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REMEDY FOR THE WEEVIL IN WHEAT.-MANAGEMENT OF HONEY BEES.
invested. Indeed, taking the United States alto-sunning. It is well to examine the wheat occagether, it is doubtful whether it does.
sionally, after it is sunned, and if there should be Mr. Cockrill has had a large experience in both any appearance of the black weevil, fan the wheat kinds of business-raising cotton and wool; and all over again, and then sun it well the second has a very large capital now invested in both time. It is seldom necessary to do this more than branches, and he is confident that wool-growing in oncc, if the wheat is kept perfectly dry. Mississippi would be better than cotton, at present The white weevil attacks wheat only in large prices. His figures are, that he owns 2,000 acres stacks, in houses when in the straw, and in the of first quality of cotton land in Madison County, chaff after it is threshed. To prevent them then, it Mississippi, and with his 135 negroes, he made in will only be necessary not to expose the wheat to 1844, 1,035 bales, not quite 8 bales to the hand, them in either of the situations mentioned above. which is more than an average crop, and which Let the wheat remain in shocks until it is ready to will not average over 5 cenis a pound, is $20 a be threshed, fan it immediately after threshing, and bale, exclusive of freight, commissions, and steal- then let it be sunned, and put away in a dry place, ings. Besides the land and working hands, there and securely covered. The white weevil is also is a large sum invested in teams and implements, common in the middle section of this State, though and supernumerary negroes, besides a great outlay not so injurious to wheat as the black weevil. for medicine, clothing, and provisions, over and Butts Co., Georgia, May 18, 1846. :X above what is produced upon the plantation. In fact, some plantations fall short of bales to the
MANAGEMENT OF HONEY BEES-No. 1. hand, and make no clothing and provisions, but
The art of managing bees in this country is but buy everything. I have stated the quantity of land and Pocks and hands upon the sheep farm. very imperfectly understood, so far as profit, health,
and productiveness are concerned. These 2,000 head of sheep will produce $2,000 worth of wool a year at least, besides all the profit
It is generally supposed that bees require little or of the other stock mentioned. It is easy to see from the ravages of the bee-moth, it is a mere mat
no air, and if they prove unproductive, or are lost which capital pays the best interest. does he continue the cotton business ? --simply, beter of chance, wholly beyond the control of the cause he has not been able to get rid of it. He sold out when the business was much better than it sonal experience in the management of bees for
I now propose giving the result of my own peris now, but the purchaser failed, and he had to take back the whole again. If Mr. Cockrill would tell some years, on Long Island ; and from the happy us his experience, it would be far more valuable to marks will not prove wholly void of interest, or
effects of my course of procedure, I think my reyour readers than these scraps and items which I have picked up by the way.
advantage, to those who are unsuccessful in this
branch of amusement and profit. I have some more scraps of interesting matter in
The first desideratum is the dimensions of the my notes which I have taken during my travels hive. There is a certain size, of which hives that I may be able to give you at a future day.
must be made, in order to ensure success in its SOLON ROBINSON.
greatest degree. If we make them too small, the REMEDY FOR THE WEEVIL IN WHEAT. unfavorable winter, and from the ravages of the
bees are more liable to perish from the effects of an As no person has answered the inquiries of your bee-moth, in consequence of the weak condition of correspondent, Mr. Lewis, Vol. 4, page 377 of the the stock. If we construct them too large, the bees Agriculturist, relative to the prevention of weevil will require two years to fill the hives, and increase in wheat, I feel that I should not act liberally to by swarming is much lessened, and in some cases withhold some facts from him and the public, entirely prevented for a series of years. Now, in which have come under my own observation. As order to illustrate this position, I will observe that I am largely indebted to the Agriculturist, and its hives are used in this country from 8 by 12 inches, able correspondents, for much valuable information to 12 by 18 inches. If we use the smaller size, the on agricultural subjects, I am willing to contribute quantity of bees that the dimensions of the hive admy mite to the common stock, pro bono publico. mit of wintering over, is too small to do well, as
In the middle part of Georgia, the black weevil it has been thoroughly tested, that strong stocks infests the wheat more or less every year, unless winter better, and consume less honey than weaker precautions are taken to prevent them. Sunning ones! This may appear strange to the uninitiated, ihe wheat three days, spread thin on a scaffold, will yet it is true, for the reason that the bees are less prevent them effectually. Put the wheat up while exposed, in strong stocks, to the various winter it is warm from the heat of the sun. It is best to changes of weather, to which our climate is subturn the hogsheads or boxes, in which it is kept, ject. A few warm days in winter will put the over a bark fire, and heat them, so as to destroy all whole of a small stock in motion, whereas a strong the eggs of the weevil about them. If the boxes one is much less affected ; and when once aroused are too large to handle or turn over, place a stove, from their lethargy, they consume double the or a small oven in them, in which make a bark fire, quantity of honey that they do when in a state of 80 as to heat them, taking care to prevent accidents quietude. But setting this matter entirely out of from the fire. Some persons put lime, ashes, salt, the question, there is yet a good reason for having the leaves of the pride of India, and many other larger hives. Bees in their natural state throw off, substances, to prevent the weevil from injuring generally at first, swarms of a size that nature wheat; but my experience is decidedly in favor of teaches them are best adapted to prove prosperous ;
DOMESTIC FISH-PONDS.—NO. 2. .
and it matters not how large you furnish hives, of winter weather, and also to be in better condi. where they swarm, which is seldom in very large tion to resist the approaches of the bee-moth, than hives, the quantity of bees is not in proportion to an extended surface would admit of. the size of the hive, but in accordance with the Well, in regard to my large hives, I saw the fal. laws of nature. Now, to come to the point with as lacy of such dimensions, and conceived the idea of few words as possible, I have found, irom practi- cutting them off in April last, while occupied with cal demonstration, that hives one foot square in the bees, which operation I performed personally with clear, conform more to the natural requirements of a common handsaw, the modus operandi of which bees than any other. It is a consideration with I will give in a succeeding chapter, as well as of apiarians who make a business of the sale of bees, some other difficult and perilous performances. I to make their hives much less than this, as thereby say, perilous, for, when a thousand bees dart with they increase their profits. I have an instance of furious ire at one's hands or face, a small displacethe deplorable effects of this, in the case of a neigh- ment of any part of his shield, by accident, would bor, who went to great expense in building bee be worse for him than the charging of the Mexican houses, which he filled with “ patent hives,” from batteries, as did the indomitable Capt. May and his a well-known apiarian of New York, on the prin- valiant dragoons ! ciple of 8 by 10, or somewhere about this size, at After cutting these hives off, I found that they
enormous cost, and now, where are they? contained but a very few more bees than hives of From six hives procured several years ago, he has 12 by 12, of last year's swarms, and these stocks in only one now remaining, and when I last saw that hives of that size, actually swarmed this season one, solitary and alone,” throwing out an occa- first. This result, with various other proofs, ren. sional pale sickly bee, in quest of food, while the dered it conclusive to my mind, that hives very near air of my premises was literally “vocal with square are best, and that 12 by 12 inches in the music,” and the furious dashing whiz that resound clear, when managed on my plan, is as near correct ed about my ears as I approached them, giving as can be. indications of power, vigor, and prosperity— 1 say, In my next I shall treat of the position of the when I saw this great difference from positions apiary -ventilation of hives—the bee-moth; how only a few rods distant, I grieved that darkness guarded against, and the fallacy of the “
“ patent should yet hover over the apiaries of thousands hive" system, as adapted and recommended by some who seem indifferent to their success, or rather con- of our apiarians.
T. B. MINER, sider success as a matter of chance rather than of Ravenswood, Long Island, June 1st, 1846. science.
Having spoken of the effects of too small hives, I DOMESTIC FISH-PONDS.-No. 2. will now give my experience in too large ones. Modes of Stocking the Ponds with Fish.—The
In 1842 I had a few hives made 12 by 18 inches, ponds may be stocked from the nearest rivers, in the clear. (In speaking of the size of hives, i lakes, or ponds. If the fish are to be brought from refer to the body of the hive for theadwelling of the a great distance in tubs or casks, the water must be stock, without any regard to what are termed changed every four or five hours, and always kept supers for storifying.) I found that it took the more or less in motion, particularly for trout. By bees two seasons to fill them, and when filled they adding ice, however, the time of changing the wa. did not swarm at all some seasons, for this reason, ter may be prolonged. The fish, if possible, should that however great the quantity of the bees in the be taken in nets, and be put instantly into the tubs summer and fall there is in a hive, they dwindle for transportation ; but if they be caught with lines, away before spring, to a certain quantity, and thus care should be observed not to wound them more leave a vacant space of some six inches, or more, at than can be helped in extricating them from the the bottom of the hive, to fill up with the increase hook. of spring, while smaller hives are full, and are It has been recommended to stock a pond by col. throwing off swarms in profusion. Not only does lecting ripe spawn and carrying it in water mixed this retard swarming, but the queen bee, in whose with grass, and speedily placing it in the shallow power all swarming lies, surveys the space of her and sandy part of the pond, in order that it may retenement, and if she finds that the whole room can ceive the influence of the heat and light of the be occupied by her vassals, she will either lay the sun ; but how far this mode would succeed in foundation of no new queens, or when they are bringing the spawn of the white fish and of the brought into existence, she will destroy them as Mackanaw trout from the Great Lakes to the fast as they appear, and no swarm is ever thrown waters near the seaboard, nothing short of an acoff without a queen; hence, large hives are not tual experiment can determine. In attempting to only unproductive as regards increase of swarms, introduce these fishes into Lake George, Cham. but there will not as much honey be stored in the plain, Winnipisiogee, or other waters of great supers in hives 15 or 18 inches deep, as in those of depth, or to introduce tench and carp from Europe less depth, for the reason of the greater obstruction into artificial ponds in the United States, the surest to which the workers are liable in ascending to the mode of success, it is thought, would be, to select supers ; this being the case, it would naturally with care, a small number of each kind of fish, just suggest to our minds that broad and shallow hives before their spawning season arrives, and convey would do better than those that are about square, them as speedily as possible, in large cisterns or such as I consider best. This would be the case so tanks, paying particular attention to regulate the far as storifying honey is concerned, but it is im- temperature of the water, and change it as often as portant that the bees should be kept as compact as circumstances may require. That the common possible, to secure them against the sudden changes carp (Cyprinus carpio), originally from the central
DOMESTIC FISH-PONDS.-NO. 2.
part of Europe, can be introduced into this country, abounded in its waters, as well as the smaller fishes is proved beyond a doubt, as Capt. Henry Robinson, common to all our lakes. In the Skaneateles, only late master of one of the Havre packets, of New. three miles distant, were found the perch and the burgh, N.Y., imported from France in 1831 and 1832, salmon trout, both strangers to the Otisco. A six or seven dozen of these fish, and put them into dozen perch of medium size were caught with some ponds on his estate, where they have bred hooks, put in a barrel of water, and transported freely every year since. They were brought in from one lake to the other without difficulty. The small parcels of two or three dozen each, about third year from their removal, the Otisco seemed to two-thirds of which perished on their passage. be filled with them; and I have frequently heard it For a few years past he has put from one to two remarked, that in that, and the succeeding year, the dozen, every spring, into the Hudson, near his re- perch, both for size and number, exceeded that of sidence, and they have multiplied so fast, that the any year since in these respects. A quanfishermen frequently take them in their nets. It is tity of pickerel were the same season introduced in stated that, in Mr. Robinson's ponds, which are the same way; but they have not multiplied. small, they acquire a length of three or four inches Indeed, we have never heard of a fish of this kind the first year; but owing to the limited space in being taken in the Otisco." which they have to move, they do not ordinarily Change of Residence of Fish from Salt Water to attain a length of more than ten or twelve inches. Fresh.—The introduction of salt-water fish into In the Hudson, however, they considerably exceed fresh ponds or lakes, has often been attempted both that size. They breed twice a year-the middle of in Europe and in America, and in a few instances May and of July.
has been attended with success. In the London The common perch (Perca fluviatilis) of Europe - Quarterly Journal of Science, Literature, and is so very tenacious of life, that it could readily be Art,” for 1826, several species of fish are mentionimported into the United States, as it has been ed, as having been transported from salt water into known to survive a journey of nearly sixty miles, fresh, and that their favor had been improved by when merely packed in wet straw!
the change. The sole became twice as thick as a K* The successful removal of several species of fish fish of the same size from the sea. The plaice also from one body of water to another, in this country, increased materially in thickness—in some cases, is known with certainty, as may be seen by appearing three times as thick as when grown in perusing a paper by the late Dr. Mitchill, in the salt water. The barse likewise turned much thick. third volume of the “ Medical Repository.” He er, and improved in delicacy. The mullet almost states that, in 1790, Uriah Mitchill, high sheriff of ceased to increase in length, but enlarged in Queen's county, N. Y., and himself, went in a breadth, and presented a much deeper layer of fat. wagon to Ronkonkoma Pond, in Suffolk county, a In the same journal last mentioned, for the year distance of about forty miles. “ The object of our 1824, we learn that the smelt (Osmerus eperlanus) journey," he says, was to transport alive, some had been kept four years by Mr. Meynell, of of the yellow perch (Perca flavescens) with which Yarm, in Yorkshire, in a fresh-water pond, having this body of water abounds, to Success Pond, in no communication with the sea, and there “ grew the town of North Hempstead. We took about well, and bred as freely, as under other circum. three dozen of those which had been wounded stances.” In the “ Philosophical Transactions,” most superficially by the hook, and we were so for 1771, we find the following extract in a note, fortunate as to dismiss all of them but two into by Daines Barrington, then Vice President of the Success Pond, in a condition vigorous enough to Royal Society, to a letter from John Reinhold swim away. We were enabled to do this by filling Foster, “On the Management of Carp in Polish a very large churn with the water of Ronkónkoma Prussia.” _" I have been informed by Sir Francis Pond, and putting so few fishes into it that there Barnard (the late Governor of New England), that was no necessity of changing it on the road, and in a large pool which he rented not far from Bosafterwards driving steadily on a walk the whole ton, and which had not the least communication distance, without stopping to refresh either man or with the sea, several of these fish (American smelt, horse. In two years, these fishes multiplied so Osmerus viridescens ?) originally introduced from fast, and became so numerous, that they might be salt water, had lived many years, and were, to all caught with the hook in any part of the water, appearance, very healthy.” As Governor Barnard's which is about a mile in circumference.” Another residence was not far from Jamaica Pond, in Rox. instance is recorded in the fortieth volume of Silli- bury, Mass., there can be but little doubt that the man's “ American Journal of Science and Arts,” by " large pool” mentioned in the above-named note, & correspondent from Otisco, N. Y. “ About 15 referred to that body of water. Dr. D. H. Storer, years since,” says the writer, “Mr. Robert Kinyon, in reporting to the Boston Society of Natural Histhen living in the village of Amber, on the east tory, in 1840, on some smelts taken from this pond, shore of Otisco Lake, in Onondaga county, deter- said, “ The specimens, you perceive, are considemined to make an effort to introduce into its waters, rably smaller than those purchased in our market yellow perch from the Skaneateles, in the waters of all that I have seen from this pond, for the last which they abound; pickerel, from the cluster of year, are smaller than those commonly met with. lakes or ponds that constitute the extreme northern From the quantities yearly taken, however, they sources of the Tioughuioga branch of the Susque- must have increased considerably in number, and hannah river, in some of which this fish is very their flesh has lost nothing of its sweetness or flavor, plentiful. Neither of these fishes had been seen in as I have repeatedly had opportunities of testing.” the Otisco; but suckers, an occasional white fish Among other instances in which fish from the from the lakes, and the delicious speckled trout' sea have been made to reside in fresh water, may
be mentioned the successful introduction of the Panama, at which point the Cordillera has a less European cod, a few years since, into the lakes of elevation than is suited to its nature and wants. Scotland, where, it is said, they propagate freely, The point nearest to the equator at which Andes but, unfortunately, deteriorate in flavor. I have sheep were originally noticed, is said to be Rio recently been told that the American cod (Morrhua Bamba, situated in latitude 1° 38'S., about ninety americana) was introduced from the sea, at Hamp- miles southwest of Quito, and not far from the ton, a year or two ago, into Lake Winnipissiogee, snow-capped mountains of Chimborazo. The town in New Hampshire, where they have already begun stands 11,670 feet above the level of the sea, to to multiply, and it is thought will succeed well
. which elevation the temperature of the air corresIt will also be seen by referring to vol. 3, p. 259, ponds. In this tropical region, and consequently of the American Agriculturist, that Mr. R. L. Pell, on a spot where excessive heats might be expected of Ulster county, N. Y., was attempting to “ fresh- during the month of August, the two Ulloas rewaterize” some American shad (Alosa præstabilis) marked that, towards evening, the thermometer which he had caught in the Hudson, in front of his regularly fell two or three degrees below the freezfarm, and speedily placed in one of his ponds. ing point, and next morning rose eight or twelve These fish are said still to exist in their confined above it, which would indicate that, at certain habitation, and have begun to breed; but how far elevations, no land is exempt from the dominion of the experiment will prove available, in point of frost. profit, yet remains to be known.
Although, from the point above mentioned, across New York, June 10, 1846. D'JAY BROWNE. the equator, the climate becomes milder, and vege
tation more abundant, it has been remarked that the THE ALPACA.-No. 2.'
wild species do not pass the line, but continue sta. On no two points, according to our informant, do tionary there-a phenomenon for which some the early writers on Peru so perfectly agree, as in Peruvian writers have endeavored to account, by the number of species of the Andes sheep, and the alleging, that the ycho or ichu plant, a coarse grass, purposes to which the Incas applied them. They and the favorite food of both the tame and wild state, as already observed in our last No., that species, does not extend further towards the north. there were four kinds, two tame and two wild-a
It has been remarked by physiologists, that the fact too well established to admit of a doubt; and, size of animals is usually adapted to the nature of as our avowed object in laying these sketches be the country which they are born to inhabit. This fore the public, is to throw light, and elicit the in- is not the case in the present instance; and quiry, whether the rearing of the alpaca is appli- whether we consider the great extent of the Andes cable to the soil, climate, and rural industry of the mountains, their stupendous forms, the immense United States, we shall not enter into these nice elevation of their summits, or the severity of the distinctions, but regard them as coming within the climate prevailing upon them, the more shall we sphere of the practical zoologist, rather than under be astonished at the diminutive size and delicate any effort of ours.
frame of the quadrupeds dwelling in those secluded
The woolly natives, nevertheless, possess a hardiness of constitution, and a peculiarity of structure, admirably well adapted to the nature of their birth-place. There, during half the year, snow and hail fall incessantly, whilst in the higher regions, as before noticed, nearly every night the thermometer falls below the freezing point, and the peaks, consequently, are perpetually covered with an accumulation of ice. The wet season succeeds, when flashes of lightning traverse the clouds in rapid succession; the thunder rolls through the firmament in rumbling and prolonged peals, fol. lowed not by showers, but by torrents of rain, which, after collecting, fall headlong from the rocks, or pour into the crags and chasms, leaving the slopes bare of soil, and spreading desolation wherever they pass, till at length the stream is lost in some lake, or serves to swell the head waters of a river.
It is astonishing that the temperature of the air
on mountains so peculiarly situated, and exposed to THE ALPACA OR PACO OF CUVIER.-Fig. 55.
the full blaze of a vertical sun, should be so much Geographical Distribution.—The Alpaca (Camelus chilled as almost to present the desolate aspect of paco, of Linnæus; Auchenia glama v. alpaca, of the arctic regions; and yet such are the tracts of Cuvier) in its natural habitat, in common with its land upon which the Andes sheep abound and congener the llama, abounds on the Andes, where thrive—the flocks, more especially those of alpacas, its absence or presence is observed, as the summits being still, comparatively speaking, considerable in of these vast mountains become elevated or de- the vicinity of Rio Bamba, where the inhabitants pressed. Thus it ranges considerably below the evince a great aptitude for woollen manufactures, line of perpetual snow, from Chili to New Granada and carry on a trade in the raw material Of alpaca (but not Mexico), without reaching the isthmus ofl and vicuña wools the women knit stockings,
colored cloaks, and also gloves equally ornamental. the members of one flock seldom stray away and Ponchos or men's surtouts, are woven in colors, and mix with another, being kept in a good state of disof so delicate a texture, as to be worth $700 each.cipline by the old ones, which know their own They are also used throughout Peru as a riding grounds, and become attached to the place of their dress, by the wealthiest ladies.
nativity, to which they return at night, evincing an Pursuing their researches, the Spaniards ascer- astonishing vigilance and sagacity in keeping the tained that, at the period of their arrival, llama and young ones together, and free from harm. Hence alpaca flocks on the coast were kept as far as the there is no need of their being marked; and so fortieth degree of south latitude, and inland as far great is the intelligence of some punteros, or leaders as the territory of the Araucanos, in which space of a fock, that a more than ordinary value is, on they occupied the middle declivities of the Andes, this account, attached to them by the owner, part of facing the west, wherever population was concen- whose duties they perform. trated. Alonso de Ovalle, a Jesuit, and a native of The most valuable breeds are said to come from Chili, in his “ Historica Relacion del Reyno de the central provinces ; and here it may not be irre. Chili” (Rome, 1646), says that in the capital of levant to observe that there are two varieties of Santiago, llamas formerly had been used to carry alpacas, differing in size, figure, and fleece. The wheat, wine, and other articles, and also to bring breed called coyás is the most diminutive, and is water from the river to the houses.
esteemed for the smallness of bone and symmetry Along the extended range above named, the tame of form. It is chiefly confined to the Cusco range breeds were left to browse. The sheltered part of of mountains, more particularly to that part of it a hill, the bottom of a dale, or the furzy heath, intervening between the ancient city of the Incas were their favorite haunts. There they picked up and Haumanga. It is thought to be a remnant of their scanty and scattered food, under the lower the old royal flocks, or those once owned by the boundary of the snow, ascending as it disappeared priests of the sun, who are represented as having from the surface. Sometimes they fed on the the choicest breeds. That territory was besides the mosses which fringe the rocks, and plants growing principal theatre of agricultural operations, the seat on the hillocks, or would descend the slopes and of power, and the centre of Peruvian civilisation, enter the ichuales (pastures of the ichu plant); It was from this breed that the beautiful white and while in the higher and more secluded regions, brown alpaca (fig. 56) owned by Mr. Cross, late of reaching nearly to the summits of the lofty chain, the Surrey Zoological Gardens, was obtained. as well as on both sides of the double line which it assumes in Peru, there dwelt the vicuña and guanaco in a wild state, and far from the abode of man, hunted only for their flesh and skins.
The comparatively small size of Peruvian sheep, | as well as of the vegetable forms by which they are surrounded, clearly indicates that the climate of the Andes is not favorable either to animal or vege. table growth. It has also been remarked, that there the human species is subject to the same rule; man decreasing in bulk and stature in proportion as he dwells near the mountain summits. In Peru, the winter sets in towards June, and is severely felt on the highlands, where the snow remains upon the ground six, and in some places eight months in the year.
As soon as the narrow and green strip of land bordering upon the Pacific is passed, the traveller begins to ascend the slopes; and when he attains the first table-land, observes a complete change in the climate and the appearance of vegetation. Except in the yungas, or hollows, where an alluvial soil has been collected, and where the Indian plants his sugar-cane, banana, and esculent roots, the country wears a naked and barren aspect.
" THE ALPACA OF MR. CROSS.-FIG. 56.! Here, at an elevation of from 8,000 to 12,000 feet above the level of the sea, the Peruvian tends This specimen was originally brought from Lima, his alpacas and llamas, allowing them to range at where it had been a pet; and the perforations in its the foot of the snowy cliffs called punas, or to ears, in which ornamental rings had been placed, wander on the paramos, or heaths, where they de- were still visible. Its graceful attitudes, gentle rive subsistence from the moss and lichens growing disposition, and playful manners, were particularly on the rocks, or crop the strong grasses and tender attractive. Ladies frequently caressed it as if it had shrubs which spring up upon the flats, favored by been a child. Although kept in the unwholesome moisture. On these commons the animals may be atmosphere of a crowded city, pent up in a close said to shift for themselves, exposed to all the rigor room, and unavoidably fed on unsuitable diet, it of the elements, and receiving, no food from the nevertheless attained the usual age ; thus affording hand of man. The shepherd only visits them occa- as satisfactory an example of hardihood as could sionally; yet such are their gregarious habits, that be wished.