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THE CUTTER, THE COULTER, AND THE LOCK-COULTER.- ETC.
THE CUTTER, THE COULTER, AND THE LOCK-COULTER. THESE terms are so often used as synonymous, we insert three cuts of plows for the purpose of explaining them, and showing the difference between each.
The Cutter, in fig. 30, is of wrought iron, edged with steel of the best quality. It passes through a mortice in the centre of the beam, where it is fastened by an iron clamp, and reaches nearly down to the point of the share. It can be raised or lowered at pleasure, or be taken out of the beam entirely. It is also clasped on the side of the beam when required. The Coulter, in fig. 31, is cast
FIG. 30 on to the point of the plow-share, and thus forms a part of it.
The Lock-Coulter, in fig 32, is also made of wrought iron, steeledged in Eagle No. 2, and sizes larger having them ; in Eagle No. 1 it is made of cast iron. It passes through the beam, and is made fast with a nut and screw, or key, and locks through the point and mould-board where they join. This
FIG. 31. gives it strength, and makes the plow suitable to be used among rocks, and especially the roots of newly-cleared land; for the lockcoulter cannot be turned on one side or forced out of its place, but will instantly sever roots of an inch or two diameter, and thus enable the plow to turn the furrow smoothly and with great ease. The lockcoulter can be taken out at pleasure In fig. 32, is affixed, when re
FIG. 32. quired, a sharp steel-edged share or point, cutting of Guano, Lime, Plaster, Bone-dust, and other ma very wide, and a reversed or drag cutter, for the nures. Also a choice list of Fruit Trees, with direc. purpose of plowing and completely turning over tions for planting out and culture. Also a descripthe surface of wet meadows when reclaimed by tion of the best breeds of domestic animals, and the ditching. A crane clevis is attached to the end of best time and manner of transporting them South. the beam to pull by, which enables the off horse to By A. B. Allen. New York Agricultural Warehouse, keep clear of the miry open furrow, so very fatigu- 187 Water Street. This is an octavo pamphlet of ing to him, and tread on the unbroken, ground as 80 pages, containing upwards of one hundred ex; well as the near horse ; thus making it compara- planatory Illustrations, which we have published tively easy work for the team, and obviating the for the purpose of answering questions daily great objection to breaking up wet meadows or addressed us by our
customers. It can be bad gratis swampy ground. The newly invented dial-clevis on application, post-paid. The title page of this and draught-rod, as seen in figs. 30 and 31, will also work sufficiently explains its nature, and renders enable the off horse to tread on solid ground in any further notice of it unnecessary on our part. plowing wet meadows, nearly as well as the craneclevis, and run close alongside of a fence or ditch. MUSTARD AS A GARDEN AND FIELD CROP. — This would be an admirable plow for the rice lands The white and broad leaf kinds are excellent for on the Mississippi, and for the prairie lands of the salad or greens. They should be sown very early West. When the meadow fixtures are removed, in the spring, in a rich warm soil, in shallow drills, and the original point or share replaced, the plow ten inches apart, and kept clean from weeds. After is adapted to the rugged upland soils, thus answer the crop is off, the ground may be planted with ing the double purpose of an upland and meadow cucumbers for pickling, or used for a succession of plow.
salad or radishes. Mustard is now cultivated ex
tensively as a field crop, by sowing it broadcast. DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE of Horticultural and Mow it when ripe, and cure it like grain or hay, Agricultural Implements and Tools, and Field and and thresh out the seed in a grain thresher. It Garden Seeds; with brief directions for Planting, yields from ten to fifteen bushels per acre, worth Sowing, and Culture ; and rules for the application $3 to $4 per bushel. It is a great exhauster of the
AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATION, ETC.
tand, and requires a rich soil. It is sometimes and the encouragement of the Government or States plowed in green, to enrich the land.
to make the production of silk, raw and manufac
tured, a vast branch of industry. The requisite AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATION. skill and knowledge we now possess. To the
The monthly meeting was held on the 4th of last agriculturist it is of vast importance. Our country month at their rooms in the University, the Hon. can produce cocoons unlimitedly, and find in Luther Bradish, President, in the chair.
Europe a consumer, without a rival. England The committee appointed at the February meet- pays annually to France and Italy, $30,000,000 ing, to procure a proper place for the meeting of for raw or reeled silk to manufacture. America the Association, reported that they had made a con- may monopolise the whole of this, and add vast tract with the Historical Society, for the use of wealth to our country. Not only so, but she may their rooms in the University, at an annual rent of supply all Germany with raw silk for their manu$150, subject to the approval of the Association. factures. Time will bring all this about; but will The report was adopted. This contract is for the not our farmers and planters hasten the good work ? year ending March, 1847, but may be terminated at Mr. Clark then offered a resolution, which was any time at the pleasure of the Association, adopted, for the appointment of a committee to con.
Mr. Edward Clark read a paper on the subjects sider and report upon the expediency of action on of the Mulberry and the Silk Culture of the United the part of the Association, in devising and procur. States. His paper is too long for publication, and ing the establishment of a silk manufactory in the does not admit of analysis. He was followed by vicinity of New York. Mr. Van Epps, who gave some information as to Dr. Gardner then read a paper on the proper rotathe silk culture of the country. He is the manager tion of crops. He advised the following course, of a large silk manufacture now being established viz.: 1, roots (turnips, carrots, parsnips, &c.), or at Washington, D.C., by Mr. Van Ness. He gave a corn; 2, oats ; 3, clover; 4, wheat; 5, beans, or condensed statement of the statistics contained in potatoes ; 6, clover; 7, wheat. Some discussion the reports of the Commissioner of Patents. It ap- followed the reading of the paper, in which Mr. pears that the mulberry is cultivated and cocoons Maxwell, Mr. Veeder, and Prof. Mason, took part. produced in every State in the Union. The mass Prof. Mason read a letter from Mr. G. Wilkin. of cocoons, however, is produced in the following son, of Dutchess Co., stating that he proposed the States.
opening of an Agricultural School in Dutchess Co., 1840.
1844. New York, and asking the favorable consideration Maine......
211 lbs. 815 lbs. of the Association. The matter was referred to a New Hampshire
committee, consisting of Prof. Mason, Mr. J. F. Vermont...
Mr. Gardner G. Howland, through Mr. Pell, tenRhode Island.
dered to the Association the use of his fine farm of Connecticut.
176,210 New York
300 acres, with all his farm stock, &c., at Flushing, New Jersey:
L. I., for five years, free of charge, for the purpose Pennsylvania.. 47,262
of establishing an Agricultural School, and an exDelaware...
458 perimental farm. Mr. P. stated that the farm last Maryland... 1,290
year produced 300 tons of hay; is in excellent conVirginia.
7,720 dition, and may be made highly productive at once; North Carolina..
and furnishes the requisite capital to commence South Carolina..
such an institution as has been for a long time Tennessee...
deemed necessary Kentucky..
A vote of thanks to Mr. Howland was passed, Ohio..
and the following committee appointed on his noble About 371,000 lbs, in 1844, equal to 30,000 bushels, land, Chancellor McCoun, S. Knapp, A. P. Halsey,
gift and project, viz. : Hon. L. Bradish, G. G. How. which would employ 25 reels for six months. The A. H Stevens, H. Maxwell, J. F. Sheafe, Å amounts for 1840 are actual, being taken from the Stevens, S. T. Jones, J. B. Parsons, and R. L. Pell census of that year; those of 1844 are from the
Mr. Pell also announced Mr. Sheafe as a sub. report of Mr. Ellsworth, Commissioner, who pro- scriber to the fund for the importation of Alpacas cured his information through the facilities and to the amount of $500; and letters were read from means of the patent department. Mr. Van Epps Mr. D. D. Campbell, of Schenectady, N. Y., substated that the amount of 1844 was over-rated by scribing $600; and from Dr. Wm. Ferrell, of Sparta, the Commissioner ; but that there had been a very Geo., subscribing $300 for the same purpose large increase in the four years. Already, the production of cocoons exceeds the power of the reeling THE SUN FLOWER.—This plant should be cultiestablishments to reel it. The want of capital is vated much more than it is at present, in rich soils. the great difficulty. The most of the cocoons pro-It yields a large quantity of seed per acre, and it is duced in the north are reeled by the producers, and especially valuable for fatting poultry, making the made into sewing silk and fabrics by themselves; flesh exceedingly sweet and delicate. It is also ex, those of the South are largely sent North, for reel- cellent food for cattle, more especially when ground ing. It is admitted, that the raw silk of America up with a mixture of other grain. "It is said that is superior to any produced in Europe. Mr. Van from 30 to 40 lbs. of oil can be extracted from 100 Epps stated that nothing now was needed but the lbs. of seed, and that it brings a good price. The investment of capital, the patronage of the public, I leaves make good cigars.
ROCKY MOUNTAIN WOOL. A LEAF FROM A FARMER'S JOURNAL.
ROCKY MOUNTAIN WOOL.
and more than half of the manure, as deep as it ENCLOSED is a sample of wool taken by myself could be, with Messrs. Ruggles, Nourse & Mason's twenty or thirty years since, from a pelt which had large size two-horse plow. The balance of mabeen neglected, and the moths had eaten most of the nure was plowed in May 24th, when we raked the wool from the skin. It was said the sheep was ground as it was plowed. I seldom harrow root killed beyond the Rocky Mountains, by a company ground, preferring to plow deep, if stubble, in the in the employ of John Jacob Astor, Esq. You will fall; if not, plow deep in the spring, as early as cir. perceive jar or hair mixed with the wool, which, if cumstances admit. Then, after corn planting, plow I rightly recollect, stood out prominently beyond again, but not deep, having hands enough to rake the wool, and might have been separated. The the ground with common hay rakes, as it is plowed ; wool you will find very much like cotton. The this is easily done by back furrowing, as you can sample sent has been injured by moths. If sheep then rake the stones and other obstructions to the of this description could be obtained and domesti- sowing machine, into the furrows. I this year cated, it might be an advantage to our manufac- planted later than usual, but prefer earlier planting, turers as well as the agriculturists.
that the crop may be more out of the way of haying. I think the introduction of the Alpaca will add to I have charged $6.25 for labor of haying hands, and our agricultural amusements at least, and that they presume the amount covers the cost of their labor. can be introduced at less risk and less expense by Haying, as you are aware, is quite an important driving them from Peru to Panama, or some other matter with me; I then have from fifteen to twenty place in the Pacific, and then across to the Ca- hands, and occasionally they work an hour or two ribbean Sea or the Gulf of Mexico. H. WATSON.
weeding or hoeing. East Windsor, Ct., Feb. 23, 1846.
My carrot crop this year was not equal to that
of the year before, probably one-fourth less. The The wool enclosed by our correspondent is very yield, as you see, is not large; the quantity mensoft, and of a medium quality. We wish some one tioned in the account being the product of an acre. would act upon his hint, and undertake the domes- The beets came up very badly; but, by transplanttication of the Rocky Mountain sheep. Their ing, the yield was about 1,396) bushels per acre: I fleeces and forms might be greatly improved by reckon 40 lbs. per bushel. The 1st day of July I proper care, and the size increased ; and there is no found the beets had come up in bunches—not more telling, what utility rearing a good flock of them than one-half the ground being seeded. On the 3d, might lead to.
it threatened rain, we then transplanted nearly one
half of the crop. At harvest, the transplanted roots A LEAF FROM A FARMER'S LEDGER. were equal to the others; they bear transplanting Root Crop. 1845.
Dr. almost as well as cabbages. The carrots I planted April 20. To 70 loads of night soil compost,
in rows 16 inches apart, the beets 20 inches. at $1 per cart load...
$70 00 Would it not be better to plant 27 to 30 inches April 20. To plowing one acre and one-half.....6 00 apart, and use a cultivator instead of a hoe? (Yes; or May 24. plowing do. do... ..3 00 36 inches apart is yet better. Ed.] In harvesting car
6 hands 3-4 day each, a 75 c. per day:3 37 rots, I have plowed them out, by letting the land side May 26. "7 do. equal to 4 2-3 d’ys work, a 75 c.3 50 the plow run next to the roots, and crowd then into June-July“ 20 days work, a 75 c. per day: " work of haying hands, a $1 25 pr day.6 25 with a spade. I generally begin early in October
:::15 09 the open furrows; but the best way is to dig them Oct.-Nov.“ 18 d’ys work harvesting, &c., a 75c. per day
:13 50 to dig them, digging two or three cart loads in the " Seed, marketing, &c.
.600 morning, and carting them into the barn in the “ Interest on one and one half acres, afternoon; top them in the evening, and feed the a $100 per acre, a 6 per cent..
..9 00 tops to the cattle next day. They are very fond of Dec. 30. Crop account to balance.
..88 77 them, and what they leave will do for litter; then
let them go into the barn cellar for the hogs to work $224 39
I fed, the year before last, several hundred bushels of carrots to my hogs. They answer very
Cr, By one half of manure, as above..
well to begin on, as they come in early, when far. 26,400 lbs. carrots, a 40 c. p.cwt.or $8 p. ton. 105 60 mers are generally short of feed for horses and 27,930 lbs. beets, á 30 c.p. cwt. or $6 p. ton..83 79 hogs, They may do to fatten other people's hogs,
but I shall not try them again, for I experimented $224 39 on them till I came to the conclusion that it was
like feeding them with sawdust and meal, the more The night soil compost charged above was made meal you mix with the sawdust the better the hogs of night soil, of which I get in the spring and fall fatten; but for cattle and horses they are excellent 10 to 12 cords per day. This, for the upland, is food. composted with muck, adding half a bushel or a My horses are worked as regularly as a dray-team bushel of ground plaster to each load of 5 or 6 feet in the city. Nothing but bad weather keeps them I have charged it at one dollar per two-horse cart in the stable. If there is no work at home, they go load, which from my accounts appears to be the to the beach or some other place, for manure; there cost of it on the field. It is carted on to the land in is always something to pick up, that when seasoned the winter, or early in the spring, as opportunity under the barn proves good manure. My experience offers, taking care to cover the piles in the fall with has proved to me that it is the most economical to sea-weed, to prevent their freezing hard. have help enough for common farm work, and to
On the 20th of April I plowed in the corn stubble, let the teamster keep the team moving. From
THE ROW CULTURE FOR WHEAT,
October to March, I feed half a bushel of carrots health interposes to prevent much experimenting, and three quarts of cob-meal to each horse daily. or the adoption of new and unusual methods. They keep in good flesh, and I think they are better Many years since in England, I put in a field of than if fed on grain alone, or rather, if the value of six acres of wheat (a clean fallow, clay land, and the carrots was given in grain.
rather poor) on the plan practised by Tull. It was There are other considerations of importance to plowed into ridges from 4 to 5 feet wide, and two the farmer in root crops. The extra quantity of rows of wheat 8 or 9 inches apart, drilled as near as manure and the fine condition they leave the land possible in the top of each ridge. The after culin for any other crop, I consider carrots and sugar- ture was strictly Tullian; a good furrow was beets among the most profitable crops that I grow. plowed from the rows of wheat before winter, and Lynn, Mass., Feb., 1846.
J. H. C. plowed back to the wheat in the spring, when the
narrow spaces were hoed by hand, and all weeds THE ROW CULTURE FOR WHEAT.
pulled out; two more furrows were plowed from In the last volume of the Agriculturist, it is the middle of the alleys towards the wheat, when recommended that farmers should sow wheat in it was from one to two feet high. The crop was rows; and it has been a matter of astonishment to kept by itself, and yielded 32 bushels per acre of me that the agricultural press has not urged this the very primest wheat-our usual crops were from subject more, and that farmers have not made ex- 15 to 40 bushels per acre. Perhaps there may not periments at least, and reported progress. Although be much advantage in this wide system of wheat, I have been a subscriber to the Genesee Farmer except we wish to cultivate it for many years in from its commencement, and to the Cultivator since succession. I find by referring to Tull's book, tbat the union of the two, and also to your paper since his sixth crop was better than any of its predecesits commencement, yet I have not seen in them as sors on the same land, without manure of any kind ! much on this subject as would fill one side of this and I was informed that, in a later edition of his sheet (a).
book, published a little before his death, it was I will relate, as briefly as I can, what experience mentioned that he had the thirteenth crop growing I have had on the subject. Three years last Sep- on the same land without dung or summer fallow, tember, I left a few rods square unsown, in the during the whole 13 years, and that it was the most middle of a twenty acre lot of clean summer fallow, promising crop of the whole thirteen! I do not the harrows passing over it two or three times know the number of bushels per acre raised by while harrowing the rest of the field; I then imme- Tull ; he does, however, incidentally mention 6 diately drew little drills with a hoe, 12 or 15 inches quarters (48 bushels) per acre as one of his crops. apart, and sowed wheat in them, covering it up If I understand Tull, his opinion was that lands with the hoe. When the ground became suffi- naturally, suited for any crop, and once put into ciently dry in the spring, I went to the patch with prime order for producing that crop, will continue my hoe, and hoed the spaces well, once over, pull- to produce good crops till the world's end, provided ing out such weeds in the rows of wheat as were the crop. is so planted that half the land can be likely to prove injurious. On one other occasion, tilled while it is growing, the tilled half being when the wheat was knee high, I pulled out a few more enriched by imbibing the fertilizing particles more weeds from the rows. When the wheat was in the dews and rains, than the other half is impovripe, I reaped the drilled patch by itself, and an erished by the crop, so that the land grows richer equal space of ground of the sowed wheat adjoin- every year. If this is true, the knowledge of it is ing; the two lots were threshed separately, clean- of immense value, and if false, it is time that its ed, and weighed, and although I have not the note falsehood should be shown by actual experiments. of the exact amount of wheat, quantity of ground, Its falsehood, in theory, has often enough been &c., yet I perfectly well remember that the result shown of late, but nothing is proved by closet was in favor of the drilled wheat, 10 bushels per theories till carried out in practice. acre, it being at the rate of nearly 37, and the Auburn, Feb., 1846.
A SUBSCRIBER. sowed wheat, 27 bushels per acre. I was surprised at this result, as the straw was longest and the (a) If our Correspondent will look over the back sheaves largest on the sowed part. The heads, numbers of the Agriculturist again, he will find however, on the drilled part, were larger, the straw frequent recommendations (short to be sure) there stouter and heavier, and the grain plumper. to sow wheat in drills, particularly in Vol. 4, page
A similar experiment on a few square rods of 240. We should have written more on this subground was tried the following year, but from care-ject, had not two of our friends, who are large lessness no calculation was made. The drilled growers of wheat, promised us some articles.' wheat, however, was kept separate, and was at the The principal objection we have heard to drill sowrate of 38 bushels per acre; it had the advantage of ing in this country is, that it tillers out much more growing on the richest part of the field. This, than when sown broadcast. We cannot understand however, was not the case in the experiment of the how this should be, if the drills are not over one year before. These two small experiments are all foot apart ; and if it does tiller out more, will it not that I have made in drilling grain, during more than produce a greater crop, provided the soil has the 20 years that I have been engaged in agriculture in elements in it to form a due proportion of grain America. The want of a drilling machine, and the to straw ?.. We shall be glad to hear from expresence of stumps and stones, have rendered it dif- perienced wheat growers on this subject. We ficult to do much at it; and now that these obsta- must confess that we are greatly in favor of drilling cles, except the first, are no longer felt, loss of in wheat as well as most other grain crops.
Again, your correspondent says : " Like the In the February No. of the Agriculturist, 1 have Rambouillets, these sheep are of large and fine carread some very interestirg statements respecting the case, but unlike them, are short in the leg, and the excellent flock of sheep owned by Mr. H. S. Ran- ends of the wool are usually coated with a dark dall
, of Cortlandville, N.Y., over the signature of L. gum. It is barely tipped with gum, say for one. The whole bears internal evidence of the produc-eighth of an inch. Within that and to the skin, the tion of a fair and high-minded writer, who would wool is a glossy white, and freer from hard gum scorn an act of injustice. I honor the head and the than the Rambouillet.” Did he ever see and exheart of the writer, and readily acquit him of the amine my flock of Rambouillets, and rigidly comcharge of wrong intention. I have often heard of pare it with our native Merinos? If not, then has the sheep of Mr. Randall, and have no doubt they he ever seen any other thorough-bred Rambouillets ? are a flock well established, and deserving commen
I suspect he has not; for if he had, he would not dation.
have represented them as “long-legged sheep,” In establishing the claims of a good flock of and having “hard gum” in the fleece, when in truth sheep, it is a common method to compare them with they are sheep of about medium length of leg, and some flock of acknowledged merit. This is all are entirely without gum in the fleece. well, provided no injustice is done to the one, in
I should not have said thus much, had I not found order to render the comparison between the two that the communication of L. would tend to create partial and one-sided. But injustice is sometimes the impression that the Rambouillet sheep are what done inadvertently, and so I apprehend in this case, they are not, and that the public mind might be mis. in the references which are made to the Ram-led. I am largely the owner of American Merino bouillets.
sheep, of a very similar character to Mr. Randall's, I have not owned the Rambouillet flock long as, I suppose, heavy shearers, and I am free to say, enough to give any statements in regard to weight that I consider the Rambouillet as far superior to any and quality of fleece after shearing, from my own Paular, Escurial, Guadaloupe, or other variety of observation, and your correspondent implies that American Merinos, while I at the same time honestly such statements have never been made by any one.
believe and openly maintain, that we have some If he will look into Vol. 2, page 100, of the Agri- very valuable American Merino flocks. Mr.R.’s flock culturist, he will find statements made in this regard is doubtless among the number; and he deserves by the Editor himself.
great credit for the spirit and liberality which he has Then as to strength of fibre of Mr. Randall's manifested in establishing it. I am a friend to imsheep, as compared with Mr. Collins' Grandee, as- provement wherever I see it, and I hope I have a certained by Dr. Emmons, the State Geologist, your mind large enough to acknowledge merit wherever correspondent says: “ The wool of Mr. R.'s prize I find it. I am not in competition with any man, in ram decidedly exceeded that of Grandee—the best any of my pursuits. My husbandry operations are buck of the Rambouillet importation ; and supported secondary matters altogether, which I pursue at my a greater weight, or, in other words, was stronger leisure for my own relaxation from study, the in proportion to its diameter. It as far exceeded benefit of my family and the public good. various rams of early importation.”
I have merely to add, that the only true way of I should like to ask your correspondent how long testing the quantity and quality of fleece wool, is since the specimen from Grandee was shorn; for he by thorough cleansing by a good manufacturer, and has been dead for a considerable time, and I believe the price he will pay for it when it is thus prepared was last shorn in the summer of 1842. How much for working. For my own part, I am determined had that specimen lost of its strength by age, repeated to test the value of my Rambouillet buck, Grandee, handling and pulling, and the wear and tear of being and some of the Rambouillet ewes in this way, side carried in some wallet in some man's pocket, till by side with my heavy shearing Merinos, and the half its original strength probably was gone? Per- public shall have the result and judge for them. haps he can tell us how much allowance should be selves. made for this, and the operation of similar causes.
I invite Mr. Randall, and any others disposed to How was the exact diameter of each specimen as- try it, to submit their best buck’s and ewe's fleeces certained ? by guess-work, by measurement, or by to the same test, and let the public know how they counting the number of fibres constituting the cord come out. I give this invitation to all wool-grow. to be broken by weights ? Dr. Emmons is doubt-ers, not as a banter, but in order that in this less a good geologist, and meant to make a fair trial great interest we may find out where we are. This of these samples; but how much does he know is a test that will be perfectly fair, and to which about wool and sheep? Again, where are those none can object, and we shall then know whether " various”. rams to be found " of early importa- we are raising wool or not; and whether we have tions," against which the strength of fibre of Mr. R.'s good cause to complain of the
low prices which the sheep was tried? I was not aware that there were manufacturer is disposed to give for our « heavy such Rambouillets, or even the wool of such in the fleeces.”
L. G. BINGHAM. country. If the trial was with samples of wool
Williston, Vt., Feb. 13, 1846. which had been preserved since the early importations, it would seem to be desirable that it should P.S. It may not be improper to add, that in the be known how old they were, in order to know how judgment of most men who examine the Rambouil. much the experiments proved. I must think the let Hock, they will average five pounds per head of tests in these cases very, very imperfect, from the clean-washed wool, of one year's growth, and I nature of things.
hope to increase their clip beyond this hereafter.