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ADVERTISEMENTS.-CONTENTS.

By C

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THE AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST.
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CONTENTS OF MAY NUMBER.
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To Correspondents; Jerusalem Artichoke ;
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Culture of Cabbages

}

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138 enlarged. Price $2.

Co.

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Manure...
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152 Bees, Pigeons, Rabbits, and the Canary Bird, familiarly de- Benefit of Guano, J. W. Bowers scribed. Price 37] cents.

.. 153

Sorting Wool, American Shepherd.
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154 Management of Domestic Poultry Price 374 cents.

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} 155 Management, Improvement, &c., by A. Blacklock. Price 50 cents. Diseases of Animals

and Sheep Husbandry, A. Stone The Potato Disease, Wm. Partridge...

157 The Theory of Horticulture; or, an attempt to explain the

158 by J. Lindley. Price $1.25.

To destroy the Bee Moth Gardening for Ladies, and Companion to the Flower Garden, A Review

of the March No. of the Agriculturist, Reviewer... 159

160 by Mrs. Loudon. Price 81.50.

To keep Fresh Meat in Summer, Q. E. D.... American Husbandry. Price $1.

LADIES' DEPARTMENT: To the Girls.. The Farmer's Instructor ; consisting of Essays, Directions, and

To keep Verdigris from Brass Vessels ; Knitting........ 16 Hints for the Management of the Farm and the Garden. By J. Boys' DEPARTMENT: Rumpless Fowl ;}

163 Spring Work; Experiments

164 A Muck Manrial for Farmers, by Samuel L. Dana. Price 50 cts. Foreign aral News..... Chemistry Applied to Agriculiure, by M. Le Comte Chaptal. Review of the Market..............

Editor's Table....

............. 165

.................. 160 Price 50 cts.

Bridgemariconng Gardener's Assistant, new edition, much Bush Pulleri Dutron Corn ; Nurseries of Messrs.}

... 145

161

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Agriculture is the most healthful, the most useful, and the most noble employment of man.-WASHINGTON.'
VOL. V.
NEW YORK, JUNE, 1846.

NO. VI.
A. B. ALLEN, Editor.

Saxton & Miles, Publishers, 205 Broadway. APPLICATION OF LIME.

tion of lime, it will prove more satisfactory than all LORD DUNDONALD, an English nobleman, who the chemical reasonings adduced in his treatise. spent most of his life and fortune in experimental farming and gardening, states in his « Treatise

IRON HURDLE FENCE. showing the Intimate Connection that subsists be We have frequently been asked the cost of this tween Agriculture and Chemistry,” published in kind of fence. Through the politeness of a gentle1795, that lime, when easily procured and properly man of this neighborhood, who has just made an slacked with water, immediately spread on the importation to enclose his pleasure grounds, we are ground and plowed in, if applied in great quantities, enabled

to give full particulars as to its cost, size, will occasion a too immediate dissipation in af &c. Each hurdle or panel is 6 feet long and 5 feet gaseous state, of the vegetable matters contained in high, with a post in the centre, thus making the the soil, from which the succeeding crops can only posts 3 feet apart. The posts are of flat bars of be benefited by the proportion it is able to receive iron, 14 by i of an inch. There are five bars in during the dissipating process. Hence it is mani- each panel. These are of round iron, t of an inch fest that an economical and frequent application of in diameter. The weight of each panel ie 75 lbs. ; lime, in moderate quantities, either mixed with costing, laid down in this city, with duties, freight, peat or other vegetable matter, or even by itself, is and all expenses paid, 4 cents per lb., or $3 per greatly to be preferred to those abundant dressings panel, or 50 cents per running foot, of the fence. of lime usually given at one time, which cause an A well made picket fence, with locust posts, costs action on the soil more powerful and violent than 38 cents per foot. With the exception of the posts, is conducive to, or compatible with, a continued this would require renewing every fifteen or twenty state of fertility. In short, lime should be consi- years. The iron fence will last a century or more. dered in a chemical and medicinal point of view, It is consequently much the cheapest in the end, when so applied, acting as an alterative, corrector, besides being far more ornamental; it also has the and a decompounder; a disengager of certain parts of further advantage of not obstructing the view-in. the animal and vegetable substances contained in the deed at the distance of 100 yards it can scarcely be soil, and as a retainer and a combiner with others; seen. It can also be taken up at any moment and is not to be regarded by the practical farmer as with great ease, and set in any other place desired, a substance fit for the immediate food and nourish- it being moveable at will. The iron posts have ment of vegetables, like dung, or decayed vegetable spreading claw-feet, which are inserted in the or animal matters. For, although calcareous mat- ground, and hold it up very strong. The panels ter, or lime, forms a component part of vegetables are joined by two bolts passing through holes bored and animal bodies, still the quantity that can be ob- in the posts, and then screwed up tight with a nut. tained from the annual produce of most crops, from The above is the heaviest kind, called ox-iron an acre of ground, will not exceed eighty pounds hurdles, the fence standing strong enough to resist weight. This fact has been well ascertained, and the most unruly animal. We can recommend this if proper attention be paid to it in regulating the kind of fence highly, having seen it in extensive conduct of the agricultūrist, in the future applica- use in England, and in a few places in the United

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States. We will import it in any quantity to order. biter out of the stable as well as in, then keep the A lighter kind can be had if desired, which will muzzle on always. If he be not, then take it off come something cheaper per foot. Of course it will when he is to be brought out. not be as strong as the ox-hurdles.

The cross-bars in front of the mouth are close to

the lips; this leaves the horse free to eat his hay and THE STABLE.No. 9,

grain with the muzzle on; and will admit his eat.

ing grass if the pasture be not close-cropped or We recur again to the subject of biting, as our

His breathing is not at all affected, and is cut for this month illustrates another method of as free as without the muzzle. managing the biter. The instrument as shown

The expense of this muzzle is small, and any serves a triple purpose, viz., it is a muzzle to pre smith may make it. The cross-bars should be vent biting, crib-biting, and wind-sucking, no riveted on, and not welded. article about a stable is of more use, where there

Crib-biting and wind-sucking are effectually preare vices requiring its use. An inspection of it vented by this muzzle. will render a description needless. It is of iron,

The crib-biter is so called because he seizes the and is to be attached to the leather of the headstall; it should be riveted on fast, to secure its manger (crib as it is called in the Saxon language,

manger in French; crib being the word formerly constant use, where it is required.

used to designate what manger now does), and Many valuable horses, as we have before mens swallows air. When the teeth are firmly grasped tioned, are incorrigible biters; and yet they are so on the manger (or any other object which is fim valuable that they must be kept. Of this kind was and the mouth can enclose), the horse arches his imported Messenger, the source whence came our neck, settles back slightly on his quarters, and best strains of road horses. He killed at least two braces with his fore feet, and with a grunt swal

, men, and yet was preserved. He did it by his teeth lows or gulps air into the stomach; this he will and fore feet. He caught them (his grooms) in continue until he is filled. A crib-biter can never his teeth, and forced them under his feet, when be in order ; his belly will be distended, and his he bit and stamped them to death. Had his mouth breathing restricted and laborious ; he will be flatubeen muzzled he would have been harmless, for no lent, and constantly breaking wind, and frequently horse ever does mischief with his fore feet until he attacked with colic. All these added will keep has first used his mouth, except, as is sometimes him ever lean ; and the colic will at times unft the case, when a stallion will rear on his hind legs him for work entirely, and even endanger and strike with his fore ones. rarely ever bite, and never rear in the stable, and prive him of life. of course muzzles are useless to them. They are safe in the stable, and only dangerous out of it when they have length of bridle rein allowed them. If the groom keeps them close, by the head, they are harmless. Sometimes, however, it is necessary to give them their heads. To guard against their striking at such times there should be a thong in the head-stall of the bridle, which may, by a jerk of the rein, be forced into the skin. This will quickly bring the horse to the groom, and make him quiet, and will, after a few repetitions, teach him better manners. But even if the thong be not attached to the bridle, the groom can easily avoid such a striker; he rears at some distance from the groom ; his movement is seen; he cannot readily move on his hind legs, and then but in one direction. If the groom steps aside, and jerks the bridle rein as the horse passes, he is brought to the

CRIB-BITER.-F10. 46. ground, and is at command on shortening the rein. The crib-biter cannot swallow air unless he bas

But if he first seizes with his mouth, and then his teeth grasped on something. This the muzzle strikes with his feet when within the grasp of his of the cut prevents, and yet he can feed. By this

, jaws, the groom is at once in the power of the then, a crib-biter's habit may be broken up, and he horse, and teeth and feet soon do fatal execution. be rendered sound and useful. Against just such a danger the iron bar muzzle of Wind-suckers differ from crib-biters in this, our cut is a perfect preventive. The groom cannot they place the teeth closed against the manger (Op be brought under the feet of the horse

until within anything else that is near, it it be firm) and swali the gripe of his jaws. Here the muzzle is the se-low the air, but not with so much grunting and curity. It is used in this manner-it is attached

to gulping: The results are the same. For the wind, the halter (which should always have a secure sucker the muzzle is a remedy. The nose strap throat-latch); what in the halter is ordinarily a should be of leather, and should be buckled tight

, leather nose-piece, or strap, is in this muzzle iron; so that he cannot force his nose so far down as to the side straps are of leather ; to these should be place the teeth against the bars; for if he can, sowed a buckle; the bits and reins of a bridle may will wind-suck as well with it as without it, be buckled on to them, and the halter then becomes a bridle, with the muzzle on. If the horse be aling and crib-biting. It is buckled around the neck

A strap is frequently used to prevent wind-suck.

he

GRASS AND HAY.-SCOTCH LACTOMETER OR CREAM-GAUGE.

171 close to the head. It certainly prevents the vice, and one quarter of land. The second crop was cut but it endangers the horse, and when long used is the fifth day of September. From this crop there bure always to bring on derangement of the wind- was 1 ton, 8 cwt., 17 lbs., from the samē land, pipe; by its use roaring and inflammation of the making in the whole 6 tons, 18 cwt., 7 lbs.” throat and such diseases are frequently produced. Mr. Bowles, we understand, first prepared his The muzzle is a better preventive, and is free of land some years ago for a crop of Indian corn, and danger in every respect. There are horses, how- raised one hundred and sixteen bushels to the acre. ever, that will wind-suck without placing their teeth against the manger. Such horses can be controlled only by the strap, and on them it must

SCOTCH LACTOMETER OR CREAM. be used. With it they are in danger, but may be

GAUGE. useful ; without it they are useless, and of course

The object of this instrument is to ascertain the worse than worthless, for they consume and pay proportion which the cream bears to the milk, of not.

any particular cow, or the produce of a whole We have now brought our stable articles to a

dairy. If new milk is poured into graduated glass close for the present, and are happy to say, that tubes, and allowed to remain, the division between they have had some influence with the public, the cream which floats upon the surface of the especially in their arrangements for proper ventila- milk will be so clearly defined, that its depth may tion. Several gentlemen in this city and else- be easily measured ; and should the milk from any where, have availed themselves of hints thrown out cow produce more cream than that of another, the in these numbers, and have constructed new stables difference will be seen by the divisions or marks on on a plan highly to be commended. We shall these tubes. The lactometer consists, then, of two probably give illustrations and descriptions of one or more glass tubes, half an inch or more in or two of these hereafter

. To conclude, we say, diameter, and eleven inches long, fitted into an upgive your horses plenty of fresh air, but keep them right wooden frame; each tube having a fine line out of the cold, damp currents; and, furthermore, drawn round it, ten inches from the bottom; three sweeten the atmosphere in the stables, and around inches from the line downward it is graduated into the premises, by sprinkling plaster of Paris, or

inches and tenths of inches. At the time of milk. charcoal dust, or both, over the straw and floor, and ing each tube is to be filled up to the top line with in the manure. These substances fix the ammonia new milk. After standing twelve hours, the quanarisingtherefrom, and are in themselves highly fer-tity of cream which floats upon the surface will be tilizing, so that they not only render the atmo- shown by the scale of inches and tenths; each sphere pure around, but add to the value of the ma

division representing one per cent. of the whole. nure heap. By following our directions, disease will scarcely be known in stables, and they will no longer be considered as nuisances in the vicinity of a gentleman's residence.

GRASS AND HAY. As the season for securing the hay crop is at hand, we solicit from our friends who are curious, yet economical, in matters of this kind, to give us condensed statements of well-tested experiments of their mode of culture, and of curing this valuable crop. The following extract of a letter from Mr. Isaac Bowles, of Winthrop, Me., to the Awarding Committee of the Kennebec Co. Agricultural Society, will show what may be done, even among

Fig. 47. our eastern neighbors, when proper means are If the amount given at one milking be a gallon, employed :

or eight pints, and the thick ness or depth of cream « The soil on which my crop of hay grew, is a which floats upon the surface of the milk in the very deep yellow loam, with a clayey rocky sub, tube, occupies 14 divisions, or one inch and foursoil. In the spring of 1841 it was plowed, and tenths of the scale, multiply the number of pints in about forty loads of compost manure were evenly a gallon, 8, by the depth of the cream, .14, and the spread over the piece, and planted to corn. In the result will be the produce of cream of that gallon, spring of 1842 it was plowed and sowed to wheat. namely, 1.12, or one pint and twelve hundredths of I sowed 30 lbs. of red and white clover and one a pint. peck of herds grass seed. On the 26th of June, Care must be observed to fill the tubes as soon as 1843, my hired help cut the grass of the first crop, the milk is taken from the dow; for, should any which had not at this time arrived to heading out, delay take place, a portion of the cream will have and the fifth day after, it was dry enough to haul to risen towards the surface. The milk to be tested the þarn. The quantity of hay was ascertained by should be taken from the middle of the pail, which putting up the cocks as near of an equal size as we may be done by dipping a small pot below the could judge. One or more, not larger than an froth. average lot, of the same, was weighed, and computing the whole number of cocks by that, found Muck is the mother of the meal chest.oid these contained 5 tons, 9 cwt., 90 lbs., on one acre' Scotch Saying.

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NEW YORK FARMERS' CLUB.

perature of the Andes where the finest fields of this This branch of the American Institute continues plant occur, varies from 64° to 82°F., where there to hold its meetings, as usual, on the first and third is no frost, no cold weather, nor dry summer heats, Tuesdays of each month, free of charge. At the where it must have six months of favorable wea. last three sessions various topics were discussed, ther to perfect its growth. From various experiamong which were the feeding and management of ments made in different parts of Europe, it will not stock, and the nature and application of Indian corn bear frost, and very dry weather is equally fatal to and other grains.

it; and besides, it is a difficult crop to preserve Soiling, &c.—Dr. H. A. Field stated that he had through the winter, owing to its great proneness to found during summer, that it was a bad practice to decay. Consequently it would be ill adapted to the change the food of cattle often. From feeding on northern, and in most seasons, to the middle sections clover, or oats cut green, and putting them suddenly of the Union. Should this plant ever succeed in upon green corn-stalks, he found that his cows be- the United States, as a field crop, the mountainous came thin. His method of soiling them was as parts of the Carolinas, Georgia, and of Texas, will follows: To select a piece of land neither wet nor probably be the theatre of operations. very dry, and make it as rich as possible by manur Composition of Corn, 8c.-Mr. Browne presented ing, at the same time studying economy. In Sep. specimens of several varieties of Indian corn, ac. tember, sow rye-double seed it-it will come early companied by a diagram showing the chemical in spring; then sow oats, clover, and the common proportions of the various kinds of corn, beans, field pea, which will be of a heavy growth. After peas, &c., from original experiments made by Di. the rye is off, sow Indian corn broad-cast; cut the C. T. Jackson, of Boston. He also repeated sevestalks while they are green and tender, before it ral of the experiments, as illustrated by the dia. has tasseled. You can have two, and even three or gram, and showed the proportions of starch, dex. more, such crops of corn in a season, by beginning trine, and phosphates, contained in the corn, with early and continue to sow for several weeks in suc- the view of proving that the ingredients of which cession. Thus, you can sow rye in September, the different varieties are composed, are not unioats, peas, and clover, early in spring, and corn in form, and consequently the analysis of one kind early summer. If this green food should cause alone cannot be of much practical advantage when diarrhæa, give the cows for a while dry feed. In applied to the whole. In splitting open, longitudithis way you can keep up your green crops from nally, some kernels of Tuscarora corn, and dropsnow to snow! He said that four of his cows ping upon them a small quantity of the tincture of which were stabled in winter, and soiled in summer, iodine, nearly all of their bulk was instantaneously after this plan, had yielded about $300 worth of changed from a pure white to an intense blue, indi

. milk the year past, sold to certain hotels in summer, cating the presence of starch, with here and there for two and a half cents a quart, and for four cents a deep port wine colored speck, which defined the a quart in winter. Two cows which gave only parts composed of dextrine. In treating some rice five quarts daily each, produced eleven quarts each corn and pop corn in the same manner, only after being stabled and well fed.

slight traces of starch were manifested, showing, Remedy for the Heaves.-Mr. Hancock presented conclusively, that the proportions of the ingredi. the following recipe for thick-windedness or heaves ents of which the two varieties are composed, are in horses :

widely different. Again, in soaking some split Take 180 grains of tartar emetic, and divide it kernels of sweet corn in a solution of sulphate of into three equal doses of 60 grains each. Mix one copper (blue vitriol), the chits or parts containof them in wet bran, and give it to the horse. Re- ing the germs, were changed to a bright green, peat the dose once in two days, and his disease beautifully defining the limits of the phosphates of will be greatly alleviated, if not perfectly cured. lime and magnesia contained in the corn, and indi.

Arracacha.-Mr. Meigs read an interesting paper cating more than double the quantity than the Tus. on the arracacha, an umbelliferous plant, found carora variety contained when treated in the wild in the elevated regions of equatorial America, same way. where it is also cultivated for the sake of its root. Corn Oil.—The horny or flinty portions of corn, In the Andes of Popayan, Los Pastos, and New Mr. B. remarked, when viewed in their sections Granada, it is as extensively grown there as the under a good microscope, will be found to consist potato, and is far more productive than that plant, of a great number of six-sided cells filled with a yielding, according to some statements, sixteen tons fixed oil, which has been successfully employed for of roots to an acre, while the potato does not ave- the purposes of illumination. He said that he had rage more than nine or ten tons. It is said, how. been informed from a credible source, that there is a ever, to be somewhat less nutritious, as it contains distillery in the vicinity of Lake Ontario, where this a larger proportion of water. The root of the oil is extracted, at the rate of sixteen gallons from arracacha resembles that of a gigantic parsnip, with one hundred bushels of corn, leaving the remaining numerous fangs, and in flavor is thought to be portion of the corn more valuable and in better something between that of the parsnip and roasted condition for distillation, than before the oil is chestnuts. Each root is said to weigh from four to extracted. six pounds, when grown on good_land, and serves Popping Corn.-On this oil, added Mr. B.,

deas an excellent article of food. But the question pends the popping qualities of corn. For when the naturally arises, will it grow in the open air in any kernels are heated to a temperature sufficiently part of the United States ?-a question that can high to decompose the oil, a sudden explosion only be answered by actual experiment. The tein. takes place, and every cell is ruptured by the er.

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