This was had been literally thrown away; and yet there were quite unnecessary. The plant is indigenous here, nurserymen, who knew better, every spring adver- and well known to farmers as infecting corn and tising and selling foreign grape-vines which they wheat fields. It is known as corn spurry; and if promised would flourish in our soil. They ought even half the wonders told of its nutritiousness by to be and should be exposed. In regard to Ameri- our friends in Germany be correct, it is worthy of can grapes, they had already been much improved, attention by our farmers. At the Doctor's suggesand would doubtless improve for a hundred years tion, a committee was appointed to make some exto come. He had himself produced Isabella and periments on this subject. After some little farther Catawba grapes, which had been pronounced good business, the Society adjourned, to meet on the first by Frenchmen, Spaniards, and Italians; and they Wednesday evening in May. were now beginning to lay out vineyards for these varieties in Spain, France, and Germany. When MANURE.—Cart out all the manure on your prewe began to import them, Americans would doubt- mises as fast as possible, and spread it broadcast less find them of exquisite flavor ! Some further remarks were made on the subject crops. It is fast losing its most fertilizing portions

upon your grass lands or plow it under for hoed of grapes, pears, &c., by Gov. Edwards, Dr. Ma- in the sun and rain, and the sooner you get it on to son, and Col. Clark. Dr. Gardner eloquently de- your lands and covered up, the better. If left to fended the European grape, and stated that it was rot in the barn yard it fertilizes the air, and passes a superior fruit when found wild, which was not into your neighbors' crops at the expense of the case with the American grape. His opinion your own. No good farmer will neglect his manure was that the Isabella and Catawba were hybrids. heap-it is his mine of wealth

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DISEASES OF POULTRY.
It is stated in an English publication, that “

far. Being a subscriber to the Agriculturist, and see

mer in the county of Sussex, some years since, had ing a great many articles on the breeding, rearing,

a field, one part of which was very wet and rushy, and diseases of poultry, I thought I would relate and that the grass produced upon it was of so sour an experiment I made on a fowl of the Poland and unpleasant a kind, that the cattle would not breed, if you saw fit to publish it for the benefit of graze upon it; he tried several methods to improve those who may have fowls afflicted in the same

it but to little purpose; at last hearing of the bene

fits of salt as a manure, he determined to try that; way. I noticed one of my hens drooping for two or

for which purpose he procured a quantity of rock three days, and when I went to feed the fowls, she salt, which, in a random way, without any regard would not eat. I therefore concluded something ground, fencing it off from the other part of the

to the precise quantity, he threw upon the rushy must be wrong. I took her up and found her crop perfectly full. I then came to the conclusion that field, the effect of which was a total disappearance she was crop-bound, and she might get over it in a of every kind of vegetation. In a short time, how. day or two, but she continued to get worse, and ever, it produced the largest quantity of mushrooms was now in the last stage of existence. I now

ever seen upon an equal space of ground in the made an incision through the breast, into the crop, country. These, in the spring following, were suc. of an inch long, when I found the passage from ceeded by the most plentiful and luxuriant crops of the crop to the gizzard completely stopped up. I grass, far exceeding the other part of the field in removed that, took two stitches in the crop, kept cattle were remarkably fond of it, and though the

richness of verdure and quickness of growth; the the hen in a warm place for a week, fed her on salt was laid on it twenty years before, this part is warm, light food, and she is now as well as any still superior to the rest of the field.” fowl I have. This happened about three weeks ago.

H. T. LLOYD.

From the information which I have been able to New York, No. 3 Prince st., Feb. 4, 1846.

collect, I am inclined to believe that salt, when

sparingly applied, is valuable as a fertilizer, and We knew an instance of a valuable hen being in useful in killing the grub and wire worm, which the same predicament as the above, from swallow often injure, and sometimes even destroy, whole ing a large piece of India rubber. She was cured crops; and it has been found by experiments the by making an incision in her crop, and taking it past season, that the scab or disease which has out. There is no danger whatever in performing provedso disastrous to the potato crop, in all sec. this operation, provided the incision is immedi- tions of the country, has not been found upon land ately sowed up, and the fowl properly cared for that had a proper dressing of salt. till well. Fowls, both young and old, are very that he had found great advantage from using salt

Judge Hamiston, of Scoharie, informed the writer, apt to overstuff their crops, especially when they get their food irregularly, and we have no doubt on his potato ground last spring. After plowing, that many more deaths arise from this cause than he caused four bushels of salt to be sown on the is generally supposed.

furrow, upon one acre of the field, and harrowed in. Potatoes were then planted. Part of the field was

not salted. Although the season was remarkably SALT.

dry, the salted acre was observed to maintain a Its value as a fertilizerits supposed efficacy for green vigorous appearance, while the other part the Potato disease.

the field looked sickly and stunted. On lifting them The value of salt for agricultural purposes has in the fall, those potatoes, where salt was applied, long been known both in Europe and in this coun were of good size, smooth skin, sound, and of good try, and why it has not been more generally used is quality, and yielded a fair crop, while of those on the beyond my comprehension. More than one hun- unsalted part of the field, although the soil was fully dred and fifty years ago, Sir Hugh Platt, an eminent equal to that of the salted portion, the yield was writer of the day, speaks very decidedly of the considerably less, potatoes small, and much eaten benefits which might be derived from the practice by worms. His neighbor had a field of potatoes of sprinkling, salt upon land, and calls it “the on the opposite side of the road, soil similar to his sweetest, and cheapest, and the most philosophical ma- own, who planted them in the usual way; the conterial of all others.” He relates the case of a man, sequence was, his crop was small in size, inferior in who in passing over a creek on the sea-shore, suf- quality, and most of them rotted soon after digging fered his sack of seed-corn to fall into the water, -they were diseased. and that it lay there until it was low tide, when, Doctor Bogart, who has charge of the Sailors

' being unable to purchase more seed, he sowed that Snug Harbor, on Staten Island, informed me that which had lain in the salt water, and when the har. he applied four bushels of salt to one acre of his vest time arrived, he reaped a crop far superior to potato ground, last spring, and thinks he derived any in the neighborhood. The writer adds, how- great benefit from it." Though the crop was not a ever, that it was supposed the corn (grain) would large one, the potatoes on the salted portion were not fructify in that manner, unless it actually fell of much better size, skin smooth, and free from dis, into the sea by chance ; and, therefore, neither this ease. The vines were more vigorous, remained man, nor any of his neighbors, ever ventured to green, while those on land of the same quality ad, make

any

further use of salt water! So much for joining, which was not salted, shrivelled and died superstition ! Ed.]

prematurely; the potatoes small and soggy, and That salt is an excellent manure, experience, the produced less. most satisfactory of all evidences, clearly proves. C. W. Johnson, a distinguished agricultural

of

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