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NEW YORK FARMERS' CLUB. become heated and musty, so as to render it unfit The meetings of this Club were respectively either for man or beast. One of the writers, Dr. held on the first and third Tuesdays of June, and the James W. Thompson, states that as “ corn is beprincipal subject discussed was Indian Corn, its coming an article of export to other countries, in uses, modes of cooking, planting, &c.

quiry was naturally awakened to know the best Gurneyism.-Mr. Meigs read a paper from the modes of preparing it for transportation. ExpeRevue D'Horticulture de Paris, on the effects of rience teaches, so far as yet ascertained, that corn light and shade upon vegetation, by M. Poiteau, intended for exportation must be kiln-dried, if not from which we extract the following :

manufactured, in the country which produces it. “ Shade is necessary for all plants in their in. This process was attempted in Connecticut at the fancy, or when they are diseased, or when they close of the Revolution. The Connecticut millers have suffered violence by removal. Seeds germi- used the white corn, and produced an inferior nate best in obscurity, and are best when shaded article of meal, owing to want of skill in preparing for a few days after. The clouds furnish such it. The Brandywine millers perfected their kiln shade often, but art uses means to give shade to and adopted the yellow corn, by way of distinction. them. Seeds that must be sown on the surface, or From greater proficiency in kiln-drying and manuwith little earth over them, grow best if shaded for facturing meal, they soon engrossed the West Ina time. Shade is necessary for such flowering dian markets for their yellow meal, and this inducplants as are desired to prolong their flowering and ed our farmers to grow so extensively here the freshness. Shade is important to all plants in yellow corn. At the several mills on the Brandy slips, and is almost indispensable in order that they wine, there are annually thus dried and ground, may root well. . Plants in light purify the air by some half million bushels of corn. It keeps perabsorbing carbonic acid and disengaging the oxy- fectly good for a long period, and does not appear gen, and they corrupt the air at night by suffering to be deprived of any of its nutritive qualities by carbonic acid to escape without being decomposed." | being subject to heat.” It is upon this principle that the new and particular

The other writer, Mr. James Cauby, of Wilmingkind of manuring called “Gurneyism,” depends, ton, Delaware, in speaking of corn and corn meal, which is stated to have been employed with signal as articles of export to England, remarks, that, success by Mr. Gurney, a farmer in East Cornwall,“ after an experience of nearly fifty years, he is of England. The operation consists in covering grass opinion that the kiln-dried Indian corn meal manu. land with long straw, coarse hay, or other fibrous factured here, will

have to be exported in place of matter, which is allowed to remain upon the ground the corn itself. The latter he finds invariably be

, height, and then raking it off and spreading it on it is unfit for all purposes of manufacture. The another portion of the field; the operation being only method to get the article into England entirely repeated so long as the straw or hay remains suffi-sweet, is to send orders for the meal only, and allow ciently entire to admit of convenient application.

manufacturers of good character to fill these orders.” Indian Pudding, Hommony, &c.-A. Barclay,

Mr. Charles Henry Hall stated that it was a misEsq., British Consul, sent two valuable directions taken notion to suppose that Indian corn would not for cooking the excellent hommony, which he pre- thrive in Europe. It grows in Spain equal to that sented to the club a few weeks ago, which will of any other country, even better than in ours—but soon be published in the Report of the Committee it is solely used there for feeding swine, &c. If on this subject.

the Spaniards had the requisite industry, they could Mr. Samuel Allen presented to the club the easily undersell us, and supply England. “Farmers' Own Pudding,” made by a lady, the directions and cost of which were as follows:-3 lbs. TAE REVOLVING HAY RAKE.-Fig. 54. yellow corn meal, 6 cts. ; 1 lb. of beef suet, 8 cts.; 1d pints of molasses, 8 cts. ; 1 lb. of dried currants, 12°cts—Total, 34 cts. Time required to boil it, four hours.

Mr. A. emphatically remarked that this pudding was made by a lady; " because,” said he, “ a suspicion has gone abroad that the bachelors of this club were monopolizing the rights of the ladies, in cooking the various delicious samples brought forward here. This is a libel! The ladies, and not the bachelors, have done all the cooking.”

The pudding was then served out to thirty or forty members of the club, and all agreed that it was excellent; whereupon, a unanimous vote of thanks was passed both to the donor and to the lady who made it.

Kiln-dried Corn.---Mr. John S. Skinner read extracts from letters from Maryland and Delaware, relating to kiln-drying corn, with the view of show- will rake from fifteen to twenty-five acres per day.

This implement, with a horse, man, and a boy, ing the necessity of preparing corn for exportation It can be used to good advantage even on quite by this process, without which, it is very liable to rough ground. Price $7.50 to $9.00."

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till now.


it, but such has been the demand upon our columns, WHEN we consider how easily strawberries are

that we have not been able to find a place for them cultivated, the delicacy and healthfulness of the

This importation, together with a subsefruit, that it is the earliest in the season, and ap- quent one by Mr. Webster, of Massachusetts, pears without a rival, we are astonished to find how shows that the good old Bay State is alive to the few of the farmers have them in their gardens, improvement of its neat stock, and that a reviving they usually

doing without them, or depending tions of the country. We trust that while these ferior kind in the fields. To say nothing of the imported bulls are judiciously bred to native cows, luxury of having an abundance of strawberries the imported cows may be bred to none but these during the season, in our own families, it is one of bulls, or others of pure breed fully equal to them, the most profitable fruits cultivated; and many a with a view of improving that of the country at

so that the stock will be kept pure and perpetuated farmer in this vicinity has made a snug fortune by growing them for the city market. Particular ał- large, for generations yet to come, and not be negtention is given to this business in New Jersey, lected and suffered to run.out, as has been the case where patches will be found in abundance, varying admire the liberality of the Massachusetts Agricul

pretty much all, heretofore imported. We from one to fifteen acres. baskets holding one-third of a quart, and the price times for neat cattle; and we hope,

before any more They are usually brought to market in small tural Society; $3,000 for ten animals—$300 each

is a pretty high price though to send abroad these varies from 3 to 10 cents, according to the season and the time of marketing them. Twenty thousand importations are made, that the Societies and people baskets have been picked from a single acre, and of this country will cast about a little, and see if sold at an average price of 5 cents per

basket, they cannot supply themselves equally well at making a product of $1,000. This is an uncommon home, and at a much cheaper rate ; for we hold it case, however, and we presume it might be fairer the duty of every good citizen to expend his money to assume that eight thousand baskets would be a

in his own country, when it is possible to get any. good average yield per acre, sold at 4 cents, pro: Upwards of four years ago we came to the concla.

thing like the value for it, rather than send abroad. ducing $320. keting are heavy; but admitting that they net the sion, after a pretty thorough personal inspection of grower only one-and-a-half cents per basket, in the the different breeds of neat cattle in England, that field, and that he gets only six thousand baskets, it we only wanted now and then a very superior bull would leave a profit of $90 per acre. Suppose

or so, to give fresh blood to our stock, and that we that only half this sum, $45 per acre, is realized, it already have about as good materials for all neceswould still be a good business to farmers in the sary improvement as Great Britain can furnish us; neighborhood of cities.

and to this opinion we still adhere. The best months to set out strawberry plants in

Let us now look about a little, and name a few this climate are August

, September, March, and enterprising persons who have imported and are April; at the South, we should say, October, No-1 breeding Devons and Ayrshires, saying nothing of vember, February, and March. But as it is gene- choice breeds of Herefords scattered over the

the numerous and wide-spread Durhams, and the rally impossible to get plants from the North before March, to send South, they should be ordered for

country. that quarter as early as September, and then they

Mr. Patterson, of Maryland, has a herd of pure would be certain to arrive there in season. The Devons, the originals of which were imported upvines produce few berries the first year, but very England. These he has continued to breed with

ward of thirty years ago, from the best herds in abundantly the second and third. fruit rapidly deteriorates in size and quality, and great success ever since, improving their blood with new plantings should be brought into bearing, and be of the least advantage for him to do so. His

continued fresh importations whenever it could the old ones dug up. We expect soon to be favored with a series of

herd numbers more than one hundred, all thorough articles, with illustrations, on the culture of straw. bred, and we believe as good animals as England berries, from a gentleman in this vicinity, who has can produce. He raises many steers annually of devoted much time and attention to them, we there. the purest blood, and most faultless forms, for the fore forbear any further remarks upon the subject is far short of the increase. So fastidious has he

simple reason that the demand for his young bulls been in his breeding, that for several years after he

commenced, he steadily refused to part with a FOREIGN CATTLE.

single animal to breed, until he had got his herd to ABOUT eight months since, we noticed the suit him in their general excellence, and he had following paragraph in the New England Farmer: made his third trial of imported bulls from England, “ The Massachusetts Agricultural Society have the last one, from Bloomfield's herd, the same from recently imported from England and Scotland, one which the Massachusetts bull was taken. At bull and four cows of the North Devon, and a bull length, when he opened his herd for sale, he placed and four cows of the Ayrshire breeds; all said to the choicest of them, except the selections for his be good of their several kinds, at a cost of $3,000.” own immediate breeding, at the moderate price of

It was with great pleasure and satisfaction that $100; and neither more did he demand, nor less we read the above paragraph, and it was our inten- did he ask. Would it not have been quite as well tion at the time to have made some remarks upon for the Massachusetts Society to have purchased of

for the present.



Mr. Patterson at $100 each, rather than in England Let us be understood. We have no wish, in the at $300?

slightest degree, to discourage the promotion of the Mr. Colt, of New Jersey, has some beautiful highest excellence in all that appertains to our Devons; the Messrs. Hurlbut, of Connecticut; agricultural advancement. We advocate improveMr. Washburn, of Otsego County, this State, has a ment in its greatest extent, and in nothing more fine herd imported by Mr. Rotch, and crossed in than in our domestic animals. Numerous indivi. with Mr. Patterson's stock; Mr. Allen, of Black duals in our country, with a spirit and liberality Rock, has a choice herd, made up from Mr. Patter- nowhere surpassed, have invested thousands of son's stock and recent importations from England. dollars in the importation of foreign cattle of the Messrs. Garbutt & Breck, of Genesee County, have most approved quality, and from them have bred been breeding superior Devon cattle for years, and herds equal in value, and in all desirable points, to last October advertised a public sale of 40 to 50 their originals. But how have they been reward. head. With all their efforts, they could only sell ed? In nine cases out of ten, they have suffered 14 head, at an average price of $60 each. The the deep mortification of finding their efforts and Massachusetts importation cost $300 each, as their enterprise unappreciated, by those who, apbefore remarked; and those who have seen both, proving their value, are about to adapt them to say, they are in no respects superior to Messrs. their own uses; and of seeing them, like this in. Garbutt & Breck's, when for the same money they stance of the Massachusetts Society, “ pass by on could have got five for one !

the other side,” telling them in effect, that this A few years since, a young Englishman imported stock, though of acknowledged excellence, has de. into the western part of this State, a very superior teriorated in their hands, and that they have no young bull and two heifers, pure North Devons, confidence in American-bred cattle? Is this fair? from the herd of Mr. Davy, of North Moulton, Is it just ? Devonshire, one of the best breeders of this sort of We insist upon it, that there are as good and as stock in England—his animals generally taking the careful breeders in America as in England, for all first prizes wherever exhibited. These he found it practical purposes. We know several cases where difficult to dispose of at $100 each. They fell into imported stock have actually become improved in hands that appreciated them, and are now highly their progeny by American breeders ; although we valued. A majority of the cows composing the consider that those extraordinary instances of inabove herds, are good milkers, giving from 16 to 22 dividual skill in occasionally producing uncomquarts per day, making rather more than an monly fine animals, have not been developed here as average proportion of butter, thus showing the Bu- frequently as in England. But let it be remembered, perior quality of the milk.

that such animals as astonish Englishmen or Now, as to Ayrshires. Mr. John P. Cushing, Scotchmen at home, do not come to America. We of Watertown, near Boston, some ten years since, cannot afford to pay for them yet. But we have or more, imported eight or ten cows, and one or got the blood of these superior animals, and will two bulls, which he ordered to be selected from the soon be in the way of producing it equal to very best breeds, without regard to cost, in Scot-themselves. land. These he has bred ever since, and, with his Let us now sustain each other-at least, until our accustomed munificence, has given away, as we un domestic demand shall carry prices up to something derstand, several young animals every year, both like a compensating amount for the heavy capital to Agricultural Societies, and to individuals, for the already invested in our improved stock; or until benefit of the public. Of this liberality, the Massa- the reduced cheapness on the other side the Atlanchusetts Society have, very unwisely, as we think, tic shall be a sufficient reason for passing by ani. declined to avail themselves.

mals and herds of equal excellence on this. Capt. George Randall, of New Bedford, some years ago, imported several Ayrshires of great ex- LIME APPLIED TO VEGETABLE MATTER, cellence, from which he has bred many young ani- SHOULD BE NEWLY. MADE, AND COM. mals of equal pretensions, and sold at moderate

PLETELY SLACKED. prices. Mr. Griswold, of Connecticut, and Mr. NEWLY-MADE lime, according to Dundonald, from Patten, of New York, have also imported the best its power of destroying, or as it were burning animals that money could procure; several other vegetable and animal bodies, is termed' caustic. individuals in different parts of the country have When applied to organic bodies, containing moistdone the same. In September, 1844, we saw ure, it rapidly destroys their adhesion, or continuity standing in the Ayrshire quarter of the State Cattle of parts, and disengages from them hydrogen and Show, at Poughkeepsie, an excellent bull, imported nitrogen, forming volatile alkali. The residuum into Montreal two years previously, and sent there will be found to consist of charcoal, and of a comfor sale, with full pedigree, and approved descent, bination of lime with the phosphoric and other for which the owner could not obtain $100 ! acids, forming saline matters, which are nearly in. Two or three recently imported cows were soluble. The above effects are produced by the there also, which could have been bought for that application of lime to peat, or to soils containing sum each. And yet, with all these fine animals much vegetable matter; part of which is dissipated before the public, from several different herds of in a gaseous state, and part combines with the unquestioned excellence, the Massachusetts Society lime, forming insoluble compounds, which cannot sends to Scotla at an expense of $1,500, to buy promote vegetation, until brought into action by five Ayrshires, in no way superior to what they other saline substances, either on the principle of could at any time obtain at home for one-third superior affinity, or on that of the double elective


the money.



Hence, when hot, or newly-calcined lime is DISSOLVING BONES IN SULPHURIC ACID. broken into pieces of a small size, and mixed with

The discovery of Dr. Liebig of dissolving hones peat, moderately humid, heat is disengaged, and in sulphuric acid for the purposes of manare, has that heat, by the slacking of the lime, when it is been so clearly established by the experiments of applied in too great a proportion, is so increased, the Duke of Richmond and other agriculturists in as completely to reduce the peat to charcoal, and to Britain, that nothing seems now to be wanted but dissipate, in a gaseous state, all its component some economical plan of introducing it into the parts, excepting the ashes, part of the carbonaceous ordinary routine of farming. Mr. Pusey, in a matter, and such a portion of the carbonic acid gas paper on this subject, in a late number of the generated in the process, as is absorbed by the lime, Journal of the Royal Agricultural Socieiy of Engby which that substance is made to return to the land, points out, in a popular way, what Liebig's state of a carbonate. No benefit can, therefore, theory is, and in what ihe peculiar active principle arise by this method of preparing peat with lime, of bones consists. the object not being to destroy and dissipate in a

Bones, it is well known,” he says, “ have been gaseous state the component parts of the peat, but long used in England for the turnip crop; still, to make such a combination with the lime, and the though their success on some soils was certain, the gas generated in the process, as will, on the appli- cause of that success was by no means so clear; for cation of the mixture to ground, promote the fresh bones are made up of oil, of jeily or gelatine, growth of plants. This object is best attained by mixing newly. Joil was boiled out of the bones they still acted, and

and of phosphorus united with lime. But when the made, and completely slacked lime, with about five when the jelly was burnt out of them, they still or six times its weight of peat, which should be acted even more rapidly-so that without at all moderately humid, and not in too dry a state. In saying that either the oil did nothing, or the jelly this case,

the heat generated will be moderate, and did nothing, it became clear that the peculiar active never sufficient to convert the peat into carbona principle of bones is the phosphorus combined with ceous matter, or to throw off, in the state of a gas, the lime; and, as the quantity of the lime is insig. the acids therein contained. The gases thus gene- nificant, that it is the phosphorus—a pale substance rated will be converted into volatile alkali, which like wax, which has the singular property of giv. will combine, as it is formed, with the oxygenated | ing a faint blue light when in the dark. This part of the peat that remains unacted upon by the curious substance, it appears, which may be bought lime applied for this special purpose, in a small for a few pence, at any chemist's, is one of the proportion. By this mode of conducting the pro- main elements with which nature works in comcess, a soluble saline matter will be procured, con- pounding seeds and roots serving for the food of sisting, in part, of phosphate of ammonia, the man and of beast. beneficial effects of which on vegetation will be too

“ In bones, however, the phosphorus, in an acid apparent to need further comment.

state, is compounded with lime in such a propor Inattention, or ignorance of these important facts, tion as to form a salt called phosphate of time, has probably, in many cases, defeated the wishes which water does not dissolve, and which there. of the farmer in the application of this preparation, fore acts slowly upon the roots of crops to which it which is particularly recommended as a top-dress is applied as manure. Dr. Liebig knew that oil of ing to grounds under pasture. The proportion of vitriol (sulphuric acid), if mixed with bones, vrould the lime to the peat here given, should be carefully take to itself a part of this lime, leaving behind a attended to, and the mixing of the two substances new salt containing at least a double portion of together should be performed under cover, in a phosphorus, and therefore called superphosphate of shed or outhouse constructed for that purpose, as lime, which salt being dissolved by water, he too much rain, or a too great exposure to air, will hopeil would afford a more digestible food for the prevent a due action of the lime upon the peat. young turnip, and the result has answered his er

The success of most operations, but more espe- pectations. Such is the simple history of this cially of those of a chemical nature, greatly depends great discovery.” upon a regular and due observance of circumstances

Mr. Pusey then proceeds to describe his mode of apparently trivial.

making a compost of dissolved bones for drilling,

and details an experiment in which raw bones, CANADA GYPSUM.—Mr. Moyle, of Canada West, Fothergill's superphosphate of lime, and the comrecently addressed a communication to the Council post of dissolved bones were pitted against each of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, on other, as follows:the subject of the results obtained by him with the " I formed a flat heap of dry mould about ten cretaceous gypsum, to which he had referred in a feet across, the surface of which was scooped inio former letter ; with an opinion, that, to the use of a hollow basin, capable of holding twenty bushels this cheap dressing, he attributed the great fertility of ground fresh bones. A little water was poured of Canada, and a statement that on one of his own on, but I have since omitted the water. Sulphuric 50-acre fields, chiefly wheat

, he had, last summer, acid, to the amount of about half the weight of the grown 40 bushels to the acre; the land of his farm bones, was gradually poured into this basin. They having been through the usual rotation of crops for soon begin to heat, seething violently, and sending the nine years previous, and the portion on which out a great deal of steam, with a peculiarly offen. this wheat was grown never having had any dress- sive stench; presently the whole mixture wears the ing whatever, excepting one bushel per acre annu- appearance of boiling blood, and sweils so much ally of the plaster (gypsum) in question.

irom the escape of gas, that the workmen, stirring




it with their hoes, must take great care to prevent of preparation is slight, and of its application next it from bursting over the sides of the earthen to nothing; for Mr. Hornsby informs me that his basin. In a short time, however, the cauldron be- turnip-drill will distribute equally as small a quancomes quiet, and the bones disappear altogether, tity as 15 bushels over an acre; as then the 4% except a few fragments; so that the heap may be bushels of dissolved bones do not require to be shovelled together, and might be drilled on the mixed with more than ten or fifteen bushels of same day, but this would not be advisable, as some earth, and his drill holds 25 bushels, the use of this small lumps, still half liquid, remain in the com- compost would not require more than one stoppage post. On the first occasion, the earth and dissolved for drill on each acre. bones were left mixed together, and though per

“Mr. Fothergill's preparation, if the qualluny fectly cool when so left, 1 learned, on returning, assumed be correct, was still more successful, and, after six weeks'absence, that a second heating had having tried it elsewhere, I am enabled to speak soon taken place, and found that the heap was hot more highly of it. A neighbor, to whom I supstill. The offensive smell was gone, and was re- plied some, found that 2 cwt of this superphosplaced by the musky odor of rotten dung. I men-phate, costing then 148., answered better on his tion this circumstance because I am anxious to land for turnips than 2} cwt. of the best Peruvian draw to it the attention of chemists. This second guano, for which he had paid 32s. fermentation may be that of the animal matter con- Having tried the method described above, I tained in the bones, and may bring out its ammo- venture to recommend it to farmers; but I consider nia; if so, it will be a question whether it be de- it by no means a perfect prescription. It is not sirable thus to give time for the formation of am- clear whether the second fermentation should be monia before the manure is applied ; or whether it allowed to take place or not. It is by no means be better to drill the compost at once, allowing the clear that the proportion of acid (one-half the weight ammonia to be produced under ground, and so be of the bones) might not be diminished. It is supplied to the young plant more gradually! doubtful whether the amount of bones, 41 bushels,

“ The compost thus made was tried in July on be the right dose per acre. It is very likely that some light land, very much exhausted, and natu- phosphorus should not be administered singly, but rally unkind for the growth of turnips. The trial should be combined with potash, as Dr. Liebig adground was about two acres. On one part the vises. These are points which I beg to recomcompost of bones and acid was drilled at the rate mend to our members for future inquiry. of 4 bushels of bones to the acre; on another “ Such are the assured advantages to be derived part, bones at the rate of 20 bushels to an acre; and to the turnip crop by the solution of bones, but we 1 added, on a third part, a manure (purchased from may further hope to see the use of superphosphate Mr. Fothergill) under the name of superphosphate extended even to corn crops. Theory certainly re. of lime, at the rate of 2 cwt.

quires it; for, according to Boussingault, a crop of “ The bones and acid took the lead of the bones, four quarters of wheat to the acre draws from that and kept it throughout. I am bound to add that acre of ground at least 30 lbs. of phosphoric acid. the superphosphate prepared by Mr. Fothergill not Experience countenances it, for though bone maonly surpassed the bones, but also that which I had nure is usually applied to the turnip crop, its manufactured myself. Possibly the quantity of effects, as is well known, are seen in the following Mr. Fothergill's may have been too large for com-corn crops. But further, a direct experiment, too, parison; but though I think my own method of has proved its success. This was made by Mr. preparing superphosphate a convenient one, when Pemberton Leigh, upon wheat, the product of the bones are at hand, it appears also that if we which was as follows:can ensure the delivery of a genuine article, it will

Bushels. be still better to buy this manure ready made. In

No manure.

£0 00s. Od....29 this trial there could be no doubt that all the three Rape-dust, 5 cwt. 1 12s. 60....38 forms of bones acted strongly, for the crop grew

Urate, 6 cwl..... 1 12s. 60....38

Dung, 30 loads.. vigorously where they were used, while on spots

4 10s. Od....40 Guano, 3} cwt..

48. Od....40 where they were purposely omitted, it could

Superphosphate, 6 cwt. 4s. 9d....53 scarcely be said to grow at all; and though, from late sowing, and from being left too thick, the tur

· The increase of 24 bushels, that is, three quarnips had not time to come to maturity, the result ters of wheat per acre, by the use of superphoswas quite decisive for our present comparison. phate, is enormous, equal in fact to the whole A bout a fifth of an acre was weighed on each average yield of many farms, and could hardly be piece, with the following results :

expected again ; but though we must not hope for

so large a return in money as eight pounds for two,

Yield of turnips. this manure is so cheap that a much smaller in. 1. 20 bushels of bones.......55s... •441 cwt.

crease in the wheat crop would pay for its use.” 2. 4 bushels of bones with 100 lbs. sulphuric acid...22s... · 491 cwt.

As the statements herein quoted from Mr. Pusey 3. 2 cwt. Mr. Fothergill's su

appear to be well founded, we think the experi. perphosphate.............345.......53 cwt. ments are worthy of a trial in this country. The

expenses attending them would be comparatively “ The saving of immediate expense by Dr. trifling, considering the benefits that might be likely Liebig's discovery is certainly very great, if we to result therefrom. The cost of ground bones in take it only as from 55s. to 228. per acre on the the neighborhood of our cities and large towns, turnip land, which should be one quarter of the would not exceed $1 per hundred pounds, and that whole average of a light arable farm.' The trouble of sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol), 3 cents per lb.

One acre.




Manure per acre.


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