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SOUTHERN CROPS AND CULTURE, NO. 2.
writer, strongly recommends salt as a manure, at think plowing in green oats or rye would be injuthe rate of from ten to twenty bushels to the acre, rious. I have done this to a greater or less extent to be sown two or three weeks before the seed is for several years, and I well remember of a ten put into the ground. He says the benefits are as acre patch of oats that I plowed in, in the month follows: “ 1st, when used in small portions it pro- of May, I think, and planted it forth with to corn. motes putrefaction. 2d, By destroying grubs and The land showed a marked advantage for several weeds. 3d, As a constituent on direct food. 4th, years, and but for this would have been, ere now, As a stimulant to the absorbent vessels. 5th, By worthless. I ask if our Mississippi farmers (plantpreventing injury from sudden transitions of tem- ers I should say) do not plow in every spring a perature. 6th, By keeping the soil moist.” good coat of green grass? I ask of those who
It would seem from all the facts I have been able have the chick-weed-called in these parts “ Jackto collect, that salt corrupts vegetable substances son purslain”-if they do not plow it in? I go when mixed in small quantities, but preserves them still farther, and contend if the turnip be sown on when it predominates in a mass; that, in dry sea- fields at the rate of 1-2 to 1 pint of seed per acre, sons, its effects are more apparent, and whether it and fed on the land to sheep and cattle, that the attracts moisture from the atmosphere, or whether land will not deteriorate. I am aware that a large it acts as a condiment or stimulant, is of little conse- majority of planters believe the turnip to be an exquence, so long as its effects are certain.
hauster, yet I cannot believe that it will prove so On account of the small quantity of salt, in if used as we use them in this country. The turweight, required for manuring lands, it is no incon- nip receives very largely of its growth from the siderable recommendation, because, on that account, air, being mostly composed of water, and not much it may with ease be conveyed to the most rough, over, though one-third is removed from the soil steep, and mountainous parts, to which the more scarcely what the root has gained from the air. bulky and heavy manures most in use could not be We never feed our turnip lots so close as to remove carried, but with infinite labor, and at an expense the half, and then bring feed on the land ; a portion far exceeding all the advantages to be effected is returned in the way of urine and dung. The from it.
residue is turned under before the seed-stalks have Salt alone is considered by some rather too se- bloomed, and does good certainly, by keeping the vere and harsh in its nature; but mixed with ashes, land porous, if nothing else. say six of salt and ten of dry ashes, well beat up to The cost of labor, with all these adjuvants, is gether, which is sufficient for an acre, and spread very trivial; the sowing down in time is all that is upon the furrow and harrowed in, one particle in- required. I have grown as good rye without the land corporates and mollifies the other, and if conveyed being plowed before as after, for that crop, as when into the earth by a soapy, smooth method, will the land was flushed and harrowed, rye not proprove the real enricher the earth wants, to send ducing over 12 to 15 bushels per acre at this place. forth vegetation.
C. N. BEMENT. In 1843 I sowed some 75 or more acres—this American Hotel, Albany, April, 1846.
year I sow over 30. I am anxious that this thing
should be prosecuted in the South, believing that a SOUTHERN CROPS AND CULTURE.—No. 2. little help now will save our children's children,
The main crop in this section is cotton, gene- their ancestral all a rich legacy. And why not rally; it takes up about two-thirds of the cultiva- work thus for our children, as well as to add table labor of the farm. I presume, as the leaf is workers ? If I can have my land entirely compelarge, thick, and hairy, the stalk also being hairy, tent to raise $40 per acre, will not my child be as that it must take from the air a larger proportion of well off as my neighbor, who leaves his child with its organized material than does our own corn, double the number of hands, and land not capable grain, or grass. As the leaves of all plants contain of producing over $20? The equality may not be a larger proportion of saline and earthy matter in one year apparent, but would be ere the close of than does the stalk, or even generally the fruit, the next generation. But when it is considered and as we return the leaves and stalk to the soil, that a plantation is under good hedges that will also, have I not some ground to suppose, if I last for a century, under a good system of drainage, return all my cotton seed, that I will keep up the and then in good heart, will not the advantage be fertility of the land, as it was at first—the peculiar immense? There are too few who will look at inorganic matter that forms the matter alone ex- the matter in its true light. They are fearfal of the cepted_and even then, there being so little taken labor, of the present cost, without looking to the away, that the top is somewhat recompensed by result. Every one who would reflect would know, occasional additions from accidental sources, If that land retaining water would remain cold much we judge of the leaf of the cotton plant by the longer than if it did not; let them place their hand willow, we would not lose very much by even re- in water and hold it up—the evaporation causes moving the cotton stalk. The willow contains coldness. Again, a vacuum will not exist; if the , 4 1-2 lbs. of saline and earthy matter, whereas land be full of water, air cannot penetrate it; but the leaves contain 82 lbs. to the 1,000—so says drain off the water, air will follow; if made light Johnston. But the advantage is not only returning the air will fill every interstice, and thus will roots of the salts--supply of organic food—but the stalks be furnished with more material for food. Yet tend to loosen the land, of course to render it even this is not all; when the food is too much lighter and less adhesive.
diluted with water, it is like feeding the horse with As to the turning under of corn-stalks, cotton- fodder--there is nutriment, but too dilutemit restalks, and pea vine, there is no planter in the quires too much aliment. South will object to it; but there are many who With all these important aids there is one thing
MANURES AND CULTIVATION.- FENCES.
that is all important-deep plowing: By the natu- rowed first ; wheat then sown and twice harrowed ; ral course of events the richness of the top soil is the first parcel, although plowed in to the depth of washed out, it sinks into the sub-soil ; lime sinks, five inches, was 24 inches high before the last ap: marl sinks, clay sinks, thus leaving the top soil peared above ground, although the whole field poor in lime, &c., and disposed to become poor and received the benefit of the following composition sticky. By deep plowing these are brought up, sown by hand, at an expense of two dollars per mixed, and the soil deepened ; in proportion to the acre, viz.; stable manure, dry charcoal dust, hick; mixing and fine tilth will the air have access, and ory wood soot, bone dust, oleaginous charcoal will the soil be rendered lighter and more open, dust, oyster-shell lime, decayed leaves, leached and of course permitting roots to ramify and extend ashes, unleached ashes, guano, sal soda, nitrate of in search of food; thus causing a retention and potash, fine salt, poudrette, horn shavings, refuse circulation of moisture, more rapidly cooling in the sugar, ammoniacal liquor, blood, sulphuric acid, night, and a greater deposit of dew, as well as magnesia, plaster from walls ground, decayed grass, earlier warmth in the spring.
decayed straw, decayed weeds, fish, refuse oil, I need not extend these remarks; your readers sea-weed, oxide of iron, and oxide of manganese. can find them elsewhere, and if they will examine, My object was to contribute to that growing crop they will be as equally convinced as I am of their every substance required for its growth. It is posutility.
sible that ten or twelve of the above named subNature herself parsues a rotation of crops. I stances might have produced the same effects. The have seen a waste field producing nothing save wheat raised by the experiment just detailed proþroom-sedge; in a few years it would be able to duced flour containing 18 per cent of gluten. bear a crop of short-leaved pine trees. These In 1843 I sowed thirty acres with prepared wheat, grow, drop their leaves, and after years of labor, and top-dressed
with charcoal dust. It grew fit the land to produce a crop of oaks. These grow rapidly, was not attacked by rust, nuildew, or with more or less vigor, and we are told that after blighi, when fields near it were almost destroyed. thriving for centuries, they sicken and die- A small portion of the lot, which had received by " its entire race dies out, and other races succeed accident a large supply of charcoal dust, produced it.” Let the hand of man, in imitating nature, at the rate of 781 bushels to the acre. I cut it when have a care lest it runs one crop to the death, and the straw presented a yellow appearance four inches unfits the land to produce aught save the ridge- above the ground. At that stage of its growth a grass; as barren fields amply testify all through milky substance could be expressed readily from the the south.
M. W. PHILIPS. kernels. It was allowed to remain three days in Edwards' Depôt, Miss.
the field, when it was carried to the barn, and
threshed immediately. It weighed nearly 64 lbs. MANURES AND CULTIVATION.
to the bushel, and sold by weight for 12} cents CONCLUSION of Mr. R. L. Pell's remarks at the above the market price. January meeting of the American Agricultural As A few acres were left standing, and cut three sociation, on manures and cultivation.
weeks after, when the farmers in the neighborhood On cultivation, Mr. P. said :--On the 9th of Octo- harvested their wheat. The grain was small
, ber, 1844, I cleared the tops from a dug potato field shrivelled, and weighed 56 lbs. only per bushel; -burnt them, and returned the ashes—with a view the straw had lost its most nutritious substances; of sowing wheat. The seed was then prepared was much lighter than that cut earlier, and consethus : soaked four hours in brine that would float quently less valuable. I believe that after the stem an egg; then scalded with boiling hot water mixed turned yellow near the ground, there being no conwith pearlash ; passed through a sieve; distributed nection between the root and tassel, the kernel thinly over the barn floor, and a dry composition wastes daily. By cutting early there is preserved sifted on it composed of the following substances : in the straw all its nutritive matter, and thus it is oyster-shell lime, charcoal dust, oleaginous char. rendered almost as valuable for fodder as hay. coal dust, ashes, Jersey marl, or blue sand, brown In conclusion, Mr. P. said that his processes sugar, salt, Peruvian guano, silicate of potash, ni- looked not only to results through science, but to trate of soda, and sulphate of ammonia. The sun economy in expenditure. was permitted to shine upon it for half an hour, when the particles crystallized upon the grain.
FENCES. In this state it was sown at the rate of two-and-a. WHEN you commenced your articles on fences, half bushels to the acre, directly on the unplowed early in the last volume, I hardly had sympathy potato ground, and immediately plowed in to the enough with you to read them attentively. I was depth of five inches, with a Scotch plow; har- not vexed (as it seems some of your readers were), I rowed once; a bushel of timothy seed sown to the rather ridiculed your notions, and passed them unacre, and harrowed twice. At the expiration of heeded. But now, having spent more than $150 fifteen days the wheat was so far above ground as the past summer, in enclosing my farm with a new to be in advance of some which had been sown on and stout fence, 'I confess I have considerably the 1st of September-thirty-nine days earlier, in changed my mind. the usual manner, without any preparation. Near I purchased a farm where the fences were mise. it I sowed wheat prepared, on turnip and carrot rably poor. It was said a crop had never been ground, the tops not having been removed, and harvested there without more or less injury from plowed whole in together with like success. unruly cattle. Indeed, the domestic animals all Still adjoining I sowed three bushels to the acre in about seemed to regard it as “ free plunder.” The a dry state, on potato ground; plowed and har.' first thing I did was to hire two men, and com.
mence enclosing the whole farm (wood lot and all) work was commenced in 1823, and was completed with a stout fence. It took us several months of in 5 or 6 years, at an expense of $75,000. hard labor, to the neglect of other needed improve The first public botanic garden in England was ments. It took also a good share of the valuable founded at Oxford in 1632, by Henry, Earl of timber from the whole lot. The fence is finished Danby, who gave, for this purpose, five acres of -the cattle keep their own side. This is some land, built green-houses and stoves, and handsomely satisfaction. But when I remember how much it endowed the establishment. The botanic garden at cost, in time, money, and timber, and remember, Kew was established in 1760 by the Princess too, that it is all to keep others' cattle out, not my Dowager of Wales, the mother of George III. The own in--that it is a direct and heavy tax to pro botanic garden of Edinburgh occupies 16 acres, and tect me from what ought never to be allowed--cattle includes extensive hot-houses and other desiderata, on the common, I repeat, I begin to have conside- in a superior style. rable sympathy with your anti-fence making arti The garden of the Emir Facardine, at Beyroot, is cles. I wish you great success in convincing the described by Maundrell as “ a large quadrangular farmers of the injustice of this whole matter. By spot of ground, divided into sixteen lesser squares, the time this fence decays, I hope there will be and planted with citron trees.” such a revolution as to make it needless (as it will The gardens of Damascus are described by be impossible for want of materials) to rebuild. If Egmont and Heyman as perfect paradises, being the Agriculturist shall effect such a change, it will watered with copious streams from Lebanon, and save millions to this people.
T. shaded with palms and elms, whose shade was ex. Ohio, January, 1846.
quisite in that burning climate.
The gardens of Persia are said to vie in beauty GARDENING.-No. 3.
and luxuriance with any in the world; and to them
the Persians devote their principal attention. When During the reign of Henry V. of England, in the be. Mirza Abul Hassan was ambassador to the court of ginning of the 15th century, King James of Scotland St. James', one of his greatest satisfactions arose was a prisoner in Windsor castle for several years. from occasionally walking, unattended, in Kensing. In the poem written at that time by that monarch, ton Gardens. The gardens of Kerim Khan are thus he gives the following account of a royal garden described in Morier's Journey to Persia. “ An there :
immense wall, of the neatest construction, encloses Now was there maide fast by the touris wall a square tract of land, which is laid out in walks, A garden faire, and in the corneris set
shaded by cypress and chenar, and watered by a Ane herbere greene, with wandis long and small variety of marble canals, and small artificial casPrailit about, and so with treeis set
cades. In the centre of the garden is one of the Was all the place, and hawthorn hedges knet,
principal summer houses. There is a basin in the That lyfe was non, walkyng there for bye That myght within scarce any wight espye.
middle of the chief room, where a fountain plays
continually, refreshing the air. The garden is now Hampton Court was laid out about the middle of (1812) falling into decay; but those who saw it in Henry the Eighth's reign (1530), by Cardinal Wol- the reign of Kerim Khan delight to describe its sey. The labyrinth, one of the best which remains splendor, and do not cease to give the most ravish. in England, occupies only a quarter of an acre, and ing pictures of the beauty of all the environs of his contains about half a mile of winding walks. It capital.” is of great intricacy.
One of the earliest accounts of Chinese gardens is Chatsworth, the splendid seat of the Duke of thus given by Père le Compte, who resided for some Devonshire, was laid out in 1670, from a design by years in that country as a missionary. . “ The the artist Le Nôtre.
Chinese appear still more to neglect their gardens Hopetown House is situated on the banks of the than their houses. They would consider it as a Frith of Forth, a few miles west of Edinburgh. want of sense to occupy their grounds only in par. Both on account of the elegance of the mansion terres, in cultivating flowers, and in forming alleys itself, and of the magnificence of the scenery with and thickets. The Chinese, who value order so which it is surrounded, it is considered one of the little in their gardens, still consider them as sources most princely residences in Scotland. The park of pleasure, and bestow some expense in their for. contains 1,700 acres, of an irregular surface, and mation. They form grottoes, raise little hills, pro. abounding in trees. The pleasure grounds were cure pieces of rocks, which they join together with laid out in the years 1725 to '30, and appear to have the intention of imitating nature. If they can, bebeen designed in the Dutch style. There is a cer- sides these things, find enough of water to water tain stateliness about the grounds which harmo- their cabbages and legumes, they consider, that as nizes well with the aspect of the mansion itself. to that material, they have nothing more to desire,
The greatest curiosity in gardening in Ireland, is and content themselves with a well or a pond.” the Hanging Garden of Limerick. This contains an Such was Chinese gardening anciently, but mark acre of ground, which is covered with lines of their improvement. In Dobell's Travels (vol. 2, p. arches rising in terraces one above another ; the 314), we find that the houses are surrounded by ex. lowest, 25 feet, and the highest, 40 feet. Over tensive and beautiful gardens, adorned with artificial these arches is placed a layer of earth, five feet lakes, rocks, cascades, buildings of various descrip. thick, and planted with choice fruit trees and tions, walks, bridges, &c. In the ornamenting and flowers. The space under the arches is employed beautifying of gardens the Chinese excel all othe as a cellar, and will hold nearly 2,000 hhds. This nations. By means of a variety of winding walks
they make a small place appear twice as large as it grounds. It is one of the finest in the country, and really is. Innumerable Hower-pots, containing will probably, before long, vie with the famous a great variety of beautiful asters, of which they English gardens of Sion House and White Knights. are very fond, are sometimes arranged in a laby Hawthorne Grove is a fine place, consisting of rinth. When the asters are in full bloom, the pots about fifteen acres, containing green and hotarranged handsomely, near a piece of water, and the houses, and other forcing pits. Monataquot, in the walks and alleys well lighted, at night, with va- vicinity of Braintree, is noted for its collection of riously colored lamps, a Chinese garden has the ap- fine fruits. Brighton Nurseries are situated about pearance of one of those enchanted places we read four miles from Boston. The collection of herbaof in the Arabian tales."
ceous plants, ornamental shrubs, forest, and fruit The country houses and gardens of the Pacha, trees, is one of the best in New England. and most of the rich inhabitants of Grand Cairo, are The garden of Mr. Tudor, in the vicinity of situated at Boulak. They are said to be well Hartford, is neatly laid out in flower beds, and a stocked with date and other palm trees, and with green, and has one of the best collections of hardy, the grape and some other vegetables.
herbaceous and choice green-house plants, any. of the state of horticultural science in the North where to be seen. of Africa, some idea may be formed from the fol In and around Providence, R. I., there are many lowing extract, given by Beechey, from a Moorish fine gardens and country residences. The principal horticultural work. When a palın tree refuses nursery is Dier's, about four miles from the city, to bear,” says the Moorish author, “ the owner, and contains many select varieties of fruit and armed with a hatchet, comes to visit it in company other trees. with another person. He begins, by observing The only botanical garden of any extent in New aloud to his friend, in order that the date tree may England, is situated at Cambridge, and is connected hear him, I am going to cut down this worthless with the University at that place. It was comtree, since it no longer bears me any fruit.' • Have menced in 1802, by subscription, but it afterwards a care what you do, replies his companion, for I received aid from the State ; and, in commenting on predict that, this very year, your tree will be cov- this fact, the New York Farmer makes use of the ered with dates.' • No, no, cries the owner, I am following language ——“Of a very enlightened legisdetermined to cut it down; for I am certain it will lature, who, not mistaking false maxims of economy produce me nothing; and then, approaching the for true ones, saw, in the destruction of a great tree, he proceeds to give it two or three strokes public work, great loss ; deeming that the riches with the hatchet. The friend again interferes, and and prosperity of a state are as much promoted, to begs him to try one more season ; adding, that if it say nothing of its reputation, by wise and generous does not bear then, he will let him do as he pleases. establishments for the promotion of knowledge, as The owner at length suffers himself to be persuad- by any financial measures." ed, and retires without proceeding to further extre In the neighborbood of the city of New York are mities. The threat, however, and the few strokes many fine gardens and residences. The nursery inflicted with the hatchet, have always the desired and green-houses of Mr. Hogg are worthy the imieffect; and the terrified palm tree never fails to pro- tation of every gardener in the United States, on duce, the same year, an abundant crop of dates.” account of their neat and orderly appearance.
The Isle of Bourbon contains a botanic garden, The seat of N. Prime, Esq., is noted for containing which has been richly endowed by the French one of the finest ranges of forcing houses in the kings; and contains, besides the productions of the vicinity of the city. Messrs. Shaw & Thorburn, island, a splendid collection of African and Asiatic | have a nursery and green-houses at Astoria, conplants. It is situated on a rising ground, in the taining about twenty acres, rich in trees and middle of the town, and occupies fourteen acres. plants. The well known and extensive nurseries
The gardening of North America is necessarily and green-houses at Flushing, L. I., are among the that of Europe, so far as soil and climate will per- oldest and most extensive in this country. West mit, and, as is the case of other arts in any new Farms is situated about 4 miles from Harlem. The country, the useful departments are more generally grounds, which are laid out in a fine, open manner, attended to than the ornamental.
may be considered of the first order. Long avenues “ Horticulture in the United States, it will readily of flower-borders and walks, with a good proportion be perceived, has had to contend with many obsta- of lawn, together with summer-houses, seats, and cles. Separated from the old world by a wide the like, very appropriately arranged, render it a ocean, it was for a long time with difficulty that delightful summer residence. The establishment of any of the rarer and finer vegetable productions of Judge Buel, at Albany, and the nursery of A. J. the eastern continent, could be brought out by emi- Downing at Newburgh, are fine places, and worthy grants. Whatever has been done has been effected the attention of all lovers of horticulture. by private means, and to gratify private taste. The most distinguished garden in the neighborThis, however, at the present time, is so much as to hood of Philadelphia is that now owned by Mr. afford cause of the highest gratification, and gives Carr. It was established in the early part of the reason to hope for the fulfilment of every reasonable last century, and is the second in age in the United anticipation for the future.” (Downing.)
States. Here was collected together, by the celeBelmont Place, at Watertown, in the vicinity of brated naturalist, John Bartram the elder, nearly Boston, is a beautiful residence, and was formerly all the indigenous plants and trees of North Ameknown as the · Preble Place. It is in an excellent rica, the superb specimens of which, at this day, situation, containing about one hundred acres of stand unrivalled in any part of the country. land, consisting of a lawn, gardens, and pleasure i Messrs. Landreth's nurseries are situated about two
PLANTING A VARIETY OF CROPS.-ANALYSIS OF CLOVER AND ITS MANAGEMENT.
miles from the city, and contain about forty acres tered; while those who sowed corn and millet for of land; part of which is devoted to the raising of fodder, have wintered their stock as easily as usual. garden seeds.
This is only an illustration. The principle extends Extensive gardens and nurseries may now be to the whole circle of tillable crops. If one or two found at Baltimore.
alone are cultivated, there may be an entire failure, Mount Vernon, on the Potomac, was the seat of causing much suffering and much loss. If a variety, Gen. Washington, “first in peace, first in war, and some will always succeed, and these may be substifirst in the hearts of his countrymen.” The extent tuted for the rest. of this place is about ten thousand acres, much of Besides, the times for planting, and harvesting which is yet covereil with forest.
the different kinds occur, the one after the other, so Monticello was the residence of President Jeffer- as to divide the labor through the season. Thus, son. It is situated on the summit of an eminence, spring wheat and oats should be sown early; corn commanding extensive prospects on all sides. planted after the danger of frosts is over; corn for
“ At Charleston, the houses of the suburbs are, fodder and millet later still. And these and for the most part, surrounded by gardens, in which others) all have their different seasons for harvest, orange trees with most splendid ripe fruit, monthly each in its time. Whereas, when one crop is the roses in full bloom, and a variety of other very main one, there is one season of great hurry in flourishing plants, display themselves.”
sceding, and another in harvest; teams and men “ At Cincinnati, there is a public garden, where have to be driven to excess then, and be comparathe people go to eat ices and look at roses. For tively idle the rest of the time. This surely is not the preservation of the flowers, there is placed at wise. I recommend, then, that farmers add the end of one of the walks, a sign-post, represent- greatly to the variety of the crops they annually ing a Swiss peasant girl holding in her hand a scroll, cultivate, and“ give each its portion in due season.” requesting that the flowers might not be gathered.”
Ohio, March, 1846.
T. At New Orleans are beautiful gardens, both public and private, filled with tropical and other ANALYSIS OF CLOVER AND ITS MANAGE
MENT. choice flowers and plants. A conventual garden at Mexico is described by Horsford, of Albany, now with_Prof. Liebig, at
The following article was addressed by Mr. Humboldt, as one of the finest he had ever seen. In Giessen, in Germany, to Mr. T. W. Olcott
, of the garden, were immense groves of orange trees, Albany, and read at one of the agricultural meetpeaches, apples, cherries, and other fruit trees of ings at the capitol in that city during last month. Europe. The botanic garden of Rio is situated
Giessen, January, 1846. about 8 miles from the town. The tea shrub of China, first introduced into this garden, has begun chemical labor was going forward, I made an ash
In the progress of the last term, while other to be cultivated in the interior of the country.
analysis of red clover, and accompanied it with an “ The botanic garden of Jamaica, West Indies, investigation, which I record below. was originally begun by Hinton East, Esq., and To the latter I attach in its isolation no special afterwards bought by government and enlarged, so value; inasmuch as the circumstances in which it as to contain about 70 acres. One of the objects of was conducted deprive it of perfect scientific exactits establishment was to preserve, without artificial ness. I make it the basis, as you will observe, of means, the productions of various climates. Such explaining one or two chemical processes. a project could only be executed in a tropical lati
It is well known that the juice of clover-heads tude, whe the various elevations of the ground contains more or less sugar. 'The nectaries of the would regulate the required temperature.”
fully developed head are especially rich in a honeyL. T. TALBOT.
like liquid, which bees gather. In cutting the clo
ver when the heads are fully formed, but not ripe, PLANTING A VARIETY OF CROPS.
the sugar of this honey will be secured. The SOMETIMES, farmers devote most of their tillable water will evaporate, leaving the sweetness with soil for, and expend most of their time upon, one or the vegetable fibre and other organic matters, to two main crops. Thus, some men depend mainly be fed to stock. If the clover be cut before the upon the wheat crop—others upon grass, and the heads begin to develope, the sugar, if formed, southern planter upon cotton. Now, it often hap- must be in the stems and leaves ; if not cut until pens that an unfavorable season destroys particular the seeds are ripened, the sugar may have accomcrops, and thus often a whole year is lost
, where plished one of its supposed ends--that of keeping one crop (or two) receives the farmer's sole atten- up a higher temperature within the seed for the tion Last year, for example, in this section, elaboration of its various parts, and thereby have wheat was very nearly destroyed, hay entirely, and been destroyed. fruit and some other crops were very light. On It was my purpose to ascertain how much suthe other hand corn was never better. Buckwheat, gar, or rather the relative amounts of sugar, there millet, flax, and vines, generally produced well. might be at the above named three stages of the Potatoes yielded well, but were injured by the dis development of clover. Experiments with the first ease aster gathering.
two kinds were made. The clover crop being noNow the object of this note is to recommend to where permitted to ripen, I was unable to submit farmers to plant a greater variety of seeds, so that the inquiry concerning the third to the test of expewhen one fails, others will supply their places. riment. I cut clover exactly at the surface of the Those who hail only grass lan:I last year had to ground, on the 16th day of June, just as the tufts nearly give away their cattle, or drive them at a of leaflets enclosing the heads were discernible. great expense to another part of the state to be win-These I chopped to fineness, and placed a weighed