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gether a mass of strongly sulphureous water, and produce five years without replanting. The cane forming a little stream some ten feet deep, whose can be ground at Taylor's mill
, and the sugar made perfectly transparent waters empty, into the St. for two to three dollars per hogshead; the expense John's. It is filled with fish, which can be seen of putting up mills is thus avoided. swimming in every part of it. The banks are Some gentlemen from the North whose ill health some twenty feet above the stream, quite undulat- compels them to reside there during the summer, ing, and covered with palms, live oaks, magnolias, informed me that the heat, although of longes conwild oranges, &c. It is altogether one of the pret- tinuance, is not so oppressive as at New York, and tiest spots that I have seen. Immediately back of the trade winds render it quite pleasant after ten Blue Spring is a range of country forty miles in ex- o'clock in the morning. They also say that there is tent, covered with pines, beautifully undulating, very little fever in the country, although the whites and no underbrush whatever. It is covered with a (many of whom have no slaves) expose themselves species of crab grass, which is said to make very freely to the sun. If such is the case, settlers could good pasture. Where this kind of pine land occurs labor here with as much safety as at the West; without any undergrowth of palmetto, the land is while, from the genial climate, the reward of labor considered excellent for either sugar or cotton. is much greater. I am of opinion, however, that Having a clay subsoil it can be readily improved, a no settler who wishes to thrive, should employ rare case in Florida, for the land is universally of a slaves. Their indolence, and the necessity of supsandy nature, and will not hold manure, and must porting the sick, the young, and the aged, would inevitably be worn out in time. A favorite mode soon ruin him. One good white man would perform of manuring here is to pen cattle upon a certain as much as three of the ordinary slaves, and among
is well manured and trampled in the many emigrants to this country, white laborers From land thus prepared they sometimes raise 300 can easily be obtained. to 500 bushels of sweet potatoes to the acre. One of the most profitable employments and
Lake Monroe, a fine sheet of water, five miles in modes of investment in East Florida is the raising diameter, seems to be the spot about which settlers of cattle. Intelligent planters inform me, that all are gathering, and the best lands are fast being their capital so invested yields them at least 30 per taken up. The whole margin of the Lake abounds cent. annually. There are large tracts of pine lands with mineral springs, and the lands will often pro- which produce excellent pasture. A herd will double duce two to three hogsheads of sugar to the acre. every three or four years; and the only labor in tendOne of the finest spots has been taken up by a gen- ing them is to collect them several times a year to tleman who keeps a boarding house for invalids. keep them from straying too far, and to mark the For this purpose the vicinity of Lake Monroe is young calves. When the vacuum process of curing well adapted, and houses for the accommodation of meat shall be fully tested and brought into practical invalids from the North are going up every year. I operation, the profits of this branch of business will have visited most of the West India Islands, South be greatly increased. America, and different parts of Europe, and I am Allowing in the facts that I have stated, a reaconvinced, that for pulmonary diseases, there is no sonable degree of partiality in my informants for climate equal to that of Lake Monroe. This will the place of their adoption, I am quite inclined to become more generally known in a few years, and think that the upper part of St. John's river, and it will perhaps become the great place of resort. the rich bottoms of the Alachua District, afford The advantages for bathing afforded by the nume- many inducements to settlers, who are convinced rous mineral springs (whose temperature is 75°), of the superiority of free to slave labor. will render this vicinity very desirable. Living is Jacksonville, E.F., Feb. 10, 1846. S. B. PARSONS. very cheap there, from the great abundance of game. Turkeys are numerous, and deer are found
SHEEP HUSBANDRY. everywhere. In a ride of 20 miles we saw sixteen AFTER so long a time, I will in some measure of the latter. Steamboats run from Savannah to fulfil my engagement about writing you in regard this place and to Lake Monroe, rendering the latter to sheep and wool growing. My intention is, and very accessible.
has ever been, to get up a fock that would combine It has been a matter of surprise to me, that amid as much as possible the following traits: First, a all the enterprise for which our countrymen are strong constitution; a heavy fleece of real wool, of celebrated, no one has attempted to cultivate and the very best quality that the world can boast; and prepare the dried fruits. Figs and grapes both a just form. It has been a favorite theory with me, grow luxuriantly here. The labor of preparing them that by judicious selection and good breeding, all for market is comparatively light, and I cannot but this might be effected, and I have for years spared think that if some enterprising man were to estab- neither time, nor expense, nor travel, to bring it lish their cultivation here, and import a first-rate about: and if I have in any good measure effected hand from Smyrna to prepare them, he could not my object, it has been by selecting according to my fail to reap large profits. The fig produces most best judgment, disregarding entirely all names of abundantly, and its cultivation requires very little breeds, and names of men as breeders, except so far labor. There is no reason why we cannot supply as to examine their flocks carefully, or specimens our own market with that article of consumption. of them, as they have been exhibited at the shows, At present, the attention of all the planters about or their different lots of wool at numerous manufac. Lake Monroe is chiefly devoted to the produce of turing establishments. augar. The labor of planting is about the same as I have never been able to depend in the least that of corn, it requires cultivating only two or upon the statements of men who puff their sheep in three times during the season, and the roots will the different agricultural papers. Some of them are
SHEEP HUSBANDRY.-RAISING BEET SEED.
extremely ignorant of the things they write about, the country who do not make much noise them. and are deceived even by their own experiments, and selves in the periodicals, who, notwithstanding, are do not know when wool is really coarse or fine, in my humble judgment entitled to some notice, as whether it is clear., or will waste much in cleansing well as those who puff their own animals so finely. Others keep, but a few, and give them in that way If persons who are prejudiced against the finer an extra chance; not knowing, when they pub- kinds of sheep on account of their being tender and lish their statements, that a few sheep on a farm delicate in proportion as they are fine, would select will keep (when almost entirely neglected) in bet- an equal number of the best constitutioned fine ter order, yield more wool, increase faster, and be sheep, and put them side by side with the best they much less subject to distemper of every kind, than can obtain of the inferior grades, they would find the same animals would be if a farm were fully that a very large share of all the advantage the stocked with them. A few sheep, on a middling coarser kinds have over the finest kind, is during good sized farm, may be neglected in summer or the first four weeks after a lamb is dropped. winter, almost as much as the deer in the wild Some of the best flocks I have ever found in the forest, and become very large, healthy, and afford country (after going over much of it time after monstrous fleeces, from the fact that they have so time, beginning with Vermont and New Hampfine a range; a thing more favorable to sheep than shire, and ending with Virginia), are a mixture of all the care, hay, and grain, that can be given to a Saxony and Merino, where the breeding bas been large flock. This is applicable to the very finest upward, as I call it (for want of a better expression); kinds of sheep, in common with others. This will that is, where the advantage as to quality is on the account for a part of the fine stories we get from side of the buck. The getting of really fine sheep some merchants or professional men newly-turned in any part of the world is, I believe, the fruit of unfarmers, or other new beginners with sheep, who common pains, nice discrimination, great perseascribe their success to something very happy in verance, and incessant care; but it will cost nothing their treatment, or peculiar in the breed of their to reduce the quality of any breed, but to let it stock, and they feel in honor bound not to withhold alone. It costs a considerable sum to raise the last such light from the world. Othere there are who stone on some of the monuments in our own counstop at no means that will enable them to sell sheep try, and some skill, but a very ordinary man for a for breeders at exorbitant prices; these publish ac- trifle would get them down. counts of what wool they get from perhaps a single A few years since Vermont was celebrated buck, giving him some great name; fix him out for its fine wools; but in the eagerness of sheepwith a pedigree, send a picture, not a portrait-of masters for heavy fleeces, they have to a great exhim, to some editor (who, in several instances tent lost their fine sheep. Five or six years down. that we could name, is roundly paid for his puffing. ward breeding would entirely change the character Ed.), call him a Paular, a Montarco, or some other of the wools of a whole nation. I have no doubt Morus multicaulis name of a breed, to raise an ex- but an increase in weight of fleece may be effected citement, and take the advantage of it, when their while the fine quality is retained, and perhaps ad. flocks are absolutely contemptible! I could men- vanced; but, like every other real improvement, it tion a score of such gentlemen whose flocks I have must cost labor, perseverance, care, time, and skill. examined, or whose lots of wool I have seen at I am inclined to believe, that stock from the finest Lowell and elsewhere. Others take the advantage ewes, by a low woolled buck, will generally fall of strong popular prejudice known to exist in favor considerably below the average of each ewe, and of Merino over Saxony sheep; and knowing that the buck, as to quality of wool; and I am quite sure most purchasers judge more by the outward appear-that many cases will occur where the stock will ance of a sheep than by any correct ideas they have not (to say the least) exceed the buck. Such is the of fleeces, will apply sperm oil, or some other grease, downward tendency of almost everything we have to the outer end of the fleece of a Saxony, or some to do with. If this view is correct of breeding mongrel of Saxony, Merino, and native stock, and downward, then all that the ewes exceed the bucks oftener than otherwise, a mean animal of its kind, will be nearly or quite lost. If it is best for us in and sell him for a pure Merino buck. Others breed the l'nited States to grow fine wool at all, we ought from Saxony sheep to some extent, to keep up in to be less fickle in our course. European breeders some measure the quality of their wool, crying are wonderfully steady and persevering, and whole down Saxony and crying up Merino sheep all the districts unite as to a particular standard. Witness while, and selling their sheep as pure unmixed the Devon cattle, the Southdown sheep, the BerkMerinos, giving you at the same time a pedigree shire pigs, &c., &c.
JOHN BROWN, that, with a little addition, would make an interest
of the firm of Perkins & Brown. ing romance! If any one would inquire how to Akron, Sammit Co., Ohio, Feb. 15, 1846. distinguish under such circumstances, I would say the most correct information as to the quality of RAISING BEET SEED.--Every year large quantiany man's wool is to be had from the best manufac- ties of beet seed are imported into this country to turing establishments of the country; and, finally, supply the demands of the farmers. Nothing is after getting what information can be collected from more easily grown. Set out choice roots in the different large manufacturers, the balance is to be spring, the same as for growing turnip or cabbage obtained by a careful examination of the flocks so seed, and they will produce in abundance. For full recommended, and a comparison of flock with flock, particulars on this subject see Vol. 2, page 35. The as to all important traits.
only additional care requisite is, as the branches get I have lately given to the Albany Cultivator the large, set small stakes around them in a circle, and tie names of several wool-growers in different parts of a cord from stake to stake for their support.
A MASSACHUSETTS BARN I HAVE been in nearly every State in the Union, | able example of these, I subjoin a sketch and de. and paid considerable attention to their agriculture, scription of onę built by Mr. Cyrus Knox, of and especially the farm buildings; and, after all, I Palmer. The ground on the front is on a level do not know anything in this line superior to the with the first story ; back and to the side of this it barns of my native State, Old Massachusetts, for descends, having an open shed, as shown on the the general purposes of the farmer As an admir-left of the sketch, and a basement story
BASEMENT. -FIG. 35.
GROUND FLOOR. FIG. 36. Description of Elevation.--bb, Large doors, which framed into the sills with a double cock-tenon, to open on to the barn floor.
give strength. d, Stable door.
cc, Stone door sills, 16 feet long by 18 inches The windows slide back and forth, for the pur- wide, with a lip raised on the inside, against which pose of ventilation when necessary.
the doors rest, and then slanting with a bevel Description of Ground Floor. ---, Barn floor, 12 outward. feet by 60.
d, Stable, 12 feet by 24, with fixtures for one pair b b, Doors hung on iron rods and rollers over working horses, and two yoke of oxen. head, like the folding doors of the parlors of our e, Bay, 8 feet high, until it rises above the stable, modern houses in the cities, opening and closing then it runs the whole length of the barn, 60 feet. with equal ease; made of 14 inch clean stuff, and f, Store room, 16 feet square, with a flight of battened on the outside with open battens, formed stairs leading into the cellar, 8 feet high. 80 as to give the doors the appearance of pannel g, Bay, 16 feet by 44, until it rises above the work. The posts on each side of the doors are 14 ceiling of the store room, then it goes the whole inches wide, with a piece sawed out of the centre, length of the barn, 60 feet. through which the doors pass. The posts are hh, Upright posts framed into timbers above and
below, with rungs inserted for ladders, to ascend every man placed at his proper post the moment he and descend at pleasure.
came upon the ground. 'I make these observations iii, Narrow scuttle doors, through which the that no one may be disappointed who shall underloam is passed down into the stable below, to cover take to build a similar barn, hire his builders, stone. the hard pan, over which the boards and plank are cutters, masons, and carpenters, find them plenty of laid, as described in b, of the basement.
alcohol, while he sits at the neighboring tavern Description of Basement.--a, Open shed, facing taking into his own stomach copious draughts of east, 12 feet by 60.
the good creature, talking politics, &c., &c., and b, Stable, with windows the whole length, hung finds on footing up all his bills that they amount to with strong strap hinges to open and shut at plea- $1,200. Here is a building which, if kept prosure; also a window at the south end. The object perly covered and painted, will last a century or of so much window is, to throw out the manure, upwards. and to ventilate the stable, which is 12 feet by 60. The yard adjoining on the east, has a fountain The ground under the stable is a hardpan, over of running water brought into it by pipes. A high which is placed every summer a layer of loam 6 or wall supports the bank on the north side next to 8 inches thick, and carefully levelled. On this, the road, which breaks off all northerly winds, and boards are laid lengthwise, some inches apart, and it is intended to be surrounded with sheds on all on these boards plank are laid cross-wise. Through sides.
A TRAVELLER. the interstices of these the liquid manure runs down, and mixes with the loam, which is thrown
BLIGHT IN PEAR TREES. out in the spring, and mixed with the manure under I have been an attentive reader of your paper for the shed, and fresh loam put in place of it, and the three years, and have received much valuable inboards and plank replaced. This takes but a short formation from it. You have only heard from me time to do.
as I have forwarded my yearly subscription. At c, Manger, 3 feet wide, made with plank formed this time I thought I would offer some remarks on into timbers and pinned; not a nail about it, and the blight in the pear tree, and under-draining of perfectly tight. Stalls are divided off for two cows land, from personal observation. or oxen each, to be tied with ropes fastened at each In vol. 3, page 321, your correspondent has ex. outer corner.
pressed his opinion that the blight is a disease of d, Open space, 5 feet by 60 feet.
the bark, and not of the wood in the pear tree, and e, Cellar, 8 feet by 16, filled with roots in the that the remedy is found in cutting off the bark, fall, and supplied from the pits during winter as and washing with strong ley from wood ashes. I they are wanted.
am convinced that his theory is correct, for the fol. f, Bay, 8 feet by 34, running up to the roof, 27 lowing reasons : feet to the eaves.
About twenty years since, I came to this place &&&, A bank of loam the whole length of and located myself as a farmer. At the time, there stable, except against the doors, which are guarded was a nursery of young pear trees in the neighborby a narrow plank fixture to keep the loam in its hood, which was soon divided among the lovers of place, which is mixed in small quantities with the good fruit: these trees have mostly been destroyed manure every morning as the stables are cleared. by the blight. Some were planted on a farm which hh, Stable doors.
I have since purchased. When I came into the ociii, Seven stone pillars 10 feet long, standing on cupancy of it, there was one so large that I did not flat stones 2 feet under ground, bolted to the sills of think best to remove it for fear of destroying the the upper story with iron bolts, made of 14 inch tree; the other was removed and planted in a very round rods.
different soil. The tree that remained soon showed The barn stands upon a strong foundation of signs of blight. I went and cut off the limbs which stone on the west side; both ends are laid in lime were affected. The next season, directly after it mortar, and well pointed with the same material. had put forth its foliage, the disease made its apThe top stones of this foundation are from 10 pearance again. I now resolved to cut the diseased to 14 feet long, by about a foot square. At the part of the tree away at all events. I commenced south end, the walls jut out on each side of the with cutting as I supposed low enough; but cutting barn doors, and the space is filled up with earth be the same limb several times, I found the bark de. tween, to make a gradual descent, and the egress fective in most instances. The bark on the flourish. easy for an empty cart or wagon to pass out into ing limbs was apparently healthy; but, on examinthe adjoining meadow. The outside covering is of ing the bark on the body of the tree, I found it enclear pine boards, well seasoned, planed, tongued, tirely dead; there was not a green spot in going and grooved together, running up and down, paint- round the tree, for I took the entire bark off about ed, and the roof well shingled, and every part of the six inches in width, and yet that tree produced a work done in the most substantial manner. good harvest of fruit; one of the pears weighed 20
Cost.—The stone and timber being on Mr. K.'s own oz. The tree never leafed again, but sprouted from land, the whole cost of this barn did not exceed $600, the root. the work of the owner reckoned at the usual rates Now the examination of the above case was he paid to other mechanics. The presumption, how- satisfactory evidence to me that the diseased part of ever, in my own mind is, that if he did not do the the tree was the bark, and not the wood; but for the work of three men himself, he did and saved what remedy I am indebted to your correspondent above was equivalent to it by personally superintending alluded to. Although I have not been troubled every stroke; by, being up at the early dawn of with the disease since—perhaps from the fact that I day with teams áll fed, yoked, and harnessed, and I have occasionally washed my trees with the remedy
proposed; but I do not attribute it to that alto- Solomon says: “I made me gardens and paradises, gether. It is my opinion that the pear flourishes and I planted in them all kinds of fruit trees. Í best in a moist soil. What has led me to the con- made me pools of water, to water with them the clusion is this; the trees which I first planted from groves flourishing with trees.” (Eccles. ii. 5.) the nursery above mentioned, were planted in a The cemeteries of the Jews may be considered as soil mostly composed of loam and water, found in a species of garden. We find that Abraham buried digging from 6 to 8 feet deep, while the tree I have Sarah in a field " bordered with trees.” The sejust described was on a soil composed of sand inter- pulchre of Jesus was in a garden ; and from various mixed with gravel, to the depth of certainly 12 | other data it is clear, that with all who could afford feet, as found by digging—how much deeper it ran it among the Jews, the place of burial was not only I know not. It has been a matter worthy of obser- sacred, from its use, but interesting or beautiful vation to me, that, almost invariably, the trees on from being accompanied by some striking or agree. the driest land have been destroyed. One of my able natural feature. neighbors has quite a number of trees which are The grove of Orontes is thus described by Gibbon, planted on loam underlaid with clay. These have in his Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. “It suffered much from the disease. He is making was composed of laurels and cypress, which formed vigorous efforts to restore them, by pruning and in the most sultry summers a cool and impenetrable digging a trench in circular form, about 4 feet from shade. A thousand streams of the purest water the trunk of the tree, and, during the heat of sum- issuing from every hill, preserved the verdure of the mer, filling it with water daily. Whether he suc- earth, and the temperature of the air; the senses ceeds or not, is yet to be known.
were gratified with harmonious sounds and aromatic Doctor W, of this place, who has taken some odors; and the peaceful grove was consecrated to pains and been at some trouble to procure a choice health and joy, to luxury and love." selection of the best kinds of fruits, observed to me An account of the gardens of the Emperor Nero that his pears were going to be destroyed by the is thus given by Tacitus in his Annals.
“ Moreblight, and wanted to know if I had seen any pro- over Nero turned the ruins of his country to his posed remedy which I considered efficacious. I private advantage, and built a house, the ornaments then related the method as proposed by your cor- of which were, not miracles of gems and gold, now respondent as above alluded to, in connection with usual in vulgar luxuries, but lawns and lakes, and my own observation on the subject, and gave it as after the manner of a desert; here groves, and there my opinion that it would restore the trees to health open spaces and prospects; the masters and centu
He concurred in the opinion, and last rions being Severus and Celer, whose genius and spring cut off the affected limbs, shaved off the boldness could attempt by art what nature had de. bark, washed with the ley, and is of the opinion nied, and deceive with princely force.” that he has restored his trees. This summer will In Lombardy, the gardens of Monza and of the probably decide the experiment.
Isola Bella are the most noted. I have found this article so long that I shall omit In speaking of the Isola Bella, Wilson says: saying anything on the subject of under-draining Nothing can be so noble as the conversion of a till another time.
L. W. HITCHCOCK. barren rock, without an inch of earth on its surface, Tallmadge, Summit Co, Ohio, Feb. 20, 1846. into a palace of fertility and luxury. This rock in
1640 produced nothing but mosses and lichens : GARDENING.–No. 2.
when Vitaliano Borromeo conceived the idea of HAVING thus very briefly contemplated the pro- turning it into a garden of fruits and flowers. For gress of this art, from its introduction to the present this purpose, he brought earth from the banks of time, allow me here, to give a few short sketches the lake, and built ten terraces on arches, one above of gardens, garden-like cemeteries, and public the other, to the top of the island on which the walks, in various parts of the world, and at various palace is placed. This labor has produced a most times of their history.
singular pyramid of exotics and other plants, which The most celebrated gardens in very ancient times make a fine show, and constitute the chief ornament were those of the kings of Assyria and Babylon. of this miracle of artificial beauty.”. All travellers The form of these gardens was square; and, ac. do not, however, agree with Wilson in the above decording to Diodorus and Strabo, each side was four scription ; for Hazlitt remarks, that he was " utterly hundred feet in length. They were made to rise disappointed in the Borromean Isles. Isola Bella with terraces, in the form of steps. They were in resembles a pyramid of sweetmeats ornamented the vicinity of the river Euphrates, from which with green festoons and flowers." they were supplied with water. These terraces “ Extensive gardens of pots and boxes are comcontained fountains, parterres, seats, and banquet-mon on the roofs of the palaces and other houses in ing rooms, with an almost endless variety of fruit, Naples. Viewed from the streets they have a sin. flowers, and plants of ornament; it was in fact a gular effect; and, retaining their beauty and fracombination of all the splendor and luxury of East- grance from the fresh breezes in these elevated reern magnificence, with the simple pleasures of gions, and the comparative absence of that stench beautiful and verdant nature. So surprising and with which the lower atmosphere of Naples is laborious was this undertaking, that the ancients almost continually charged, they are very agreeable classed it with the various “Wonders of the World.” to the possessors.” (Loudon.)
Many gardens belonging to Jewish princes and M. Seterveldt's garden, near Utrecht, is a caresubjects are mentioned in Holy Writ. The princi- fully preserved specimen of the Ancient Dutch style pal one was King Solomon's, the form of which of villa gardens. Here the grand divisions of the was quadrangular and surrounded by a high wall. garden are made by tall, thick hedges of beech,