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the same will apply with equal truth in attempting our corn not made in the same length of time? to sow a particular crop, where the substances of Corn, if planted in latitude 32° 30', in March, or which it is to be formed are not present, and can- 1st of April, will be safe from drouth by about the not be obtained at a rate to warrant the expense. 1st of July—say 3 months—whereas corn planted Oyster Bay, L. I., May 15th, 1846. S. Y. near Lexington, at usual time, say about the 1st of

May, is sometimes caught by frost in September, (a) May not this want of effect in gypsum be and ruined. No, sir; the dificulty is shallow owing to the absence of vegetable matter in the soil plowing, and as deep cultivation, with the stand 80 of Long Island? At other points along our sea

scattering that the sun bakes the land. coast, plaster has been employed with beneficial dress from the pen of Mr. C. M. Hammond, de

Since writing thus far, I have an excellent adresults.

livered before the Burke Co. Central Ag. Society,

in Georgia, my friend, Gov. Hammond, of South CULTIVATION OF CORN.

Carolina, being kind enough to remember me. I UNDER the head of “Indian Corn for Seeding or also have Effects of Drouth on Indian Corn, &c." Fodder,” page 107, current Vol., you use the fol- “ To the Planters and Farmers of South Carolina,” lowing language :

by W. B. Seabrook. Both of these you will “If the land be rich and properly prepared for see, and I would ask a copy of at least the 2d corn, it will be sure to come up and grow, however paragraph on page 13, of Mr. Hammond's pam. dry it may be, provided the seed be prepared by phlet. steeping it in guano, or saltpetre, water, or some other In addition to my remarks, I would say that cheap solution. When corn is tolerably advanced shallow covering is of much import

. I have tried in its growth, it completely shades the ground, and the various depths, from half an inch to six inches, the drouth will have but little effect upon it. Aby putting the seed in a hole at the various larger crop may usually be grown in drills than depths increasing half an inch, and I found the deep when sown broadcast; and if these drills be two, planted corn invariably rotted. or two and a half feet apart, we believe it will be In addition to deep tilth, shallow culture, close found better than nearer, especially in a very dry planting, laying by early, and shallow covering, season, as the cultivator can be often run between allow me to add, be certain to plant peas in the the rows, stirring the ground effectually, and middle when you plow the last time, by scattering neutralizing, in a measure, the effects of dry along the row, covering with cultivator. I sow weather.”

about one bushel to three acres, my object being I copy your remarks, that the sowing of corn not only to grow peas, but to shade the land, for provender may be again placed before your and to grow vegetable matter to plow in. I may readers, assuring them that, in Mississippi, it will be in error, but I think shading the land acts in a be as great an assistant as you speak of with you. two-fold capacity-preventing the earth getting so And for the purpose of giving in your language, dry, and as an enricher. I have heard it said so what I conceive to be the entire principle of planting frequently that I have become a believer without and cultivating corn, which is, “properly” prepare evidence, that, “ covering the earth with lumber or land, plant it close to shade the land early, and bricks it will act as a fertilizer.” If so, and that cultivate with a cultivator. I cultivate only ordi- saltpetre is produced in caves, why should not the nary land in part; some of it is really poor, and my close shade of pea-vines act in a similar manner, if entire crop, whether little or much, it matters not, to a less extent? This thing I know, that peahas (and does) averaged 30 bushels per acre. As vines have benefitted me very greatly, whether by to the number of acres I cultivate, or the quantity the covering, or as manure, or as both, it matters not. made, it is of no sort of business to know; suffi- I have heard that some “ fear the pea-vine would cient is it that I have had corn, and fodder too, to extract nourishment from corn, and might injure spare for several years. But as there are many land;" but I think they, being of the same chawho think “ a patch” can be better worked than a racter as the clovers, take very largely of their field, I will state, for their gratification, that I had nourishment from the air, and we thus return more 67 acres in one patch last year, and it was not all to the land than we take, even after gathering the the corn either by many acres. A portion of this pea. I do not think as many peas are grown per field was pronounced by a planter of 250 bales cot-acre, but as I make as many as I can feed, I deem ton, as yielding at the rate 50 bushels per acre. I the pea itself only as a secondary, and if it was re. use no manure to corn, but I plow deep, turn under stricted to the gathering for seed only I shoul corn or cotton stalks, and pea-vines; plant 4 continue. feet by about 18 to 20 inches, single stalks in To make these remarks more strining, - will drills. I cultivate early, hoe when corn has 3 or state that the crop in this place under former over. 4 blades, or as early thereafter as the season will seers, when they were sometimes manured with admit of, seldom using the hoe after. I thin out cotton seed, never averaged over 20 bushels per by hand, do snot chop it up with the hoe. I use acre, with always a scarcity, and sometimes to cultivator or double shovel plows, or the shovel buy. Since two-horse plows, and this mode of cultiplow, and I lay by, when or before the corn is in vation, have been used here, I have gradually im. bunch. (tassel?]

proved the corn crop to so great an extent, that 72 I believe the South will bear close planting, and acres would have averaged last year over 40 bushels why not? Are your summers not as hot as ours ? if a portion had not been grossly neglected. I am True, ours are much longer, but what of it? Is determined to make my corn crops average 50

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BUTTER-ENTRAXCE GATE TO A VILLA.-POLLED CATTLE. bushels without hauling manure, and think the day

POLLED CATTLE. is not far off.

I NOTICED in your April No., an inquiry about The attention of Southern planters being drawn polled cattle. They are to be found in this

vicinity. to corn culture, is my excuse for troubling you at I have a cow six years old, from an imported cow, such length.

M. W. PHILIPS.

brought from London by one of our packet masters. Edwards' Depôt, Miss., April, 1846.

The mother was a very fine cow, and cost in LonBUTTER.—A lady, writing us from her plantation dium size, very gentle, and hardy and well propor

don a very high price. The one I have is of mein Louisiana, says: As for the sugar crop, that is tioned. Color red, with some little white. the gentleman's vocation ; mine is the garden, poultry, and dairy. Butter as yet we have only attention exclusively to polled cattle, raising no

Henry Perkins, Esq., formerly of Salem, gate his enough for family use. After repeatedly visiting others. A few years ago he gave up the business the market of New Orleans, I am convinced that of farming, and disposed of his cattle, which have they know not what butter really is there. It is a become scattered through the town. Capt. Chadmiserable, white, washy stuff, sold there under this name, at an exorbitant price. I know our butter wick, of this place, has a very fine cow of that

breed, purchased of Mr. Perkins. She is unquesmade on the plantation would cause theirs to blush. I hope to send a small sample to our State show tionably the best cow in this vicinity, with the ex

ception of the imported Ayrshire of R. S. Gris. in January. The musquitoes seem to be our great-wold, Esq., which you have seen, and which took est inconvenience . They annoy the young chick- the first premium at the cattle show

of the Ameriens greatly, and prevent our hens from sitting in can Institute in October, 1844. Some think her warm weather.

superior to the imported cow of Mr. Griswold. At ENTRANCE GATE TO A VILLA.

any rate she is a very valuable animal ; large, well made, and gives milk abundantly, and of fine qua

lity. Color, reddish brown. She had a heifer calf this spring, by Mr. Griswold's imported Ayrshire bull.

The other cattle of Mr. Perkins have mostly gone into the possession of farmers who pay little attention to their stock, and of course are not in a condition to show their true characters. The breed has been very much neglected here, as our farmers give more of their attention to working oxen than to cows.

The polled cattle here are not so much esteemed for oxen as those with horns.

HENRY M. WAITE Lime, Ct., April 18, 1846.

Another Correspondent thus writes us upon this subject :

Your correspondent, G. W. J., of Mil. ton, N. C., writes to you about polled cattle, and you ask your readers for information as to where the best are to be procured.

In Great Britain there are now three breeds of polled cattle, which were no doubt originally derived from the wild

cattle, of which I believe but one herd FIG. 50.

now remains pure and in a wild state in York. — The entrance to a garden or villa may be pro- sbire, though some 60 or 70 years since there duced in a few years, agreeably to the above repre- were several parks stocked with them, both in the sentation, by planting a dense thicket of trees and north of England and south of Scotland. Of tbe shrubs, clipping the latter so as to form a rustic improved polled cattle, the Galloway, from the arch of almost any size or shape. The shrubs to be southwest of Scotland, rank first. These are of employed for this purpose may consist of the very fine symmetry, small in the bone, and of very purging buckthorn, arbor vitæ, arborescent box, great capability of quickly taking on fat. They are holly, and Cherokee rose (in the southern states), now all black, though formerly this was not the grape vine, or ivy.

Next to these come the Angus-shire, from

the northeast of Scotland, very similar to the Gal. THE BEST SYSTEM OF FARMING.–When Cato loway, rather larger, but hardly so fine in their was asked, What was the best system of farming ? points. These are both more valued for making he thrice answered, “ bene pascere,” which is to be beeves than for dairy purposes. When grass-fat, translated" to graze well,” or to procure food for tened, at three years old, they leave Scotland and cattle, having had in view the connection between go to within a moderate distance of London, and in the feeding of cattle and the production of manure. the yards in Norfolk and the neighboring counties

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A MERINO BUCK. — SHEARING SHEEP.

185

they are brought to the highest state of perfection * One of the finest oxen I ever saw in Great Bri. for the London market. Whether in the half fat tain, was a cross from a Galloway bull and West state in which they are driven south, or when fit Highland cow, the latter a horned breed. He was for the London butcher, they command a price for polled, and exhibited at the great catile show in their weight, above that given for any other cattle. London, when the crowned heads were there in Their being polled renders them far less liable to 1815, and took the second prize, the first being injury in the yards tha those with horns; and given to a Devon ox, of enormous size, but wanting they are considered unequalled in their capability in fine points. I do not think any Suffolk cattle of quickly taking on fat, while their beef is that have ever been imported into this country. For which brings the highest price in London. dairy, purposes I have no doubt they would be

Your correspondent wants polled dairy cows. found superior to the Durham, now so much in The English breed would better suit him. They fashion; and if this notice should lead some of your are known as Suffolk duns. It is generally be- enlightened readers who may be in the habit of imlieved they are from one of the Scotch breeds, porting cattle, to make themselves acquainted with which having long been carried to that part of the valuable qualities of the Suffolk duns, I think England for fattening, some of the Suffolk breeders they would be encouraged to make a trial of them, had either adopted them or crossed their own breed and that great success would attend their introducwith them, thus obtaining a polled stock, which are tion here. somewhat larger, and possess qualities as dairy I have never met with superior polled cattle in stock, superior to the Scotch. They are chiefly this country, and as it was in regard to such that roans, or light colors, though known under the your correspondent inquired, I hope some of your general term of duns—and this at one time was a numerous readers may be able to give information very common color in the Scotch breed, though by on this point. What I have stated may either in selection and care they are now almost entirely whole or in part enable you to fill some spare corner black. The wild cattle from which it is thought of your next number, as notes from these three breeds have sprung, are white, with April 13, 1846

AN OLD GRAZIER. black ears and muzzles.

A MERINO BUCK. MERINO sheep were first known in Africa. They were introduced into Spain and Italy in the early part of the first century; but whether they produced as fine fleeces then as now, and were otherwise as valuable,

is a matter of great doubt. The first improver of them was Don Pe. dro II., king of Arragon, early in the 13th century; and after him, Cardinal Ximenes, prime minister of Spain. The French government also deserves great credit for its improvements of this valuable race of sheep, the royal flock at Rambouillet having steadily increased in its average weight of fleece since they were introduced there from Spain, and the quality of the fleece at the same time has been much im. proved, especially in its general evenness. The introduc.

MERINO BUCK.-Fig. 51. tion of these sheep into America, and their breed. | In general terms, it may be said that he is a good ing since, is so familiar to our readers, that we need workman who will accomplish about the largest not dwell upon the subject. For a valuable series of number, cuts the wool with one clip of his shears, articles on the Merino in Spain, see our last volume. and not in twain, as one shearing too fast is apt to

do, shears even and close without cutting the skin, SHEARING SHEEP.

and holds his sheep in those positions both easy to Of those who can shear a large number in a day, it and himself. and perform it skilfully, there are very few ; but The following instructions may be followed, innothing precise can be stated, as it depends entirely tended for the novice :on the breed. If they are Saxons or Merinos, or Supposing that the floor of the shearing-house grades of these breeds, it will be very safe to say, has previously been thoroughly cleaned, the pound from twenty-five to forty, taking the average of a containing the flock littered with straw—the shear. flock; the grown sheep fewer than of yearlings. Ter proceeds to bring his sheep upon the floor.

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This he must avoid doing after a common method,“ upon his unexpected well-doing-that he imwhich resembles, rather than anything else, the proves with each successive sheep-and that he rough-and-tumble efforts of a dog dragging a wood will be sure to make a first-rate shearer,” you will chuck from his burrow—but after catching it, to bring him under the yoke without his knowing its throw his right arm around the body, grasping the hardships. He will probably shear eight or ten the brisket with his hand, then lift it, and with his left first day, and possibly a few more the next; at all hand remove dirt or straw, if any adhere to the feet. events, guard him all the while, and see that he If the sheep is filthy about the tail, or perchance hurries not, or slights his work in any respect. any burs are attached to the wool, at the threshold In this way, and none other, can we properly of the door, let all be cut off by a suitable pair of educate shearers to do their work with tact, and in. shears at hand for such purposes only. Then he creased profit to the flock-master. This is but a may place the sheep on that part of the floor as- transcript of the writer's course ; and to show its signed to him, resting on its rump, and himself in a good results, he has now in mind an instance, posture, with one knee on a cushion, and the back among several, where he instructed a raw one, and of the animal resting against his left thigh. He the following season his pupil sheared forty per grasps the shears about half-way from the point to day, and performed his task admirably.-- American the bow, resting his thumb along the blade, which shepherd. affords him better command of the points. He may then commence cutting the wool at the brisket,

COTTON PLOWS. and, proceeding downwards, all upon the sides of

I have not ascertained what will be the amount the belly to the extremity of the ribs, the external of cotton planted compared with the crop of 1845, sides of both thighs to the edges of the flanks; but I presume not more, if as much. However, I then back to the brisket, and thence upwards, do not think there will ever be made more cotton in shearing the wool from the breast, front, and both this country than was made in the year 1844. sides of the neck-but not yet the back of it—and There is more of a feeling now manifested for also the poll or fore part, and top of the head. plentiful crops of provisions than heretofore; in Now the jacket is opened” of the sheep, and its fact, necessity will compel us to pursue

that course, position, and that of the shearer, is changed, by as our woodland ranges are fast failing, which will being turned flat upon its side, one knee of the compel us to winter stock; heretofore we have shearer resting on the cushion, and his other gently been rid of this duty. This, in the end, will be a pressing the fore-quarter of the animal to prevent blessing instead of a misfortune; for where a peoany struggling. He then resumes cutting upon the ple are dependent on their own resources, they are flank and rump, and thence onwards to the head. apt to provide more plentifully, than where woodThus one side is completed. The sheep is then land pastures have been their hopes. turned on to the other side, in doing which great To my knowledge, several sub-soil plows, as care is requisite to prevent the fleece from being well as the northern turn-cast plows, have been intorn, and the shearer acts as upon the other, which troduced among us the present season. Those who finishes. He must then take his sheep near to the have tried the former, are well satisfied of its utility door through which it is to pass out, and neatly and practicability. The only objection to it, is, that trim the legs, and leave not a solitary lock any- it is too heavy--requiring hard labor for two mules where as a harbor for ticks. It is absolutely neces- to draw it;-in fact two mules cannot work for any sary for him to remove from his stand to trim, length of time at it. Could we procure one of a size otherwise the useless stuff from the legs becomes or two less, that would work easy for two mules, intermingled with the fleece wool.

I am of opinion they would become more in use. I In the use of the shears, let the blades be laid as am using six of the northern turn-cast plow, which flat to the skin as possible, not lower the points too answer an excellent purpose. The work they do much, nor cut more than from one to two inches at is completely satisfactory. The objections to them a clip, frequently not so much, depending on the heretofore at the south, particularly in new coun. part, and compactness of the wool.

tries, were, they could not stand the roots in our The above instructions being designed for a be- new lands. This in a great measure depends upon ginner, we will suppose that this is his first and two things. First, their manufacture ; second, the only attempt. Let his employer, when he is care used in working with them. If they are proabout it, and it will be a good while, have an eye perly made of good materials and faithfully put on all his movements, kindly and carefully direct- together, they can stand our new lands; for those ing them. After the pupil is through his first I am now using, have been constantly at work effort, you will see him smoothing out the crinkles since February, and have been plowed through and aches from his back and hips-for thus the lands of various quality and conditions ; first and poor fellow will feel—and if the weather is warm second year's clearings, and stiff, rough ground, -and of course it should be—wiping the dripping very rooty, with numerous stumps in it. As yet, sweat from his brow. But be easy ; let him blow they are as sound and in as good order as the day awhile before he catches another sheep, for if you I. commenced with them-not even a point has hurry him, long before night you will hear mur. given way. I am so much pleased with them in mured from his lips, that " ghearing is a back- all respects, that I shall never be without them breaking business—it's not what it is cracked up to again so long as they can be procured on reasonbe,” &c., &c., indicating that he is already disgusted able terms. In moulding or working out corn, they with it, and if so, adieu to his ever arriving at skil-leave the ground in such beautiful order, that the fuiness. But if he has time afforded to straighten work to be done with the hoe is much lightened himself, and is petted with kind compliments and facilitated; it is the same with cotton after be.

SUPERIOR MODE OF CURING HAMS.-COLIC IN MULES.-DOMESTIC FISH-PONDS.

187

ing thinned out to a stand. The draft is light on pudding, so much the better, as it then goes much the animal, which is a very important considera- further, and is healthier for the animal. When tion.

H. mules are taken out to be fed, let them get a little Barbour County, Alabama.

cool before being allowed to drink ; then give them

a small quantity of water, say one or two quarts, SUPERIOR MODE OF CURING HAMS.

and as they cool give them more, till they finally AGREEABLY to your request I herewith send you drink as much as they desire. If the water be very the process of curing the hams I sent you in cold, a handful of hot wood-ashes should be thrown March, which recently called forth the admiration into the bucket before drinking—this is generally of the American Agricultural Association, and the sure to prevent any ill effects

. A gill of ashes Farmer's Club, at New York.

should be given to each mule or horse once a week I made a pickle of two quarts of salt, to which I in their feed. Ashes keep the system open, and added one ounce of summer savory, one ditto sweet kill worms and bots in the intestines. It would be marjoram, one ditto allspice, half ditto saltpetre, better to stable the mules, especially when feeding and one pound brown sugar; boiled the whole to- during very hot weather, in copious dewy nights, gether, and applied the mixture boiling hot, to one and in cold rainy weather

. Their principal meal hundred pounds of hams, and kept them in the should be at night. During the long, hard working pickle three or four weeks.

days of the season, they ought to have two hours My process of smoking was not the most expen- rest at noon, and one to one and a half hour's rest sive, but may not be the less available on that ac- in the shorter ones. count. I smoked the hams in a seed cask, with one head in, with a small hole for the smoke to DOMESTIC FISH-PONDS.—No. 1. pass out, hung my hams to the head, and used On the continent of Europe, particularly in about a peck of mahogany sawdust for fuel, which France, Germany, Sweden, and the Netherlands, I happened to have on hand for packing goods. I the rearing of fish affords a regular source of profit smoked them but one week. WM. STICKNEY.

to landed proprietors, and the establishment of Boston, May 6th, 1846.

artificial ponds, and the management of this species

of game, are well understood. In most of the cities COLIC IN MULES.

and larger towns, the stalls in the markets are furI HAVE been a constant reader of your paper from nished with two or more tubs of water, crowded its commencement, but have not yet seen an article with living fresh-water fish, in excellent condition, on a subject of great importance to us Southerners, but painfully panting and struggling in their connamely, the cause of so many of our mules and finement, which are obtained from private fishhorses dying with the colic.

ponds, where they are regularly bred for the mar. We are the most unfortunate people in the ket, in a similar' manner as our farmers' wives world as regards our stock. I lose three, and breed geese, ducks, and other fowls. sometimes five mules every year by the colic; In most parts of the United States there are every day there is a mule brought to me from the either natural ponds, or lakes, or waste places, ca. field sick with the colic. Now I cannot see the pable of being converted into artificial ponds, reason of this, unless it is our mode of treating which, if properly stocked and attended to, would them. Our treatment is this. We plow them greatly add to the luxuries and prosperity of the hard ; give them as much water as they can drink country, and would furnish the whole population, when they are taken out to be fed; feed them in a both in the country and in cities, with an increased lot in which there is a trough with plenty of corn supply, at all times, of wholesome and nutritious in it: no stable for our mules whatever.

food. Few acts of our government, or of private You would confer a favor if you or some of your individuals, would be more praiseworthy than to correspondents would enlighten us on the subject, introduce into our waters, from Europe, a quantity for it is a matter of importance that we should know of tench and carp, for the purpose of breeding, os how to prevent this disease.

GASTON. to bring the celebrated white fish, mascalonge, Tallahassee, Florida.

Mackinaw trout, and other tribes of our great

lakes, to the ponds or lakes nearer the sea-board, No treatment of mules or horses, that we are for the same object. On this point I shall speak acquainted with, would be more sure to induce more in detail hereafter. colic than such as is spoken of above by our cor A few years ago Dr. Gottlieb Boccias published respondent; and if he wishes a preventive, he a pamphlet on the management of fresh-water fish must change his system, for no medicine would be in Germany, with a view of making them a source efficacious under it. To water a mule or horse of profit to landed proprietors. From this work, when hot frequently produces colic; and to feed and several other sources, I have derived the inhim hard, dry corn, will do the same. Oats are formation which follows in this, and will be conmuch better feed in every respect, and may be given tinued in the succeeding numbers, with a hope that dry without danger in any quantity, though it is an attempt will be made to introduce this branch of better to grind, or at least soak them in water a rural economy into this country. few hours before feeding. Oats make tougher Formation of the Ponds.-As the first formation muscle and harder flesh to work on than corn. If of fish-ponds is expensive if the proprietor has to corn is used, it ought to be ground with the cob, excavate the ground, it is desirable to choose a and mixed up with water, slightly salted, a day or natural ow, form an embankment where neso before being used. If it ferments previous to cessary, and to provide a feeder leading into it. If feeding, or if it can be boiled like mush or hasty these ponds are not made entirely for profit, it will

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