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this country. They were owned by the late Wm. I have now passed every article in the March McClure, of Philadelphia. Let us have this valu. No. of the paper under review, except the adverable work reprinted. The country needs it. [The tisements, and some of them might be commented attempt was made two or three years ago, and on with profit, but I desist. My review is already proved a failure. We would inform Reviewer that a very long one. But I hope it does not contain an a work is now in the press of Messrs. Harper of unusual amount of superfluous matter. this city, by Mr. Browne, which will not only em. My object has not been to praise or blame, or brace the substance of Michaux's work, but will pick flaws, but to write an article to do good. At also treat of the principal fruit and ornamental trees present, I prefer concealing my name. But, as a of this country, and may be bought for the reason-general rule, I think that correspondents should able sum of $5.)

give theirs, with the place of residence, and even Life in California.-More annexation. No the latitude would be useful.. I hope no one will objection. It is destiny. And that“ representative” fear to write on account of the reviewer, for if I will come to Congress at St. Louis, upon a railroad. should continue to review (which is doubtful), it If this is visionary, it is a vision of futurity, which shall be done in a spirit of good-will to all men. our children (if we had any, Mr. Editor) would The next shall be an improvement upon this live to see.

i. e., shorter, consequently better. REVIEWER. European Agriculture, No. 5.—Have not seen it. But, upon the whole (doubtful praise), I am glad to When our correspondent criticised our article on

that

you “ like the latter part of this the stable, May No., page 160, we wrote the fol. number better than anything which has yet appear.lowing explanation, which we intended should ed in Mr. Coleman's work. Now, the fact is, and have been inserted at the time, but there not being it ought to be spoken out boldly, this work is a flat room for it on that page, we thought proper to defer failure. It is not what the American reader ex- it till he got through with his review. pected from Mr. Coleman's pen ; and it is dear at The cut made use of in March No., was intended cost. I never saw a number of this paper, that I to illustrate a method of managing a kicker, and the did not esteem of more value than any of the four rack had nothing to do with the illustration of that first numbers of Mr. Coleman's tour. I am not particular subject. The artist probably put it in alone in my opinion. And if there is not substan- for effect, and to set off his cut; why else it should tial reason for the public to “like better the suc- appear there would puzzle us no less than Receeding numbers, there will be a very loud speak- viewer. By looking over the preceding numbers ing out.

on the Stable, he will find that we have given Agricultural School. These attempts of indi- illustrations of many kinds of racks and hay viduals to do a national work, however praise-mangers, good and bad, indicating our decided preworthy, can never succeed. When the agricul- ference for low ones, as the best

. And yet some turists themselves will lay aside their foolish horses must have a different kind. squabbles for “party,” and send more from their Reviewer's method of preventing kicking by own body to legislate for them, then

may we expect hobbles is a good one in the open fields, though it to see agricultural schools worthy their name, and frequently disfigures

, and sometimes utterly ruins, not till then.

the horse; but we must take the risk of that. It is Important Discovery.--Not half so important as generally used, however, to prevent jumping or it would be to hear that an improvement had been straying away ; to apply it in the stable where the made in the present manner of cultivating and pre- kicking is most dangerous, would be very hazard. paring the hemp crop for market.

We doubt whether a hobbled horse could Review of the Market.—As farmers, what have get up in a narrow stall after lying down to rest, we to complain of these prices current? But we and in his efforts to do so, he would be very likely can, if we will, learn a useful lesson. For in- to injure himself so materially as to become utterly stance, here is a difference of fifty per cent, in the useless. price of butter, All cwing to the manner of pre As to smooth shoeing, we contend that it is best paring it for market. Cheese varies 100 per cent., in all countries during the dry or summer months ; and ought to vary a thousand, for the same reason in the winter or muddy months, Southern horses The variation of cotton from 6 10 10 cents is partly would require corks to their shoes, as well as those owing to natural quality ; but there is an immense at the North, otherwise they would slip badly, and loss upon the same quality of this crop to the plant- the fatigue of travelling consequently be greatly er, which is entirely owing to the slovenly manner increased. • of preparing it for market. One mill per pound upon

this
crop

in the United States makes a great IMPORTANT Fact.–From experiments made in sum of money. The same remarks will apply to England some time since, by Dr. Anderson, it was almost every article of produce. In noticing the ascertained that 1 bushel of wheat measured in a calile market, we are impressed with the fact that vessel 11š inches deep, weighed 56 lbs. 68 oz.; and we are enormous consumers of meat. Is it the that a bushel of the same kind of wheat, measured most healthy or most economical diet? . . In the in another vessel 84 inches deep, weighed 56 lbs. premium list of the State Ag. Society, shall we find og oz., making a difference of rather more than one a premium of $100 to the society of that county bushel in 144-a loss of some moment when large that furnishes evidence of taking the greatest num- quantities are delivered. The same principle will ber of agricultural papers? They could not offer a apply to rye, oats, barley, and many other subbetter one.

stances sold by measure.

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224

TRANSPLANTING AND GRAFTING TREES. TRANSPLANTING AND GRAFTING TREES. against negligent treatment, and the most withering

drought. In looking over agricultural journals and other

Whether there is anything in a southern climate, publications during the last year, I have observed

or in accidental circumstances, to account for these numerous articles upon the planting of fruit and things, I do not pretend to say. Possibly attempts ornamental trees. These almost without excep. may be made to explain them in some such way. tion differ so widely from my own experience, that To me it appears anything but unreasonable to rethough averse to obtruding my thoughts and opi- gard them as facts founded in nature. A tree renions upon the public, I am induced in the present moved when entirely destitute of sap, has nothing instance to address a few lines to you with the to sustain it against the blighting influences natuhope of offering some useful suggestions. The rally consequent upon such a change of condition. general strain of teaching on this subject is that Its whole system receives a shock at the outset by almost all trees, whether for fruit or ornament, the breaking of its roots; and it shrinks and should be transplanted before the close of February withers from other causes before new roots can put at the latest, and, in fact, it seems to be an estab- forth to sustain it. But, on the contrary, if removed lished axiom, that a tree is never to be removed after after the circulation has commenced, it has sufficient the sap has begun to circulate. As far as my own to live upon while the rootlets or fibres, which experience extends, this rule, which, if I am not mis- always protrude simultaneously with the leaves and taken, is to be found in almost so many words in branchlets, are shooting out in search of new supone of the numbers of the Agriculturist for 1845, is plies of nourishment (a). wholly wrong; and if we would save ourselves

The same view of the case will serve to explain much trouble and expense in this most interesting another fact, viz., that grafts take much better if and important department of our rural affairs, it cut after the sap has begun to flow. At least such should be exactly reversed in all cases, except has been the result of my own observations the where trees are to be transported so far as to occa- present season. Of a large number taken from the sion their being kept long out of the ground. In tree just as the buds were beginning to swell, only other words, never remove a tree, where you have one of my own has failed; and a neighbor, who the opportunity of replanting it immediately, till used largely from the same lot, has lost not one. In after the sap has not only started, but begun to cir- this case, however, the stocks were in leas into culate freely. If this appears to be a strange and which the grafts were inserted, and this, it would unreasonable doctrine, it can only be said in reply, seem but reasonable should always be the case. “ one fact is worth a thousand theories ; and there of my grafts which were cut this year in January are more things in this world than are dreamed of and February, and inserted with equal care, not one in our philosophy."

half succeeded.

T.'S. W. Mott. It is now eight or twelve years since I first began Belvoir, N. C., May 21, 1846. to improve a small place in the western part of North Carolina. I commenced setting out a very (a) Much has been written respecting the proper considerable number of trees of various kinds, season for transplanting trees-summer and autumn among which, however, were a large proportion of for evergreens, and spring or mild weather in win. the common locust. This was done during the ter for deciduous trees. The principle which justimonths of January and February, according to fies these practices is, that all plants whatever, rule; but to my great disappointment, not a dozen with few exceptions, are most safely removed when of the whole collection took root. The year fol- they are in a comparatively dormant state, and when lowing the effort was renewed with similar results, the weather is temperate, and the air moist and and so matters went on for several seasons in suc- still, rather than dry and in motion. As it is cession. At tast, accidental circumstances prevent, known that the greatest degree of torpidity in any ed my obtaining trees till it was so late that I had plant exists a short time before it begins to grow or little or no expectation of their living. About 20 push out shoots, late in winter or early in spring, locusts were procured just as the leaves were burst- is regarded as the best time for transplanting. The ing into view, and of these only one failed to live chief difference to be regarded between evergreens and flourish. At the same time a number of young and deciduous trees, is that, from the circumstance apple trees were transplanted, on which the leaves of the former being at no time, whatever, in a comwere fully, out. They had been carried several pletely dormant state, they may be removed at any miles in the hot sun, without protection to the time in winter, spring, or autumn, when the wearoots; yet of these only two perished.

ther will least affect their fibrous roots and leaves Subsequent experience has fully sustained the by evaporation. This is in perfect accordance idea thus suggested. Of nearly 200 trees trans- with the practice of the best gardeners; and it has planted lately at my present residence, not one was been laid down as the most judicious mode founded removed till late in the spring-all after the sap had on experience. As the apple tree and the common begun to flow, and many after the leaves, had at- locust are both very tenacious of life, they may tained a considerable size. Of these scarcely any both be propagated when kept moist, with great are dead, and without exception were such as were facility, at almost any season, by cuttings of the taken up earliest in the season, and in the most roots, or by suckers, which are often thrown up in backward state. The same has been found the great numbers around the trunks ; but if our corcase with evergreens. Pines, and other trees of the respondent were to attempt to cultivate the walnut, same family, when transplanted in winter, have and many other trees, by his mode of transplanting, rarely done well; whereas those set out late in the we think he would be sorely disappointed. Tis spring, have been found to contend successfully true, we believe, as he intimates, that the mildness

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of the climate in the Southern States has a strong rinos" belong” to what he is pleased to call a tendency to accelerate the propagation of trees; for," family of Vermont Merinos,"_" the most comit appears that, in the north of France, and in cold mon one claiming purity of blood, with heavy carcountries generally, some trees do not readily bud cases, and heavy medium quality, and rather un. nor graft by any mode; but, in the south of France, even fleeces," he leads his readers to a wrong con. and north of Italy, they may be budded or grafted clusion. My American Merinos were selected by different modes, with success.

mostly from Hocks out of the State, and the best We have so little experience individually in that could be found, though no better than can be Southern agriculture, that we are unprepared to give found here. The best American Merinos are any but a general opinion on the subject of trans- somewhat alike-very much alike--and for this planting, and shall therefore be quite obliged if reason, I supposed mine were like Col. R.’s, not Mr. Mott will continue his experiments, extending meaning to disparage his in the least. Yet I am them to the different kinds of trees grown in his free to acknowledge, that I have nothing in this climate, and inform us of the results. With the last named race that will for a moment compare adincreased culture of fruits, and a more prevailing vantageously with the Rambouillets. If Col. Ran. disposition to beautify and adorn the country, the dall has, I shall heartily rejoice in his good fortune. subject of transplanting is becoming of increased I have the opinion, however, that neither he nor importance to our Southern friends, and it would any other flock-master in the country can rejoice in certainly be a great desideratum to know the best so good fortune as this at present, and that nothing time of the year to perform the operation. can be shown equal to the Rambouillets, of the

pure Merino race, until another importation is made RAMBOUILLET MERINOS.

from the Royal Flock in France. And so well is I have but a few words to say in reply to your that more than one importation will be made within

the country convinced of this, that I am persuaded anonymous correspondent, “ L.” I intend to send my fleeces from the Rambouillet flock, to Mr.! a year from this date. "Meantime I must decline for Samuel Lawrence, Middlesex Mills, Lowell, Mass.; the future all controversy and all challenges on and if any friend of his will keep back the

the subject.

L. G. BINGHAM. coarsest fleeces of his flock, and send an equal num

Williston, Vermont, June, 10, 1846. ber of his finest American Merino fleeces, and it is found on stapling, scouring, and selling, that his are Mr. Randall meeting

Mr. Bingham at Lowell

, with

We hope, now, that this matter may be closed by finer, heavier, and sell for more than my 36 Rambouillet fleeces, then, and not till then, will I believe his fleeces. In the Review of our April No., just that there are American Merino flocks that equal received, and for which we regret to say we shall them in value. For my own part, I feel no interest not have room this month, the writer so briefly in this comparison-confident as I am of the high expresses our own opinion, and we suspect that value of this race of sheep--and not disposed to call also of the public generally, that we give the para." in question the merits of other flocks, or enter into graph in advance of his article :controversy with any one on the subject of com

si Rambouillet Merinos.—Too much controversy parative value. I rejoice in all real improvement,

on this subject to be profitable to your readers. If and will hold on the even tenor” of my way, not Mr. Bingham's flock do average 5 lbs. per head of deeming it any interference with my duty or the real Merino wool, then it is a good flock. If Mr. rights of others, to endeavor to promote general im- Randall's average more, and better wool, then his provement by what I judge to be the best means.

flock is better ; to prove which, send the whole to I saw from the last paper of your worthy corres- Mr. Lawrence, of Lowell, and publish his certifipondent, “ L.,” that he has never seen the Ram- cate of the relative value of their respective fleeces, bouillet Merinos, and that he is consequently and let us hear no more of this uninteresting diswriting just as much in the dark about them, as I pute of which is best.” should be in writing about Herefords, having never

We expect an American gentleman, now in seen any thorough bred cattle but Short-Horns. i France, celebrated for his knowledge of sheep and take it for granted that a man must be supposed to wool, will arrive here next month with a choice know very little about a race of sheep, or a particu- selected lot of Rambouillets, for his own particular lar flock of that race, which he has never seen. breeding; arrangements also are made for another

I object to comparing “samples—for the reason, select lot to follow these next spring, so that by that they are no true test of the value of the fleece another year, these, together with Mr. Bingham's Very good samples may be taken from very poor, superb flock, will give the public a good opportuuneven fleeces. The great excellence of the Ram- nity of judging for themselves how Rambouillet bouillets, as a flock, consists, not only in the fineness sheep compare with our native Merinos. but also in the evenness of the fleece-running so nearly alike over every part of the woolly surface WEATHER RULES.—If the moon looks pale and --and in this respect, differing widely from all such dim, we may expect rain; if it be red, look out for American Merinos as I have seen—though I have wind; and if its color be of a natural, white, the seen of these last very good sheep, as individuals, weather will be fair. in this respect: but as flocks they are always defective, so far as my knowledge extends. I have but one word more. “ L.” writes with

How to DRIVE AWAY MOSQUITOES.-Fumigate courtesy and as a gentleman, intending no injustice. the room containing them, by burning brown sugar Yet when he “supposes” that my American Me on a shovel or pan of coals.

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an age

Ladies' Department.

could not have been stronger had he desired the post of hangman. These things ought not so to

be, and yet a change cannot speedily be effected unCHOICE OF BUSINESS PURSUITS FOR til our farmers become less what they now are, a CHILDREN.

peculiar people. True, agriculture is making “ There is a frequent complaint among farmers, rapid progress, and fast becoming what it should that their sons early manifest à distaste for agricul. be, a science and a profession; but it cannot reach they seek other employments." --Stone's Address, 1845. which it is most worthy to occupy, until the “sons ture;—that as soon as they are of an age to be useful the high point among the sciences and professions

In the choice of business pursuits for our child of the soil” more generally acknowledge for them. dren, it is undoubtedly the wisest plan to conform selves and families an intellectual as well as a as far as practicable to the natural inclination, or physical existence; until they combine with hand. as it is familiarly called, suit the turn of mind; for work, head-work, with the rough labor necessary all are not alike, and he who would make a mise- for subsistence, the polish and refinement which rable mechanic, may rise to eminence as a lawyer; gild the humblest home. I would not be underwhile he who would find himself totally unable to stood one moment as an advocate for the follies of defend a cause either for plaintiff or defendant, may fashionable boarding-schools or expensive dress, be admirably fitted to be judge, jury, and whole but I would contend for my hardly tasked country. witness box, when rotation of crops, culture of women, that they be allowed books to study, time roots, and subsoil plowing, are under consideration. for daily mental culture, even for the accomplishBut, unfortunately, there is too good reason for the ments (if they have a taste for them) which might frequent complaint that the sons, and daughters have been attended to before marriage, that in their also, of farmers, who by mind and taste are consti- dress,—but here I must pause for a question or two. tuted for country life and labor, no sooner arrive at An English writer in some excellent advice to

when they imagine themselves independent, his daughters says :-" It is a good rule, to follow than they turn their backs upon the farm, perhaps the fashion in dress just so far that you shall not with scorn at the idea of following the honorable be marked as singular;" and as no woman who employment of their fathers. Among the many sufficiently respects herself, can wish to be consireasons assigned for this lamentable fact, I would dered singular (unless for her goodness), I would now notice one, which may be expressed in a sen- ask, if there is not as much reason in wearing our tence, as the want of refinement among farmers' dresses as far in conformity with the prevailing wives.

fashion as modesty and good taste will allow, as It may seem, at first sight, that here is no obvi. there is in making it questionable whether we have ous connection between cause and effect; but I will adopted the costume of the ark? Or if, in purendeavor to prove that there is, not so much to up chasing our garments, there is not as much economy hold the children, as to convince the parents that in procuring a pretty and becoming article, as in remedy for the evil is in their possession. selecting one intolerably ugly, both being the same

Ambition is inherent in our natures, and we are price and texture? And as outward appearance, all inclined to opinions that will advance or retard by conventional rules, is in some degree a standard what we consider our best interests. If then we of the station we fill, if it is not belter to give a few allow our children to draw comparisons manifestly minutes more to the duties of the toilet, or adopt to our disadvantage, we must expect they will some little distinction, whereby a stranger may not shun a calling, the pursuit of which makes, in their feel in perplexity whether he is addressing himself estimation, such vast difference between ourselves to mistress or maid? The answer to these queries and others. There is no doubt, that many a far. I must leave to wiser heads than mine, as there mer's son, who loves the toil of seed-time and har- may be some good, unknown reasons for that love vest, enters a store or studies a profession, because of the obsolete which prevails so extensively he thinks no woman of intellect and polish would among a certain class of females. become his wife, were he to remain a farmer; If we are “ never too old to learn,” we are cerwhile his sister, with her whole soul yearning for tainly never too old to amend ; and I call upon my the beauties of nature, refuses a home among them, sisters of the craft, who have been induced by and condemns herself to an unhealthy existence in many cares and duties to lay aside the little refinethe close and crowded city, because she cannot ments that characterize the lady, to shut up their consent to become, what she considers a farmer's books, and in losing the key of the library, lose the wife must be, a mere animal drudge. So universal intellectual woman–I call upon them, though long are these opinions, that when a merchant's daugh-wedded to mechanical habits, to rouse themselves ter has left her father's house, where she had been for their children's sake, to look for that lost key accustomed to comparative luxury and refinement, and those departed graces, and resolve to do ail to become the mistress of a farm, I have heard her that in them lies, towards making the farmer's prosorrowed for, as if she had sacrificed every earthly fession what it was intended to be, in the eyes of comfort and enjoyment. “ She, a farmer's wife! their children and the world, the noblest, the hapWhat a pity that one so fitted to shine in the best piest. And let those just commencing, remember circles, should, as it were, bury herself alive!” | that, while they should consider no labor derogaAgain, when the son of a wealthy man, clinging tory, it is yet possible to cultivate polished manners perhaps to the recollection of boyhood's happiness while attending upon necessary household affairs, in country visits, has manifested a desire to follow and that no one is so thoroughly accomplished, as the plow for a maintenance, I have heard arguments she who adds to the attainment of learning, com. and entreaties used to dissuade him from it, that plete practical knowledge of all domestic duties. If

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they resolve in the beginning that their occupations without perceiving this scent; for the gypsum lays shall be so arranged as to give time for all they hold of the ammonia and obliges it to make a wish, and strive to impress upon their husbands the very curious interchange-a sort of cross marjustice of a division of labor within doors as well riage; for the sulphur leaves the lime and unites as out, they will doubtless succeed in becoming not with the ammonia, and becomes sulphate of amma only intelligent companions, but excellent house- nia, and the carbonate, abandoned by the ammoniz: wives; for as a clever female writer has remarked, consoles the deserted lime, and becomes carbonato “ other things being equal, the woman of the high- of lime, commonly called chalk! And thus gy”. est mental endowments will always be the best sum, though not a manure itself, becomes the housekeeper, for domestic economy is a science basis of two manures-sulphate of ammonia, that brings into action the qualities of the mind as which is an organic manure, and carbonate of well as the graces of the heart.”

lime, which is an inorganic manure. But the And if better companions and wives, then better master says we must not speak of inorganic mamothers also, for the higher the cultivation of their nures, because it leads to confusion; and it is bet. own minds and manners, the more fitted will they ter to call inorganic substances applied to the soil be to control the minds and manners of others; and alteratives, for the sake of distinction. And he when their children see them moving in polished says that if powdered gypsum be spread occasion. circles abroad, or presiding over the little group at ally over the stables and the farm-yard, it will home, with equal grace and dignity, suffering take up all the ammonia that now goes off in smell, nothing in a comparison with the most highly in. and by the same process above-mentioned, will in. telligent, then will their father's occupation become crease the quantity and value of the manure prohonored for the parent's sake, and if not chosen as digiously. their own, yet not rejected because degrading. Query, Which is the better agriculturist, that boy Lynn, Mass., June 3d, 1846. E. M. C. or his father? The one is an experienced and

practical farmer,” the other, a stripling just Boys' Department.

dipped in the first rudiments of “ theory." But what is theory? The condensed result of the

whole history of former practice, arranged and AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

classified, enlightened and explained, by reference One afternoon, in the month of July, immediately to the eternal and immutable principles of scientific after a smart thunder-storm, as Mr. Merryman was truth. He who despises theory despises the practaking a walk over his farm, with his son George, tice of every man that was born before himself in a dab of a school-boy, at his side, their nostrils the world. He who commences practice with the were regaled by a delicious and peculiar odor which knowledge of theory, commences business with a was rising from the ground.

mind lit up by the recorded experience of all who George looked up knowingly into his father's went before him. face, and said, “ Papa, do you know where that But how is it with the “ practical farmer,” as he sweet scent comes from ?”

is too often called? He leaves the rich, vegetable “ To be sure, child !” said Mr. Merryman. deposits of the valley of the Mohawk, where he « From the ground.”

had been accustomed from his boyhood to use “ Yes,” said George, “ but what makes it come plaster with the utmost advantage, and settles on from the ground ?”

the sandy plains of Long Island, where he is Why, the rain,” answered his father. laughed at by one of his practical” neighbors for “ But what makes the rain bring it from the attempting to benefit his crops by applying plaster ground?” continued the boy.

to a soil nearly or quite destitute of vegetable Mr. Merryman looked puzzled, and stood in mould. His neighbor, in return, is laughed at by silence; whilst George, who had just entered the a visitor from abroad, for mixing large quantities of junior class in agricultural chemistry, strongly quick lime with his peat before spreading it on hiş came out with his first lesson.

field, while the latter is no less absurdly employed “ It comes from the ammonia brought down in the in galvanizing a living pig with the belief that he is rain more rapidly than the earth can absorb it, and causing an increase of growth. But our “ young which, being a highly volatile gas, is rising again into theorist” who just gave us the lesson about ammothe air as soon as the storm is over!

nia, when he will have arrived at the end of his “ Nonsense, child!" said the perplexed, though course, will leave the school equally well prepared good-natured farmer.

for any soil you may plant him in, and will be “ But Professor Liebig and Dr. Playfair, and all master of the whole art of Agriculture

. If he the great chemists say that it is so," rejoined the learns every lesson as well as his first, he will be young tyro.

able to turn the laugh upon the “ laughers” at the “ But how can they prove it, boy p inquired the end of one course, without being bound down to disbelieving parent.

the details of practice, whether we place him “Why, in this way,"answered George. “They among the sands of Long Island, the clays of say that although the carbonate of ammonia, which Western New York, the granitic soils of New smells so deliciously, is a volatile gas, the sul. Hampshire, or the rich vegetable bottoms of the phate of ammonia is a fixed and visible body; Obio.

•W. and if you spread finely powdered gypsum, or plaster, 'which is sulphate of lime, upon a grass He who takes a fish out of the water finds a field, you may walk over it after a thunder-shower piece of money.-Dr. Franklin.

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