Page images
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]


ANALYSIS OF CLOVER AND ITS MANAGEMENT. portion in a flask, connected through the medium adds wine, or whiskey, or cider, or maple sap, or of a chloride of calcium tube, with a Liebig's pot. molasses. All these contain sugar or alcohol. The ash apparatus ; having previously thoroughly sugar is resolved into alcohol and carbonic acid. mixed with the clover a small quantity of fresh, The alcohol, however, does not continue as such, carefully-washed beer yeast, and covered the if the liquid be exposed to the action of the air, whole with water. Fermentation went briskly for- but goes into vinegar or acetic acid. ward for several days.

Decompositions have been so much and closely On the 1st of July, when the heads were fully studied, that the results are perfectly understood. developed, I cut another portion, and having finely The causes of the decomposition are still matters of chopped, weighed and mixed with it yeast and discussion. water, connected all with another potash appara The carbonic acid, to whose addition the increase tus, as in the other case.

in weight of the potash apparatus is to be attriWithout or beyond both the potash tubes, were buted, indicates a certain amount of sugar from tubes of hydrate of lime, to prevent the absorption which it was derived. The larger per cent. of carof carbonic acid from the air.

bonic acid in one case corresponds to a larger per On the 30th of July, the fermentation being cent. of sugar in the clover. quite done, the potash apparatus of the last men I add the analysis of the ashes of the clover. tioned [quantity of clover) had increased in weight From it may be seen one of the parts sulphate of by 1.15 per cent of the whole weight of clover lime (plaster of Paris) plays in the developement of subjected to fermentation. The first mentioned had clover. increased only by 0.80 per cent. Thus the amount Franklin, anxious to convince our countrymen of carbonic acid, evolved from the mass last cut, of the efficiency of plaster (sulphate of lime) ma. was almost half as much again as that from the nure, strewed a few handfuls of it in the form of quantity first cut.

large letters upon a clover field. In a few weeks It may be well, since I have introduced so many the plants that had received it had so far out-grown, expressions betraying the laboratory, that I en- and had taken on a color so much deeper and richer

deavor to explain the mode by which I hoped to than the others around, that the wonder of passersascertain the amounts of sugar in the two kinds by was naturally excited. of hay.

Of the whole plant, in its green state, the earthy Most persons are familiar with the fact that dis- ingredients or inorganic constituents tillers ferment large quantities of grain to obtain Equal

1.83 per cent alcohol. The process to which the grain is sub Of the leaves,

1.75 jected, effects a decomposition of the sugar of the

Of the stems,

1.40 grain, into carbonic acid and alcohol.

The water in the green clover, determined by two The sugar susceptible of this decomposition is experiments, was 83.55, and 83.58 per cent. grape-sugar—that to which the sweetness of apples of the dry plant altogether, the ashes is due, and which is manufactured in enormous Were

11.18 per cent. quantities on the continent of Europe from the Of the leaves,

10.69 starch of potatoes. Its composition, when dried at

Of the ems,

8.52 2129 from analysis, is Carbon, 12 atoms; Hydrogen,

Ingredients of the Ashes. 12 atoms; Oxygen, 12 atoms; or, in the language of


12.164 (potash)

16.101 chemistry, C12 H12 012. If we take from this

Na (sodium) 1.414 1.874 4 atoms of carbon, and 8 atoms of oxygen, there

Na o (soda) 30.757 40.712 will remain C8 H12 04 thus :

Са0 (lime) 16.556 21.914 C12 H.12 012

Mg0 (magnesia) 6.262 8.289 C4 08

POS, 2Fe203,

0.506 0.670 Equal to 2 atoms (phosphate of iron) C8 H12 04

of alcohol,

Ci (chlorine) 2.159 2.856 the composition of alcohol being C4H602.

P05 (phosphoric acid) 2.957 3.915

S03 The alcohol becomes the high wines ; the carbonic

(sulphuric acid) 0.801 1.003 Si

(silica) 1.968 2.605 acid floats over the fermenting-tubs and escapes.

CO2 (carbonic acid) 22.930 Thenard has shown, by distilling and collecting Sand and coal,

1.244 100.000 the alcohol, and weighing the carbonic acid arising from the decomposition of a given weight of sugar,

99.718 that the weight of the sugar and the sum of the Loss or waste,

0.282 weights of the alcohol and carbonic acid equal each other.

100.000 The alcohol may be permitted to go directly into The sand was probably spattered upon the stalks acetic acid, as takes place with fruit, when ex. by rain, and some coal remained after the most posed to air, or continued as alcohol by excluding careful and long-continued burning. the air.

The first column of figures contains the direct Vinegar has the following composition: C4 results of the analysis in per cent. The second H303. In order to its formation from alcohol, column the results deducting the carbonic acid, and three atoms of hydrogen must be taken away, and coal, and sand. one atom of oxygen added. This takes place By the analysis we see how large a part is made quietly and slowly in cider and beer casks, as well up of potash, soda, and lime. Sulphuric acid is as vinegar barrels, with which all are familiar. there; without its presence in the soil it could The housewife, to keep the vinegar on the increase,' never have been among the tissues of the clover.

[ocr errors]
[blocks in formation]


If it be an essential irreplaceable ingredient, as phos-! There are pots of wheat in different stages of their phoric acid is in the seeds of wheat and corn, it is growth, that have been fed variously-some upon readily seen how Franklin's selection of clover the inorganic matters they require, according to may have been peculiarly happy. I do not pretend analysis of their ashes-others have had merely to say that it is indispensable. A series of experi- the food which is furnished by the soil. The rements only could settle such a question.

sults in numbers are not yet known, but from apThe large proportion of carbonic acid is particu-pearance we may readily judge what may be larly worthy of attention. Comparing it with the expected. sum of all the other acids--the phosphoric, sulphu I


mention in this connection, that I gave to ric, silic, and hydrochloric (of which the chlorine Prof. Liebig five varieties of American corn, all of is given)—we see how far it exceeds them. Again, which were planted, but not one of which came to looking at the per cent of bases, we see how very maturity, though the first frost in Giessen was large the proportion when compared with the sum about the 20th of October. The climate is essenof the inorganic acids. This surplus of base was tially different from ours. The heat of our summer most of it united to organic acids. These, in the is more intense. burning of the plant, have been destroyed. Their The experiments of Prof. Liebig, mentioned place has been wholly, or for the most part, taken above, are full of interest, not alone as sustaining by carbonic acid. Here is nearly 23 per cent. of the views he has advanced, but also as showing carbonic acid. In an analysis of the ashes of that the treasures in the shape of inorganic masugar cane inade at Giessen last summer, there was nures, heaped up in some quarters of the globe, not a trace of carbonic acid. Such is the differ- may be made to equalize the fruits of labor in other In the sugar cane the per centage of silica regions.

E. N. HORSFORD. was large. Timothy grass ashes gave also no carbonic acid, but a large per cent. of silica. (a) The discussion between Dumas and Liebig,

The moisture of green clover amounts to 83.55 relative to the formation of fat from sugar, has been per cent., and the clover contained sugar, a body settled in favor of the latter, by a repetition on the capable of fermentation. What hints do these part of Dumas, of experiments made several years facts furnish to the farmer! If the clover be taken since by Liebig. to the mow with this quantity of water, the water will furnish the means of that intestine motion

ROCKY MOUNTAIN SHEEP. among the constituents of the plant held in solution

I am a wool-grower in the State of Ohio, and in the fibres of the stems and leaves, which is ne- being a great admirer of sheep, I have been very cessary to fermentation ; and not only will the desirous of ascertaining whether there are not modi. sugar be lost, but vinegar will be formed, souring fications of the American Argali, or the Rocky the whole mass, and rendering it unpalatable to Mountain sheep, to be found among the native stock. If it be properly dried, the sugar as such tribes of Indians, inhabiting the country bordering will remain in the vegetable fibre, and go to nourish on that range. Capt. De Bonneville, and other the stock, furnishing to horses, cattle, and sheep, travellers, speak of the Argali as being found in an element whose combustion serves to keep them great abundance from the 50th degree of north warm and furnish fat. (a)

latitude, down to California; and though their meat But again

is said to be very tender and good, as they mostly The leaves contain 10.69 per cent. of ashes. frequent the lofty summits, inaccessible to man, The stems contain 8.52

they in a great measure escape the vigilance of the Now as the inorganic matters are more or less ser- hunters, and must be very numerous. In this effort viceable in the animal economy, the leaves, contain. I have been unable to discover any sheep among ing most of them, should be carefully preserved; the tribes, which were not originally taken from and as the ashes of the whole plant, including the east of the Mississippi river, except in one case, head, have 11.18 per cent. of ashes, it is clear that and that a very interesting one. This tribe is the preservation of the heads and leaves is deci- called the Navahoe, and live about 300 miles north dedly more important than the stems. Hence the by west from Santa Fé. They inhabit what is farmer cuts the clover, and instead of drying it in called a gorge, in the Rocky Mountains, into the sun, cocks it for a few hours, so that the vapor which there is but one narrow winding passage, evolved from within, in the process of drying, shall which they defend from intrusion with the utmost keep the stalks and leaves without from becoming bravery ; and having been really independent, they too suddenly dried and unnecessarily brittle. appear to have made more effort to add to their

In closing, I will state one of the results to which comforts than the other tribes around them. No the experiments of Prof. Liebig are daily leading. white man has ever visited their residence, and In the spring preceding my arrival at Giessen, it is said no Indians, except fur traders of the DelaLiebig planted some grape scions under the win-ware tribe, who are a very daring and enterprising dows of the laboratory. He fed them with the race of people. These traders describe their ashes of grape vines, or the proper inorganic food houses—that they raise a great many sheep and of the grape, as shown by analysis of its ashes. cattle—have a large quantity of arable land, and The growth has been enormous, and several of the cultivate it-have some knowledge of the arts, vines bore large clusters of grapes in the course of which they discover by the blankets which they the season, and all may have, as I did not particular- make and sell in the market of Santa Fé. ly observe them until the grapes were gathered. The These blankets are made from very superior soil is little better than a pavement-a kind of fine kind of wool, which they raise. It is said by those gravel, in which scarcely anything takes root. who have seen them, to be very fine, soft, and

[blocks in formation]

silky to the touch, and sell in that market from dress in buckskin breeches and shirts, which are $25 to $100. I have not been able to get any idea beautifully ornamented and fringed. The blankets of the form of the sheep, their domestic habits, or they make are worn constantly thrown over the the quantity of wool which they produce. But as shoulders. For a more particular description see these Delaware traders say they have a great many account I have given of them in Farnham's Cali. of them, and as they probably are dependent on fornia, part 4th, pages 372–3–4. their fleeces for their clothing, it may be pretty The sample of wool you sent me looks very certain that they are well domesticated.

much like the New Mexican lamb’s wool [from I have seen one man who has conversed with Mr. Watson, see current volume, page 110.-Ed.] one of those traders upon the subject.

-or like the under fleece of the sheep, which lies Is not this race of sheep worth an effort of the close to the skin, and is covered by the long part of wool-growers of the United States to possess ? I the fleece. The fleece of the New Mexican sheep have been long thinking that we have been very is long, coarse, and heavy, like mohair. The Na. remiss in our efforts to introduce the Alpaca ; but I bajo sheep of course is the same, being the same am much gratified in reading to-day in a newspa- kind of animal

. What this fleece was when first per, that the American Agricultural Association imported by the conquerors of Mexico, I do not are now determined on importing 300 of that valu- know, but probably much finer than now. able animal. Success to the enterprise. It will be You call the above sample “ Rocky Mountain a great individual and national benefit.

wool ;" it is so, inasmuch as the “Rocky MounCincinnati, Feb. 20, 1846. NATH. SAWYER. tains ” run into New Mexico, where the sheep

which produce it are found ; but you leave me to We sent the above letter for an answer, to Dr. infer that it is the product of the “ Rocky MounLyman, who has travelled extensively in New tain sheep,” or American Argali, which is entirely Mexico, among the Rocky Mountains, and in Cali- destitute of wool. Its covering is of precisely the fornia. The following is his reply:

same character with that of the elk, deer, and ante. Northampton, Mass., March 6, 1846.

lope of this country. It has coarse hair, like bris. I will endeavor to answer, in as brief a manner as tles; any one who has seen a deer will understand possible, the interrogatories of your correspond-me, The only close resemblance of the animal to ent. There are no modifications of the Argali, or a sheep is in the flavor of its meat, which is pre"Rocky Mountain sheep,” among any of the Indian cisely like that of Southdown mutton-juicy, tentribes of the mountains, nor are there any kind of der, and luscious. In shape, it has some resemsheep among them, with the single exception of the blance to a Merino ram, but is much larger, say Nabajo Indians, living due west of Santa Fé, and about three feet high, and four feet long. Their about 100 miles from that place.

horns are remarkable for size and weight, averag. The Nabajos raise very large flocks of sheep, ing some 40 to 50 lbs.; five inches in diameter but they are of the genuine Spanish breed intro- where they leave the head, and about three feet duced by the early conquerors. It is not fifty long, gradually tapering to the end, they curl like years since these Indians were entirely destitute of a ram's horns, but make three or more entire revoevery description of stock, excepting a few wild lutions. The only difference between its skin and horses which they caught out of the wild droves that of a deer is, that it is rather finer and softer; of the country as they needed them. In the time but it is used by the trappers and Indians for the of the Viceroys, they were nomadic in character,

same purpose
of dress.

J. H. LYMAN. like the other Indians of the mountains at present; but since this the character of the New Mexi

Mr. Sawyer will find an engraving and descripcans has so much deteriorated in every respect, that tion of a male and female Argall, or Argali, at the Nabajos, naturally enterprising, have discovered page 128, Vol. 2, of Godman's American Natural their own superiority, and consequently have made History, third edition, published by Messrs. Uriah free with the property of the Mexicans. The Hunt & Son, Philadelphia. These figures closely stock they now have is derived from what they the head and other points, and their horns are like

resemble deer, except they are greatly coarser in obtained in their frequent marauding expeditions into the valley of the Rio del Norte. In fact they those of Merino sheep, saving that they are very have so thoroughly drained the Mexicans, that they Argoli was a cross between a huge, coarse Merino

much larger. One might almost think that the have left them almost entirely destitute of every kind of stock, except vermin and mongrel dogs-a ram, and a female elk. Stuffed specimens of the tew noble shepherd dogs still remain; while the Argali can be seen in our Museums. Nabajos have become enterprising and energetic farmers, and capital stock-breeders--rich in sheep,

CULTURE OF LATE POTATOES mules, horses, and horned cattle. Some of the horses THERE being a desire among farmers to obtain they breed are not surpassed by any on the conti- information on the different modes of cultivating nent. Their farming implements consist of a plow the potato, with a view to escape the rot, I have made of two sticks, tied together where they cross. concluded to throw my mite into the collection of These are drawn by oxen. A hoe of wood--a fork experiments. A great yield was no part of the of wood also. The ground they cultivate is a object. Having been unable to obtain potatoes of light alluvial soil, easily broken, and annually a good quality, I determined last spring to make an flooded by the swollen streams of spring. They effort, not only to grow them free from the rot, but raise maize, beans, peas, onions, and pumpkins. to get an excellent quality. They have an abundance of poultry also. They! Early in April I chose a small piece of ground,




my cheese.

one-third of an acre only, rather a strong loam,

MAKING CHEESE. with an easterly slope, from a field that had carried

Two years ago I was unacquainted with the a corn crop two years in succession, and was more-practical part of cheese-making, and in order to over pretty well worn down by previous hard crop- hold on to the knowledge gained by experience, I ping, with but scanty manuring.

commenced entering in a book the heat of the milk, When the corn stumps were harrowed down, and the heat of the air at the time the runnet was three bushels of bone-dust were sown over it, then put in ; each cheese was numbered, and any other plowed and harrowed again. Early in June, two remarks made which might be called forth by cirwaggon loads of dirt from the wood-pile ground cumstances during the process, or until cheese was were spread on it, and the piece was divided into safely deposited on the shelf. On referring to my three equal parts, each, of course, one-third of an book' for the past season, I find that all the cheeses

On the first division was spread unleached from No. 76 to 106 (at which number we quit wood ashes, at the rate of 50 bushels to the acre. making), were of an excellent and pretty uniform On the second, lime rubbish (old house wall) at the quality. The variation of the atmosphere was rate of 250 bushels to the acre; on the third, coal from 60 to 90 degrees--the heat of the milk from ashes at the rate of 60 bushels to the acre. A 83 to 90, when the runnet was added, but mostly short time after, it was plowed and harrowed 85 or 86. I also find by referring to my book, that smooth, and planted with mercer potatoes (from the cheeses from No. 1 to 75 were made from down east), cut rather small, on the 18th of June, milk coagulated at a greater degree of heat, somein rows three and a half feet asunder, and eighteen times even as high as 96. The weather was inches a part in the rows.

mostly hot during the time these cheeses were The weather continuing very dry, after the mid-made. They were not, however, of uniform good dle of July, the first and only hoeing, a thorough quality, some heaved up and became like loaves of one was given without plowing between the rows. bread in shape, others cracked, making excellent · The vines did not grow large, but during the dryest harbor for flies and other insects, and one or two weather looked green and healthy.

landed in the hog-trough, not, however, from Before digging (which was on the 17th Oct.) ! poverty, for richness seemed to be rather a fault of took up half a peck from each division, that I might be able to test the different qualities, if any, The only material difference between the cheeses produced by the three last applications. The result made after' No. 76, and those made before it, is, the was, the coal ashes gave one per cent, more than different heat of the milk when the runnet was the lime rubbish, and the wood ashes two per cent, added. During the time our cheeses were good, above the coal ashes. The quantity was only at our process was as follows: The milk 85 degrees the rate of 120 bushels per acre. No difference in -a small handful of salt to be added to every 10 quality could be discovered; but they were alto-or 12 gallons of milk. Let the runnet be strong gether the best of the kind I have ever grown. enough to do its office in one hour, then cut the Not a potato was affected by the rot, and not one curd into squares with a long knife reaching to the was found hollow in the centre--a consequence bottom of the tub-spread a clean strainer over it, unexpected, as heretofore my large mercers have through which in ten minutes begin carefully to very generally been unsound.

ARCH'D JAYNE. dip off the whey, by gently forcing down a bowl Setauket, March 2, 1846.

or tin pan-heat some of the whey first dipped off,

when the curd has become somewhat compact, pour We should be pleased to learn from our corres- in some whey at such heat as will make the mass pondent what kind of soil it was on which he in the tub go degrees, after the curd has been planted his potatoes, as coal ashes have been ap- coarsely broken by the hand to allow the warm plied by several of our friends to the light gravelly whey to mix with it. At this stage of the process, and sandy soils of Long Island without effect. wait five to ten minutes, then commence dipping off But on clayey soils, as detailed pages 55 and 107 of the whey, and get the curd pretty dry as soon as our current Vol., it seems that they were productive possible-take it out in handfuls and put it in a of considerable benefit.

strainer and vat, and put it under a screw-press for

about fifteen minutes, pressing very gently at first, STEEPING SEEDS.—The agricultural papers, from but with considerable force before the expiration time to time, recommend the steeping seeds before of the fifteen minutes, when it should be taken out planting, to facilitate their germination. This is and broken up till there are no pieces of curd always well when the ground in which they are larger than a kernel of corn. This should be done planted is sufficiently moist. But when the ground as quickly as possible, and in a warm place if the is so dry (as is sometimes the case) as to extract the day is cool; if this is not attended to, the particles moisture from the steeped seed, it delays germina- of curd may not unite well, and the cheese might tion, if, indeed, it does not kill the seed. During be unsound. the drought of last year, dry seeds generally sprouted While the curd is in the fine state, a portion of sooner than soaked ones, and in some cases the salt, to the taste of the maker or his customers, may latter dried and died in the ground. Hence the be added and mixed well with it; or the salting above caution (a).

T. may be done after the cheese is finished pressing, Ohio, March, 1846.

by keeping it twenty-four hours or longer in a tub,

rubbing it frequently with salt, and turning it over, (a) When it is very dry seeds should be planted taking care to pour off the brine daily. We have deeper than ordinary; they will thus be in the re- practised both ihese methods of salting with sucgion of moisture, and pretty sure to generate. cess (our cheeses are about 12 lbs.), but I prefer



the latter method, though the first mentioned does has pretty much done dropping, turn it and put it not give one-tenth of the trouble. Gentle pressure in a dry cloth, and repeat this once or twice, or only should be applied when the cheese is first put more if you choose, before the expiration of twen. to press, and here I think the advantage of the ty-four hours, when the cheese may be taken out screw-press is apparent. With it, a pressure of of the press wholly to make room for its succesfrom 1 to 1,000 lbs., as the state of the cheese may sor.

A SUBSCRIBER. require, in an hour or two, or when the cheese Auburn, February, 1846.

[ocr errors]

The grate

IMPROVED EAGLE COTTON GIN. Description.-a, driving brush pulley; b, slide ; c, ç, end boards ; d, cylinder pul. ley; e, top board ; f, saws; g, grate fall; h, seed board, with a section of the patent grate below it; i, idler pulley.

After carefully unpacking the different parts of the Gin, put the front pieces into the posts and fasten them securely with the joint-bolts.

The Saw Cylinder should be first placed in the frame, then the piece having the false grates upon it, and then the brush. The top timbers may then be put on and fastened. See that all parts of the frame are square.

fall should then be hung in its place, and the top boards and slides fitted in, so that the marks on their ends will correspond with those on the

FIG. 43 timbers. Then adjust the saw cylinder and false in a proper position to separate the motes from the grates with the tempering screws at the ends, so clean cotton, as well as to adjust the seed-board, so that the saws and grates will exactly correspond, that the seeds will be discharged as fast as ginned; taking care not to turn the screws any farther than and it is essential that the speed of the brush is sufficient to keep them steady and in their places. should be very rapid, and that all the axes should See that all joints of the frame are screwed up be kept oiled and prevented from heating.

it each, to stand, and fasten it securely to the floor or plat- $50 00 to $60 00. Power Gins, with 30 to 100 form, so that it will stand perfectly level. See

saws each, $3 40 to $3 70 per saw. that the shafts turn freely on their axes, and that the saws run freely in the centre of the spaces be

BENEFIT OF GUANO. tween the grates. The oil cups at the axes of the shafts should be thing on the score of Peruvian guano, I will give

As it may be for the public utility to hear somenearly filled with oil when the Gin is started, and the wick which conveys the oil to the axes should you my experience on the subject.

Last year I used about three and a half tons of be enlarged or diminished, until the proper quantity it in various ways, during the spring and summer, is supplied to prevent friction. The tube contain, and must say I think it the cheapest and most ing the wick should be withdrawn when the Gin effective manure I have ever tried, particularly as a is stopped, and dropped into the cup to prevent top-dressing for grass lands. The way I prepare wasting the oil, and replaced when the Gin is again the guano for use is this: I plow a knoll of loamy put in operation. The saw cylinder and the piece having the false the ground to make it fine, then spread a layer of

soil, remove all the sods to the barn-yard, harrow grates upon it, may be moved endwise and adjusted guano half an inch thick, then shovel on fine dirt by the screws at their ends.

five inches thick, then a layer of guano as before, Place the mote-board 3 to 5 inches below the then five inches of dirt again in alternate layers, till brush, slanting down toward the front part of the I get the quantity desired. This must lie a week or Gin, and extend another board from beneath it down ten days in compost, to incorporate the guano with to the floor ; it must then be moved either forward the soil; it must then be shovelled over, and all the or back, and the slant of it varied until the motes lumps broken and well mixed; you can then put it and false seeds are separated from the seed cotton in your cart and spread it from the tail of the cart and fall under the saw cylinder.

about as thick as you would ashes. I put on at The seed-board may be raised or lowered by the rate of 500 lbs. Peruvian guano to an acre, means of the small bolts on which it rests at the which started my grass right ahead, yielding two ends, and it may be varied so as to enlarge or di- tons per acre, where I should not have had over 500 minish the space containing the seed cotton.

lbs. of hay without it. A 10 inch saw cylinder should run about 180 revolutions per minute. A 12 inch do. should run guano, turning out astonishingly, the observed

My potatoes benefited greatly by the use of about 160 do. A 13 inch do. should run about of all observers;"

and I believe it to be a cure for 150 do. Great care should be taken to fix the mote-board was applied. Applied to corn I found it equally

the potato disease, as we had no rot where guano

« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »