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C.LTURE OF THE GRAPE AND MANUFACTURE OF WINE.
upon them, by habit, if from no other cause, that state as ever, and is now growing in the garden of their fruit is essentially different from that borne on the Horticultural Society. The old Nonpareil was the parent tree; and both stocks and scions, in well known in the time of Queen Elizabeth ; in being transferred to different soils or situations, cold places it cankers, and no doubt always has often improve or deteriorate in the character of cankered; but what can be more healthy than that their fruit, sometimes becoming more healthful, and variety in favorable places? In short, what is at others more sickly and diseased.”—p. 307. called evidence breaks down wherever it is ex
On the question at issue, Professor De Candolle, arnined; and the argument about the wearing out of Switzerland, remarks :-“We may easily con- of races proves to be baseless." ceive that every cultivated variety owed its origin “ Wild perennial plants, whether woody or her. to some special circumstance, which once occurred, baceous, whether forming a trunk or a mere perand but once. In such a case, the variety has manent root, have never yet been shown by any been multiplied by division, and every plant so ob- trustworthy evidence to be subject to decrepitude, tained from it has been a portion of the same indi- arising from old age. On the contrary, every new vidual; which accounts for their all being exactly annual growth is an absolute renewal of their like each other. An identity of origin in all the vitality, in the absence of disturbing causes. plants of the same variety, has led some physiolo- Hence the enormous age at which trees arrive. A gists to imagine that these varieties or fractions of thousand years is still youth to a forest tree which an individual might die of old age. This was no accident has injured ; and there is no intelligible founded upon circumstances observed by Mr. reason why it should not, if guarded from violence, Knight with regard to the Golden Pippin." But it continue to grow to eternity. It is very true that appears to us difficult to admit, upon such a single plants do in reality perish commonly without atfact, an hypothesis opposed to all other facts. taining any such longevity; and that constitutional That varieties will last, so long as man takes care feebleness is notoriously one of the accompaniments of them, appears to be proved by many of them of advancing age. But this arises from external, having been preserved from the most remote not intrinsic causes. The soil which surrounds periods. But it is also certain that negligence them is exhausted, their roots wander into unconwill cause some to disappear, just as accident or in- genial land, water in unnatural excess is introduced, dustry bring others into existence.”—Phys. Veg. 731. the food they require is withheld, violence rends
The same question has been ably discussed and them, men mutilate them, severe cold disorganizes refuted by Dr. Lindley, from whom we cite the fol- them, and these and other causes produce disease, lowing incontestable arguments: “What are called which may end in death. But this is very different facts,” says he, “ the real value of which we shall from dying of mere old age; and for practical purpresently discuss, have been adduced to prove that poses it is most material to draw the distinction.” if plants do not die of old age in a wild state, yet Although an examination of evidence leads us that they incontestably do wear out when artificially to the inevitable conclusion, that the wearing out multiplied by division. In opposition to this it is of the races of plants by old age is a delusion, yet sufficient to quote the White Beurré pears of France, we are far from denying the accuracy of the which French writers assure us have been thus statements made by some recent writers on this propagated from time immemorial, and which ex- subject. We may admit their facts, but reject their hibit no trace of debility; or the cultivated vines reasoning, and protest against the inferences they of which the very varieties known to the Romans would have us draw.”—Gard.Chron. 1845 p. 833. have been transmitted by perpetual division, but without deterioration or decrepitude, to our own day. The Vitis præcox of Columella is admitted CULTURE OF THE GRAPE AND MANU. by Dr. Henderson, on the authority of the most
FACTURE OF WINE. trustworthy writers, to have been thé Maurillon, or Our readers will find several articles on these Early Black July Grape of the present day; the subjects in the two first volumes of the Agricul. Nomentana to have been the German traminer; the turist
. We were sanguine in their success, if progræcula the modern Corinth or Currant; and the perly undertaken, particularly in latitudes south of dactyli our Cornichons or Finger Grapes.
40°, and cited several examples, giving the method “But it is affirmed that some cultivated plants of culture, and making wine, on a tolerably exten. have really worn out. The Redstreak, the Golden sive scale. Since this, the culture of the grape has Pippin, and the Golden Harvey apples, are among greatly increased, especially on the banks of the the number quoted. The first of these is little Ohio. N. Longworth, Esq., of Cincinnati, has known to us, and we have no evidence about it; recently sent us à pamphlet on the above subjects, but the Golden Pippin and Golden Harvey are cer- and as he is a gentleman of considerable expe. tainly not capable of being employed in support rience, and the owner of extensive vineyards, we of Mr. Knight's theory. Both are to be found in avail ourselves of the following valuable extracts various places at this moment, in as perfect health from it. as they ever enjoyed. The Golden Pippin is “ I have seen a late article from Mr. Resor, on among the most vigorous apples of Madeira ; the the cultivation of the grape and manufacture of Golden Harvey is in all good gardens. Of the wine, in which he praises the Isabella grape, as former, healthy trees were many years since shown being valuable for cultivation as a wine-grape, and to exist in Norfolk; in warm dry places it has no remarkable for ripening its fruit. If my experience particular appearance of suffering Recruited by is to be relied on, his article is calculated to do the fine climate of France, the Golden Pippin has great injury to those now planting vineyards. In been received back to this country in as healthy a'all my early vineyards, I cultivated the Isabella epo
CULTURE OF THE GRAPE AND MANUFACTURE OF WINE.
tensively. I cultivated it on the tops and sides of mentation had taken place in the fruit, before hills, with all exposures, and on boitoms. I have gathered. It was increasing the saccharine princultivated it for twenty-five years, and still have a ciple, at the expense of the aroma and flavor. few of them in three of my vineyards, and a few inIn the hope of inciting other Germans to go my garden. It is the worst grape for ripening we and do likewise, I will state the result at one of my bave. Usually half the berries continue green, and vineyards this season. Sixteen years since, I they are also liable to rot. My German vine-dress- bought an unusually broken piece of ground on ers have extirpated it from their vineyards, or Boldface Creek, four miles from the city. The soil are now doing it. It is best manufactured into a is rich, but abounds in stone. I had a tenant on it sweet wine, by adding one and a half, or two four years, who was bound to plant a vineyard. At pounds of white Havana sugar to the gallon. I in- the end of four years nothing was done. I tried cline to the opinion, that Mr. Resor has mistaken second, and after three years, found no grapes. I the Cape grape (Schuylkill Muscadel), for the Isa- then gave a contract to a German (Mr. Tuferber), bella. The Cape is generally free from rot, and who had a wife, daughter, and three stout boys. I bears and ripens well, and makes a better wine than gave him a hard bargain. I required him to trench the Isabella. The Isabella succeeds better at the and wall with stone, six acres for grapes, in three East, than it does with us.
years, and nine acres in five years. He was also .“ The day is not distant, when the Ohio River to plant out a peach orchard, and tend an apple will rival the Rhine, in the quantity and quality of orchard, I had on the place. The wine and proits wine. I give the Catawba the preference over ceeds of the orchards were to be equally divided. I all other grapes, for a general crop, for wine. carefully avoided climbing the stony hill for three Sugar was formerly added. The Germans have years, expecting the same result as formerly, taught us better. Where the fruit is well ripened, When I visited the hill, at the end of three years, I sugar will injure it, where intended for long keepfound the six acres handsomely trenched and walling; where ihe grapes do not ripen well, I should ed, and set with grapes. There are now nine acres still aid from 6 to 10 oz. of sugar to the gallon of in grapes. The tenant complained this year of the must. It rivals the best Hock, and makes a supe. rot in his vineyard. I am in the habit of selling to rior Champagne. The Missouri grape makes a the tenants, my share of the vintage, at a price that fine wine, resembling Madeira ; but is less produc- enables them to sell at a profit. I this season sold tive than the Catawba. I have heretofore consi. at 75 cts. per gallon, at the press, for the Catawba, dered this a French Pineau grape, as it is a delicate 62$ cts. for the Cape, and 50 cts. for the small grower with us; but I sent some of the plants to quantity of Isabella made. He has paid me $661 my sister in New Jersey, where the soil is poor, for my share of the wine, and for his share and the stony, and stiff. I: there grows as luxuriantly as profit on my part
, has realized the sum of $1,392.50. the wild grape of the woods, and is perfectly The Catawba he sold at $1.25 per gallon. hardly; and I now deem it a native. I obtained it “ The best crop for the extent of ground this of Messrs. Prince, of Long Island, twenty-five season, was at the vineyard of Mr. Rents, about years since. The berry is sinall, the bunches of four miles from town. Two acres yielded 1,300 medium size, berries free from a hard pulp, and gallons. This is as large a yield as I have known, very sweet. The Herbemont is a fine table grape, taking two acres together. To select particular and makes a fine wine; but is subject to rot. The spots, I have raised at the rate of 1,470 gallons to Lenoir much resembles it, if not identical, which the acre. The grapes at the vineyard of Mr. some consider it; I do not. The Ohio is a fine Rents would have ripened better, had one-third of table
grape, bunches much larger than either of the the bunches been cut off early in the season. former ; but experience does not enable me to re- Where the crop is very abundant, it requires a commend it highly for wine. It has a peculiar very favorable season to ripen the fruit well. flavor, and resembles a foreign variety I have heard « Six hundred and fifty gallons to the acre is a highly lauded, but does not suit my taste. The large yield, and the season must be favorable, or Bland is a bad bearer; does not ripen well, nor they will not ripen well. A large crop is often make a good wine, but is a fine table grape. I do occasioned by leaving too much bearing wood. not believe it a native grape. Gen. Harrison in. This should always be avoided; for even if the formed me, that it was introduced into Virginia crop ripens thoroughly, too much of the sap is sixty years since, by a French gentleman of the taken by the fruit
, and ioo little left to produce good name of Mazzei. The Elsanborough is a good young wood for the next season's crop. table grape, and free from a hard pulp. Norton's “ I have for thirty years experimented on the seedling is far inferior as a table grape, to the foreign grape, both for the table and for wine. In Herbemont, Ohio, Lenoir, Elsanborough, and Mis- the acclimation of plants I do not believe; for the souri, which it resembles in the size of its fruit. I White Sweet Water does not succeed so well with has a pulp. I am trying it this season on a small me, as it did thirty years since. I obtained a large scale, for wine. The grapes were very ripe, and variety of French grape from Mr. Loubat, many the wine has much body, and is of a dark claret years since. They were from the vicinity of Paris color, though pressed as soon as gathered. I do not and Bordeaux. Froin Madeira, I obtained six admire the flavor of the wine. 'Writers tell us to thousand vines of their best wine grapes. Not one the contrary, but grapes may be too ripe to make was found worthy of cultivation in this latitude, good wine; and I incline to the opinion that this and were rooted from the vineyards. As a last ex. was the case with my Norton's seedling. The periment, I imported seven thousand vines from the grapes were pressed as soon as gathered, yet the mountains of 'Jura, in the vicinity of Salins, in wine was nearly black; a certain proof that a fer- France. At that point the vine region suddenly
DAIRY COW3.-RAISING GRAIN AT THE SOUTH.-ETC.
ends, and many vines are there cultivated on the farmer in this or any other country. Mr. Bacon north side of the mountain, where the ground is gives a decided preference to the grade Durhams covered with snow the whole winter, from three to over the Natives, and is now rearing 6 yearlings four feet deep. Nearly all lived, and embraced and 11 calves, which are half blooded Durham, and about twenty varieties of the most celebrated wine in which we think the most skilful connoisseur of grapes of France.
But, after a trial of five years, stock would hardly be able to detect a fault. The all have een thrown away.
Į also imported reason of the preference given by Mr. Bacon to the samples of wine made from all the grapes. One Durhams over the Natives is, that they generally variety alone, the celebrated Arbois wine, which yield more milk of an equal good quality, though partakes slightly of the champagne character, the difference in this respect is of less consideration would compete with our Catawba.
than the fact that the Durhams yield milk about a “ If we intend cultivating the grape for wine, we month longer than the Natives.' He says he finds must rely on our native grapes, and new varieties it difficult to dry up' many of his Durhams at all
. raised from their seed. If I could get my lease of Twenty-two of Mr. Bacon's cows were raised by life renewed for twenty or thirty years, I would Mr. Elias Ayres, who has recently taken up hís devote my attention to the subject, and I would abode in Virginia, and whose experience and skill cross our best native varieties with the best table in breeding animals for the dairy were well known and wine grapes of Europe. We live in a great to most of our farmers, though we have reason to age. Discoveries are daily made that confound us, think they were not sufficiently appreciated by and we know not where we shall stop. We are them." told of experiments in mesmerism, as wonderful as the grinding over system would be; but I fear the RAISING GRAIN AT THE SOUTH.-Mr. Alexander discovery will not be brought to perfection in time Mc'Donald of Alabama informs us that he sowed, to answer my purpose, and I must leave the subject in September last, several kinds of wheat that he with the young generation.”
obtained from the Patent Office; one variety of
which entirely escaped the rust, and produced the DAIRY COWS.
finest grain that he has ever seen. He also has We have so often endeavored to inculcate upon half a bushel of multicole rye, and a small quantity
raised from seed obtained from the same source, all farmers who raise cows, the necessity of paying of Polish oats, which will soon enable him to fur. greater attention to their qualities as milkers, that nish a supply of these invaluable grains to others we are almost ashamed to mention the subject in his
section of the country for seed. He says, “I again. But meeting with an article which recently took hold of my business on the 12th day of May, appeared in the Barre Patriot, Massachusetts, we since which time, I have spent some twelve hours will condense the substance of it for our readers. Mr. Harrison Baker has a dairy of thirty-four
each day, in personal attention to the plowing and cows, twenty-four of which are grade Durhams, hoeing of my growing crop. This is what I have and ten are Natives. The editor of the Patriot not done for the last fifteen years; but such is the says, twenty-seven of the thirty-four carried such deep and abiding interest I feel in the success of enormous and distended udders as he never before my agricultural operations, that I cannot feel satis
fied without being present.” had the pleasure of witnessing. He saw the cows milked. "Twenty-three of them gave each over a twelve quart pail full, and several of them more. TO THE FRIENDS OF AGRICULTURE.- We are He regrets he did not weigh their milk, but adds: necessarily so confined to our business at present,
“We, however, weighed the milk of one young as to prevent our making as many excursions as cow 5 years old, and of two heifers 4 years old. we otherwise would do, among the farmers. We The weight was as follows: the cow gave 251 hope, therefore, that all interested in the advance. lbs., equal to 51 lbs. a day; one hiefer gave 212 ment of 'agriculture, will be the more ready to fur. lbs., equal to 43 lbs. a day; and the other gave nish us matter for publication. There is scarcely a 214 lbs., equal to 42} lbs. a day. The cows, as to farmer, planter, or gardener, in the Union, however size, are most of them about middling, weighing few his acres under cultivation may be, who does from 750 to 1000 lbs., as we should judge. Seven not annually find out something new in regard to of the 34 cows are quite ordinary milkers, leaving the products of agriculture, and their management. 27 cows, such as we venture to say are not to be Let these facts be noted, and in due time communi. found in one lot in New England, if indeed they cated to us for publication. In this way, our are to be found anywhere. Mr. Bacon informs us Journal may be made a store-house of useful in. that he commenced making cheese about the 1st of formation, and our contributors will have the satisApril, which is the usual time of commencing, since faction of knowing that they are not only doing which, he has made from the thirty-four cows be things for the benefit of those who are engaged in tween 7 and 8,000 lbs. of cheese, and thinks that the same calling, but for the world at large he shall make from 12 to 13,000 lbs. more before the 1st of December next-making in the whole, Glass Milk Pans.—By recent accounts from from the 1st of April to the 1st of December, about abroad, we observe that glass milk pans are being 20,000 lbs. The day before we were there, he introduced into England, which it is thought will made 134 lbs. of cheese from one day's milk, and preserve milk much longer, and will prove ecothinks by another week he shall come up to 140 nomical. They may be made of green glass, of any lbs. a day. We hardly think this, with the same convenient size or shape, with, or without covers; number of cows, bas ever been equalled by any land, with careful usage, will last a thousand years.
DISEASE OF FOWLS.-SHEEP HUSBANDRY.
DISEASE OF FOWLS.
covered, and begin to lay. Mr. Lloyd's hen was I do not doubt that Mr. H. T. Lloyd (see current no doubt in the first stage of the disease, and his volume, page 142) has succeeded in curing his hen, feeding her on warm food, perhaps scalded meal, but not by his surgical operation. I have lost in which she wanted, but not gravel nor lime, being winter time many fowls by this same distemper. I easily and rapidly digested, made her recover; and tried such surgery-rhubarb pills, assafætida, and such a diet would perhaps have done so without other nostrums, till circumstances made me reflect surgery. I opened the crops of many hens without better, and finally discover the true cause of the dis- having ever saved one by it; and I believe it to Hens are by nature provided with a crop to be obstructed, into which error I first fell likewise,
be an error that the passage into the stomach can serve them as a magazine for provisions; because, although it might occur, but certainly not in a in their natural state, they stumble sometimes upon whole coop-full at once, and I yet doubt that any an abundance of food, and often for days find no, fowl would swallow anything liable to do so; they thing. But as any kind of vegetable or animal
S. matter kept in a moist and moderately warm state, are too cautious for that must inevitably begin to ferment and putrefy, allprovident nature has given to these bipeds the in
SHEEP HUSBANDRY. stinct to find a remedy against the detrimental effect In looking over the January No. of the American of putrefaction upon a living organism, the remedy Agriculturist, I noticed a communication of a gen. for which is lime.
tleman from New York, who had examined some of Fowls, if fed ever so well, will become sick, and the Spanish and French Merino sheep. He speaks finally die, if they cannot get at gravel and lime, very unfavorably of any importations from Spain the one acting mechanically, and the other chemi- to improve our Spanish sheep that have been recally, in the digestion of their food. It is an error duced by bad crossing. He states that in conseto believe that they only eat lime for the formation quence of bad management, and carelessness in of the shell of the egg, because cocks eat as much breeding, the flocks in Spain have become so relime as hens, and young chickens do so likewise. duced that they have imported bucks from Saxony In opening and examining hens which have died of to improve them; the consequence of which is, they this disease, their stomachs will show an essential have reduced the size, lessened the quantity of difference from that of a sound fowl. In the sound wool, and enfeebled the constitution. It appears one, the innermost coat of the stomach is a strong that they have got into the same trouble in Spain leather-like whitish or yellowish substance, and that we have here, and in the same way. The can be pulled off from the outermost part in one question now arises, How are we to extricate our. piece, without breaking. In the diseased hen, this selves from this trouble?. If we can get no pure coat will be found either completely, or at least par- bloods that are more perfect from Spain, than we tially black, round the æsophagus, the orifice by have here, then there is but one course for us to. which the food enters—in a state of inflammation pursue, whieh is to see if we have any sheep that or even putrefaction, crumbling to pieces, at any represent the pure Spanish blood, when first im. attempt to pull it off. This skin or coat contains, ported into this country, and then see whether the gives out, and forms the gastric juice, without owners of them can establish the purity of that which no digestion can take place. The chemical blood by certificates from the importers themselves, theory of fermentation, which I cannot enter into and from others well acquainted with their course here, is too well ascertained, and explains the action of management in breeding, down to the present and reaction of putrid food upon the gastric juice, time. There are some such flocks of sheep in this if not remedied by an alkali. Any market-dealer country, and I esteem it a pleasure as well as a of fowls will affrm that this disease befals them duty, to state where they may be found, and also when they are cooped up for some time, and ship- to add a few remarks partly in repetition of what I masters know it too well to their great damage; yet have formerly said of my views and experience in they are all either too ignorant or negligent to pro- the art of sheep-breeding:
i vide them with gravel and lime. Sometimes, when In selecting male animals for breeding, we the fowls can get both these remedies, before the should take great pains to procure pure bloods, and disease is gone too far, they recover; but if they those that are most perfect in their outward appearemit from their mouths a strong fætid smell, nothing ance. In breeding, at least three out of four will can save them,
partake largely in their outward coat and appearAbout three weeks ago, a friend of mine bought ance of the male. In breeding fine-woolled sheep, 100 fowls in market. He observed some 40 or this is a very important item, as the outward coat more sick of this disease, and dying off with full constitutes nine-tenths of their whole value. It crops. He applied to me for advice, and I made agrees with my observation, that all crosses of pure him separate all the sick ones from the others, and Spanish Merino bucks upon any other kinds of keep them for 36 hours without food, provided sheep, prove a great improvement; and on the only with water. We then examined them, and other hand, all crosses of other kinds upon the found about a dozen with full crops, yet smelling Spanish ewes, either injure the quality of the very bad from their mouths, which were marked, wool, lessen their size, or enfeeble the constituand put with those whose crops were empty, or tion. I suppose that all fine-woolled sheep, were nearly so, and kept upon a diet of soaked wheat, taken originally from Spain, which was their na. into which was mixed charcoal powder and air- tive country. It is claimed by some of the owners slacked lime, for about 10 or, 12 days. The first of Saxon sheep, that there should be no crossing, ones are now all dead, and the others almost all re- that the several breeds should be kept distinct. I
think this to be an error. The great trouble at time that I did ; they are now in the care of his son. present with the Saxon sheep is the want of a They have bred from my flock for the last five
In the year 1764 it appears that the Elector years, and I believe they have pure Merino sheep. of Saxony obtained permission of the King of Spain Mr. Stephen Atwood, of Woodbury, purchased a to import a number of Escurial sheep, taken from buck of me in 1832, which he used a number of the king's own flock. In the year 1777 there was years, and has received great credit for his improve. another importation from Spain to Saxony, of ment. Messrs. Nathaniel B. Smith, of Woodbury, Escurials, Montarcos, and Negrettas. Now, if Lauren Thrall, of Torrington, Edward Hickox, either of these kinds of sheep have been kept with- George F. Merriman, and Dayton Mattoon, of Wa. out a cross, they have been bred in-and-in more tertown, have all of them used my bucks, and have than sixty years.
If the holders of Saxon sheep made great improvements, and have very fine would procure bucks of the Escurial or Montarco sheep. If improvement be made in this country, it kind of pure bloods, in my opinion they would must be from pure Spanish blood. bring back their flocks to a state of purity. I have It is not my intention, by this communication, to been accused by some of the Saxon wool-growers puff up my own sheep, or any others, above their of having Saxon blood in my flock, probably for merits. I have no bucks that shear 11, 12, or 14 reasons well understood by themselves. I claim Ib. fleeces-neither do I believe any one has, who not to have any. I have lately received certificates has pure Merino sheep. After the introduction of from three of the gentlemen who imported the Saxon sheep into this country, it seemed to be the breed of sheep which I have now in my possession great end of wool-growers, to see how fine a in their pure state, which I am prepared to substan- sample of wool they could raise without regard to tiate by certificates from men of respectability, who constitution or quantity of wool. After a while, have been acquainted with my course of manage- many saw their errors. The next move was to see ment down to the present time.
how great a fleece they could get without regard to Captain Gad Peck certifies that the sheep which I fineness or softness of the wool, and I believe purchased of him he imported from Spain from the have bred their sheep impure to accomplish that Don Delapontes flocks, said to be the best blood in object, and have sold these fleeces under the name Spain, and so pronounced by General Humphrey of Merino wool, which has been the cause of many on their arrival here, and their blood has never of our manufacturers forming strong prejudices been doubted by any one. They were of the Mon- against all Merino sheep, while most of them are tarco and Negretta kinds. Doctor Samuel Elton strangers to the pure article. I contend that pure certifies that he was one of the importers of the Spanish Merino wool is as perfect as any other that cargo of sheep in 1811, and that the buck which I has been grown in this country. As I have shown referred to, in giving a pedigree of my sheep, was the two opposite extremes which wool-growers a full blood Escurial. Of what blood the General have run into, let others shun their errors, and see Humphrey sheep were that this buck was crossed how many of the most valuable qualities they can upon cannot be ascertained; but they were sup- combine in one animal, or in one fock of sheep. I posed to be the Escurial. It appears that the sheep consider it of the first importance to New England from which my flock has sprung, were taken from wool-growers to improve our flocks so as to be able Spain, of the same blood as those imported to to produce the best sheep raised in any country, Saxony. Now, why is it that they are so different? combining all these good qualities, good constituIt must be in consequence of the different course of tion, heavy fleeces, finest wool, and perfect style. breeding. I have taken great pains to cross the The gentleman alluded to in the first part of this different kinds as often as once in two or three years communication, speaks very favorably of the -never using a buck to his own offspring. When French Merinos. He mentions a buck raised by I breed from a buck that represents the Montarco, Mr. Gilbert, from the Ranıbouillet flock, whose three-fourths of the lambs will be of that kind, but weight was 230 lbs. The question arises in my I make no improvement from that kind of bucks. mind whether that buck would cross well upon our I then change and take a buck that represents the fine sheep in this country, which are so much Escurial-inost of them improve for two or three smaller. The lambs would, of course, be much years. It may be asked by some, Why I do not larger, giving the ewes great trouble in bringing improve from the Escurial all the time, if the im- forth, and would need a large supply of nourish. provement comes wholly from them? I answer, it ment. The consequence would be, a long-legged, is the cross which makes the improvement. It imperfect-shaped animal. If a gentleman who has will not answer to breed in-and-in if we would the ability would import some of the Rambouillet preserve the flock from degenerating. I have ewes and cross a pure Spanish Merino buck upon always bred from the best buck that I could raise them, the consequence would be just the reverse. or find; but since I purchased the one in the year The ewes would have no trouble in bringing forth 1828, I never have been able to find one out of my —have a great supply of nourishment, and the own flock that suited me for a cross. I never have lambs would be lower on the leg, and be most per: allowed any one, in purchasing, to select one of my fectly-shaped animals; but after all, is it not our best ewes, until somewhat advanced in years. duty, in case there is as perfect stock bred in this Since I have had the Escurial blood in the flock, I country, and of as pure a race as is to be found in never have known any one that has used bucks of any other, to retain the credit at home, in preference that blood, but what has made great improvement. to giving it to another nation? I am satisfied that I will refer to some of the gentlemen that have im- there is as great improvement made in this country proved from my flock. Mr. Samuel H. Neutleton in breeding fine stock as in any other—that there commenced with the Escurial blood about the same have been as perfect sheep raised in this country as