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CULTIVATORS. - LONG ISLAND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.-SUFFOLK HOGS.
pansion of gaseous matters arising from the decom-tions for making corn bread, which they specially
smooth batter of the consistency of hasty pudding: Recipe for making Corn Bread.--The Committee Then quickly turn the mixture into well buttered appointed to select the best recipes for cooking and tins, and bake in a brisk oven. The time required preparing Indian corn for food, obtained from Jud- for baking will depend upon the size and thickness son's Hotel, No. 61 Broadway, one of the best of the bread. For smaller parcels one-half or onepublic houses in New York, the following direc. I fourth of the above-named materials may be used.
The cultivator should always be made to expand The Hand Cultivator.—This is made entirely of and contract at pleasure, so as to accommodate iron, except the handle, and will expand from 10 to itself to different widths of space between the rows. 18 inches. It is a very useful implement in the One kind may expand from 24 to 5 feet or more, garden for clearing out the rows of beets, carrots, another from 14 to 3 feet. They are admirable parsnips, and indeed everything sowed in drills, implements to stir the ground and destroy the raking up beds, &c. It will do the work of four weeds, and for these purposes they will do the men at least. Price $3. work of two or three plows. They are absolutely indispensable on the farm and plantation, and in LONG ISLAND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.—This the garden
Society has been recently organized under highly The celebrated Tull was the first who used culti, favorable auspices, and holds its first semi-annual vators to any extent. He contended that repeated exhibition on the 11th and 12th of this month, stirrings of the earth were equivalent to manuring commencing at 10, A. M., and closing at 10, P. it; and in triumphant evidence of this, he pointed M. There will doubtless be a rich and varied disto a poor field where he had grown crops for thir-play of fruits and flowers, and we hope all who teen years without manure, or summer fallowing, are interested in such shows will make it a point to or piowing in a single green crop to fertilize it; and attend, and exhibit as much as is in their power. yet' his last crops were the best. He even sowed Extra lines of stages and steamboats will ply be. wheat and other grain in drills or rows so wide tween this city and Flushing during the days of apart as to be able to work the cultivator between exhibition, for the accommodation of those wishing them, and thus obtained on a poor soil 48 bushels to attend. Messrs. Wm. W. Valk, Robert B. Par.
sons, and G. Winter, of Flushing, are the commitWe have recently greatly improved our cultiva- tee of arrangements. lors by strongly iron bracing the handles to the timbers, and lengthening and setting them more SUFFOLK Hogs.—Mr. William Stickney, of slanting. This gives the operator greater power Boston, Mass., some time since sent us three of over the implement, and makes it easier managing his delicious pork hams, made from the Suffolk it. A wheel is set on to the end of the cultivator breed of pigs, one of which we presented to the or not, as desired. This is useless in very uneven American Agricultural Association, and one to the or rocky, ground; but when the surface is tolerably Farmers' Club of the American Institute, nicely smooth'it is very desirable, as it makes the culti. boiled and garnished. They were discussed both vator move easier and steadier, and with it the teeth mentally and physically, and pronounced to be sucan be exactly gauged, to work the ground any re- perior to anything of the kind ever tasted. The quired depth.
third ham was presented to the New York Lunatic
per acre !
THE ALPACA. —NO. I. Asylum, the qualities of which are to be tested by from that containing the camel properly so called. the Board of Trustees, at their next monthly visita- Their feet are not, like those of the camel, entirely tion, from whom we hope also to have a favorable padded with an elastic sole, but their two toes are account. The Asylum has a very superior stock separated, each having strong, horny, nails or of white hogs, to which the superintendent has hoofs, nearly resembling the talons of a bird, with a lately introduced a fine Suffolk boar, procured from thick cushion or pad beneath. They are also disMr. "Stickney, with the view of still further im- similar in the formation and arrangement of their proving them.
teeth, having on each side of the upper jaw one
canine tooth more than the camel, and want a secTHE ALPACA.-No. I.
ond canine tooth in the lower jaw. According to The following information relative to the nature, Walton, their “ incisors project full half an inch pses, and history of the alpaca, or Peruvian sheep, from the muzzle bone, so as to meet the pad fitted has principally been drawn by us from a gentleman above, by which means, and with the aid of the who has travelled extensively in South America. tongue and cleft lip, they are not only enabled to In addition to considerable personal observation, he draw together, and clip short grass upon the appears to be well read in the works of the early ground, but also, with their long necks, pointed Spanish writers on the subject; and with a view to muzzle and the oblique posture which the head their ultimate introduction into the United States, can assume, to reach herbage growing on the
of rocks seven feet he has kept a vigilant eye upon the more recent ledges, and in the interstice movements to domesticate them in Spain, France, high, as well as the tops of hedges and tall shrubs. and Great Britain.
Their teeth are, at the same time, so strong, and inBy what we can gather from various sources, we
terlock in such a manner, that they easily crush and are led to believe that there are at least three kinds masticate vegetable substances too hard and tough of Peruvian sheep, namely, the Guanaco or Llama, for ordinary cattle.” The abeence of the hump, the Paco or Alpaca, and the Vicuña, which agrees striking points of difference between these animals
and of the callosity on the breast, also constitute the alpaca as a mere variety of the llama, and who and the camel
. The llama, however, according to considers the vicuña as the only animal in the Molina, has a conformation resembling the camel's group that deserves to be specially distinguished hump, being provided with an excess of nutritive from the latter. This also agrees with the opinion matter, which lies in a thick bed of fat under the of our informant, who cites Inca Garcilasso de la skin, and is absorbed as a compensation for an Vega, as saying, in the year 1611, that the domes- occasional want of food. tic animals of the Peruvians are of two kinds, the have callosities on the knees of the fore legs, and,
Some of the Peruvian sheep, as in the camels, greater and the smaller, which they, as a common like them, kneel down in the same manner. Their name, call llama, that is, cattle or sheep. The larger kind they call huanacu-llama, on account of stomachs and those of the camels, are, in some the resemblance it bears to the wild animal known respects, similarly organized. That of the llama, in Peru by the name of huanacu, from which it dif- according to Sir Everard Home,“ has a portion of fers only in color; for the domestic llamas are to be for water in the camel; but these have no depth,
it, as it were, intended to resemble the reservoirs met with as various in their colors as horses; but the wild llamas are uniformly of a chestnut-color. are only superficial cells, and have no muscular The larger kind bears a great similitude to a camel, apparatus to close their mouths, and allow the solid except that it is deficient in the hump upon its food to pass into the fourth cavity, or truly digesting back, and is not so large. The small kind they stomachs of the Peruvian sheep certainly must
stomach, without going into these cells." But the call paco-llama, which is only reared for its flesh have some kind of internal mechanism for retaining and wool. The vicuñas are not very unlike goats water, or secreting a liquid substance ; for it has in their appearance, except that they have no horns, been remarked, along the flanks of some parts of the are larger, and are of a leonine color, or more ruddy; Andes, that they live far above any lakes or streams, They live in the highest mountains and
groves, and particularly love those cold regions of solitude, and further, it has been observed that, in a state of
and abstain from drink a great portion of the year; which the Peruvians designate by the common domestication, they never manifest any desire to name of punas; neither are they annoyed by frost drink so long as they can obtain an abundance of and snow, but are rather created by them. They succulent herbage. go in flocks, and run most swiftly; and such is their timidity, that at the sight of man, or wild beasts, and the llama, we are led to infer that each is evi.
From the peculiar organization of both the camel they instantly hurry into inaccessible retreats, and dently fitted by nature for the endurance of great thereby elude their pursuits. There were formerly hardships and privations—“ the one amidst the a great number of these animals here, but they are sands of the desert, under a burning sun—the other now become much more rare, in consequence of the promiscuous license of hunting them. Their wool the world, with a region of perpetual snow above
on the wastes of some of the loftiest mountains of is very fine, resembling silk, or the fur of the beaver, them. The slight variations of their conformation, and the natives deservedly hold it in high estima such as that of the foot, are modifications of nature tion; for, besides other properties, it is also said to which fit them for their respective localities. A resist heat and impart coolness to the wearer.” The order of animals to which the Peruvian impossible for the camel ; whilst the burning plains
habitation amongst the rocks would be mechanically sheep belong, offers to the eye of the naturalist but would be as little suited to the llama." á very small anatomical difference of conformation
MR. RANDALL'S MERINO SHEEP. ted to it. If Mr. B. desires any more minute acMR. BINGHAM, in his reply to my remarks in count of this experiment, he will find it, with draw. your Feb. No., does no injustice to my motives in ings of the wool (of Col. R.'s prize ram, Mr. Col. instituting the comparison I did between the Ram-lins' Grandee, and various others) in the first vol. bouillet flock purchased by him of Mr. Collins, and of the Amer. Quar. Jour. of Agriculture. that of Col. H. S. Randall of this place, though he So far as fineness is concerned, Mr. B. will see finds a different reason for the liberty I took, than that the evidence is conclusive in favor of Mr. R.’s the one which actually influenced me. I did not in prize ram, and against Grandee. On the subject of the least design to disparage the former. But Mr. strength, Mr. B. suggests that the wool of Grandee B. cannot be unaware that comparisons have been might have " lost strength by age, repeated handbefore instituted between these flocks, that Col. R. ling and pulling, and the wear and tear of being invited Mr. Collins to show some of his sheep carried in some wallet in some man's pocket till against an equal number of his own at Pough-half of its original strength was probably gone." keepsie, in 1844, and that a spirited correspondence I have seen part of the specimen from which took place on the subject in the public prints. I Doctor E. selected. He received it from an honor. will do Mr. C. the justice to say, that his declining able source. It was understood by me to be recent to show did not prove the inferiority of his sheep wool, and had never been carried about in any Breeders are not bound to accept challenges of this man's pocket, and evidently had been submitted to kind. But I mention the fact to show that I was no injurious treatment. Every serration showed the not so far wanting in courtesy, as to single out a original, and it gives me pleasure to say, beautiful particular flock to compare with Col. R.'s, without, character of the wool. as I supposed, finding my warrant for so doing in
The wool from the Merinos of “ early importa circumstances of public notoriety.
“ old.” I doubt whether this would The weights heretofore published in the Agricul- much affect its strength, if preserved with care. I turist of Rambouillet fleeces referred to by Mr. B., have never known a wool or cloth buyer particular have been invariably, I believe, of unwashed wool. about the age of the article, provided it was in This is a poor test, certainly, if any test at all. proper condition. I state the fact, however, let Wool ordinarily loses from one-third to one-half in each one draw his own inference. The sheep rewashing, and it might be so dirty as to lose far ferred to, were those imported by Seth Adams into more. There can, therefore, be no approach to Massachusetts, and were not, that I am aware, certainty by any such criterion. Mr. B. will doubt- Rambouillets, as Mr. B. erroneously infers I meant less give us better data to judge by the present year. to intimate. The specimens tested were given, I
Mr. B. says" Doctor Emmons is doubtless a learn, by Mr. Adams to Sanford Howard, Esq., good geologist, and meant to make a fair trial of junior editor of the Cultivator. the samples, but how much does he know about As to the length of leg of the Rambouillets, 1 am wool and sheep?"
still constrained to differ with Mr. B. The best The editor of the American Quarterly Journal of judges in this country consider them decidedly in. Agriculture was bred a Connecticut farmer boy, and clining to this fault. for one who has made agriculture a “ secondary Mr. B. says I am largely the owner of American matter,” is supposed in this State to be very famí. Merino sheep of a very similar character to Mr. liar with the subject in all its branches. Else Randall's. Is Mr. B. sure of this ? Has he seen greatly did our Executive err in entrusting to his Mr. Randall's flock ? He bases this supposition on hands the volume on Agriculture in our magnificent the fact that Mr. R. has purchased sheep in Ver. “ Natural History,” one of the noblest monuments mont which he has highly commended to the pub. of New York greatness. Thus much to vindicate lic. There is a family of Merinos in Vermont-the Doctor Emmons from the imputation of presumption most common one claiming purity of blood-with in speaking of these matters. But, after all, a heavy carcases and heavy medium quality and practical or theoretical knowledge of agriculture rather uneven fleeces, and to this family I have been has very little to do with the simple experiments of led to suppose Mr. B.'s belong. Col. R. purchased testing with optical instruments and weights the some such, but soon got tired of them. He now diameter and strength of wool.
breeds an entirely different quality of sheep, with far And now to Mr. B.'s inquiry, “How was the finer and evener fleeces, and is attempting, and apexact diameter of each specimen ascertained—by parently successfully, to preserve the weight of guess-work, by measurement, or by counting the Neece of the Vermonter, with a fineness approach. number of fibres constituting the cord to be broken ing to the Saxon. By far the best ram in my opi. by weights.”
nion now owned by him, was bred by himself, and he The strength of fibre was ascertained by attach- unites these qualities in a very remarkable manner. ing minute weights to a single one until it broke. I do not wish to be understood as classing all the This was repeated a number of times, and the mean Vermont Merinos with those above alluded to. or average weight which fibres of each variety of Col. R. has some of the best ewes I ever saw from wool would support, was given as the test of Vermont. But they differ most palpably from the strength of that variety. The diameter of the fibres common stamp which I have described. was ascertained by an optical instrument of great
As for the exhibition of fleeces proposed by Mr. magnifying power, throwing (like the camera lu- B., I cannot say what Col. R.'s views would be. I cida) the image of the wool on a measured scale. am not authorized to speak for him in the premises. This instrument, an elegant and expensive one, de Cortland Village, April 2, 1846.
L. signed for this express purpose, is a PERFECT TEST P.S. Since writing the above I have been at the of the superficial size of any minute object submit. pains to see Col. R., to obtain his views in relation
to the above proposed exhibition of fleeces. He the temperature of different seasons of that country. says the exhibition of two or three fleeces would be In advancing north from the polar circle, the birch, no test of the quality of a flock, that he cannot re- which bears the severity of the cold best, dwindles serve a large number of fleeces for comparison, but in size, till at last it ceases to grow at 70°, the that he would willingly allow Mr. B. to compare 30 point where man gives up the cultivation of grain. or 40 samples of his Rambouillet wool with an North of this, shrubs, bushes, and herbaceous equal number from his (Mr. R.’s) flock, the weight plants only are to be met with. Wild thyme, of washed fleece being attached to each such sam- creeping willow, and brambles, cover the face of ple, at the next N. Y. State Fair.
the rocks, and the arctic cloud-berry here assumes its most delicious flavor and perfame. Shrubs
next disappear, and their place is supplied by the GARDENING.–No. 4.
saxifrage, primrose, and the low-flowering herbs Geographical Distribution of Vegetables.-This and grasses; then comes the lichen, which covers branch of the study of horticulture points out the vast tracts of country, and beyond this we find grand features of the immense extent which plants only a naked, sterile soil, and perpetual snows. occupy, from the regions of perpetual snow to the On the borders of the temperate zones the everbottom of the ocean, and to the interior of the greens commence. The potato, cabbage, turnip, globe. The superior limits of vegetation are and similar garden vegetables, may be cultivated, known, but not the inferior ; for everywhere in and cranberries, whortleberries, and currants, are the bowels of the earth are germs which develope the only fruits. In the northern parts of these themselves when they find a space and nourish-zones, the apple, pear, and fruits of the cold regions ment suitable for vegetation.
are produced in perfection; but in the southern The territorial limits to vegetation are determined parts these fruits often lose their finest flavor, and in general by three different causes ; by sandy in some instances degenerate entirely, near the deserts, which seeds cannot pass over either by borders of the hot or torrid zone. Here the winemeans of winds or birds; by seas too vast for the grape, peach, almond, and apricot flourish ; here seeds of plants to be drifted from one shore to the we first meet with the olive and the fig, and in other; and by long and lofty chains of mountains. Europe, the orange and lemon, and as we proceed To these causes are to be attributed the fact, that towards the tropics, we find the sugar-cane, coffee, similar climates and soils do not always produce and date. The orange, lemon, citron and fig, are similar plants. Thus, in some parts of North here of the most delicious flavor, and still nearer to America, which resemble Europe in respect to soil, the equator the various species of palm characterize climate, and elevation, not a single European plant these regions. Some of the trees of the torrid is to be found in a natural state. The potato, first zone attain a size, of which a native of northern found by the Spaniards on the Western continent, countries can scarcely conceive The mighty does not grow naturally in like situations on the baobab, on the plains of the Senegal in Africa, is Eastern. There is scarcely a single plant found in found with a trunk 50, 60, and even 70 feet in cir. Africa that grows wild in South America, and the cumference, and one of the leaves of the fan-palm splendid dahlia of Mexico was never found upon is often of sufficient size to cover ten or a the steppes of Asia.
dozen men. Physical Distribution of Vegetables.—The natural Elevation, or the height of the soil above the circumstances affecting the distribution of plants, level of the sea, affects climate much in the same are temperature, elevation, moisture, soil, and manner as latitude ; while, at the same time, it light. Some plants belong to mountains, some to occasions a material difference in atmospheric valleys, and others to plains. Every species of pressure. This diminished pressure is one of the soil has vegetables peculiarly adapted to it. Some causes of the diminutive size of plants, grown in plants are confined to water, and some to moist re- elevated regions. Experiments have been made to gions, while others grow only in dry tracts, or on prove this, by causing seeds of barley to germinate the surface of naked rocks. Some require the hot- in soil placed in vessels under different degrees of test climate, and some a climate that is temperate, atmospheric pressure ; and the result has been, that while others will thrive only in the midst of frost where the pressure was greatest, the vigor of the and snow. In this way, nearly the whole surface plant was greatest also. In ascending the mounof the earth is covered with vegetation, and plants tains of the torrid zone, as the elevation varies are found even in the dark vaults of caverns, and each section has its own distinct plants, and we in the beds of the sea. Some plants will flourish find in succession the productions of every region with a high degree of heat, for a short time, from the equator to the poles. although it is followed by severe cold; others re Moisture, or mode of watering, natural to vege. quire only a moderate degree of warmth, longer tables, is a circumstance which has a powerful in. continued, and are adapted to elevated regions. Auence on the facility with which plants grow in Many plants will flourish where trees will not, any given soil. The qualities of water, or the na. and some approach the region of perpetual snow. ture of the substances dissolved in it, must neces. Those regions where no other vegetable will grow, sarily influence powerfully the possibility of certain are provided with the hardy lichen (capable of sup- plants growing in certain places. But the differporting men and animals), which is found beneath ence in this respect is much less than would be the snow in the depth of winter.
imagined, because the food of one species of plant Temperature has the most obvious influence on differs very little from that of another. The most vegetation. In this respect, not only the medium remarkable case is that of salt-marshes, in which temperature of a country ought to be studied, but a great many vegetables will not live, whilst a
LESSONS FROM EXPERIENCE.NO. 2.
number of others thrive there better than any- bolts ought to have large heads on the under side, where else.
and be settled into the wood, so that your lever The soils suitable for the maintenance of the shall be smooth and fair; and the same precaution various kinds of vegetable productions may be must be used on the upper side where they rivet brought under the five following heads: 1. Primi- down on the iron; and for this purpose it would tive soils. These affect vegetables mechanically, be well to have the holes in the iron a little the according to their ent degrees of moveability largest on the upper side, so that the bolt would or tenacity. In coarse, sandy surfaces, plants rivet down even with the surface. It is now to spring up easily, and are as easily blown about have a temper to the biting edge, then firmly fas-, and destroyed. In fine, dry, sandy soils, plants, tened to your lever, and it is ready for use. You with very delicate roots, prosper; a similar earth, will remember, also, that such an instrument is but moist in the growing season, is suited to bulbs. worth preserving as much as your plow or harrow, 2. Mixed or secondary soils include not only pri- you will therefore use it carefully, taking care of mitive earths, but vegetable matters ; not only the it when not in use; and one thus fitted and taken medium through which perfect plants obtain their care of, will last for years, and will hang to a rock food, but that food itself. 3. Aquatic soils are like a tooth-key to a rebellious grinder. such as are either wholly or partially inundated There is another small contrivance I have some. with water, and are fitted to produce such plants times seen used in turning over heavy rocks with only as are called aquatic. 4. Earthy soils are cattle, which works well. Instead of hooking your such as emerge above the water and constitute the chain directly into the ring or staple of the yoke, surface of the habitable globe, that is everywhere you fasten it to the axle between two cart-wheels covered with vegetable productions. 5. Vegetable (the cart body being first taken off) and your cattle soils are such as are formed of vegetating or de- draw by the tongue attached to these wheels. It cayed plants themselves, to some of which the is to be remembered that the wheels are backed seeds of certain other plants are found to adhere, as nearly astride of the rock, so that the chain pulls being the only soil fitted to their germination and very different from what it does as usually fastened. development.
This plan is of service only in turning over flattish Light is a body which has very considerable in- rocks. If the rock is round or square, nothing fluence on the structure of vegetables, and some would be gained; or if flat, if it stands nearly peralso on their habitation. The
fungi can live and pendicular, the result is the same. grow with little or no light, while green plants re Shocking Corn. — There is a practice getting quire light, though of different degrees of intensity much in fashion, in this vicinity, of shocking corn, Some require shady places, and hence the vegetable which I like; and as it is very simple, any one can inhabitants of caves, and the plants which grow in prove it to his own satisfaction. It is simply the shade of forests ; others, and by far the greater this,—take a smooth pole about ten feet long, and number, require the direct action of the sun, and with an inch and a half auger bore two holes near grow in exposed situations. L. T. TALBOT. one end, and put in two legs about three feet in
length, standing astride like two of the legs of a LESSONS FROM EXPERIENCE.-No. 2.
saw-horse. These legs hold up one end of the Moving heavy Rocks.—Everybody knows, that is pole, while the other rests on the ground. You acquainted with digging heavy rocks, that a com- may then bore with the same auger, or a smaller mon iron bar is too short to afford lever power suf-one will do as well, some five or six holes, begin. ficient to break them up from their earthy beds; ning about three feet from these legs, at a foot and the common heavy wooden lever will not bite apart or just as you find convenient. These last so as to hold its grip, especially if the rock at the holes must be bored so that when a smooth rod is point is hard and smooth, and withal a little round- pushed through one, it lies horizontally, and it ish. This trouble is easily prevented, and the forms right angles with the pole through which it process is as follows:-Take a good stick of tim- passes. The horizontal cross-rod may be about ber of a length and size to your liking, and after three feet long; and when made and placed in giving it the proper shape, let your blacksmith take one of these holes, your instrument is done. Now å wide bar of iron and weld on to one side of one for its use. Instead of binding the prostrate corn, end of it, and the whole width of the bar, a nar. you take it up in your arms and set it firmly against row piece of good steel ; let him then turn it your pole in one of the angles formed by the cross. over on his anvil, and with a very sharp chisel, rod; and as there are four angles, this process is retrim the end so as to leave the side on which the peated until the shock is formed. The top is then steel was laid, quite sharp: This sharp edge is turned down as usual, and bound with a corn-stalk then turned up a little, say about three-eighths of an or anything more convenient. Your three foot rod inch, like a tooth-key. This end is then finished, all is now drawn out, and then the ten-foot pole, and but the hardening part, which your blacksmith will leaves the shock erect without any other ceremony. please to remember after finishing the other part. Salt and Tar.--As every farmer usually has The next thing is to cut off a piece of your bar these articles, it may be well for him to know their some eight inches or more in length, and draw value. My experience has taught me the followdown the end not steeled quite thin. You may ing lessons; and first, salt and tar will cure wens then have three or more holes punched, of a size or tumors on cattle. I once had an ox that had a that will receive some small bolts, of strength suf- tumor on his neck, a few inches back of his jaw, ficient to hold this piece on one side of the end of and apparently attached to his windpipe. Someyour wooden lever. Three-eighths of an inch in times he appeared to breathe with some difficulty; diameter for these bolts will be about right. These and the wen had increased to the size of a goose egg.