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PERUVIAN GUANO ON WHEAT AND GRASS.- ETC.

271

mates, and instances occur of the combat proving PERUVIAN GUANO ON WHEAT AND GRASS. fatal to one or both.

On the light soils of Long Island, and generally By a letter from General O'Brien to Mr. William around New York, Peruvian guano has proved, the Walton, who received a gold medal in 1842, from past year, one of the best and cheapest manures the Highland and Agricultural Society, for a which can be applied to the wheat crop. We "Satisfactory Account founded on Actual Observa- think we are safe in saying, that so far as our obtion and Experiment, to naturalize in Scotland, the servation extends, an application of 300 lbs. of Alpaca,” we learn that “ In Peru, the rutting season Peruvian guano per acre, costing $7 to $8, has coinmences in the month of November, when the produced an increase in the yield of the crop of male alpaca throws off his tame and quiet habits, wheat of from 7 to 12 bushels per acre, and the pursuing the females until he separates from the after benefit of the guano on the succeeding hay. flock one of his own choice. Her he woos with

crop, may be counted upon as equivalent to a ton the most ardent demonstrations; and if she proves and a quarter of hay extra in the three succeeding coy and runs away, he follows her through the

years; thus proving that a pure article of guano, country for miles, and until his importunities have judiciously applied, is a profitable fertilizer. been successful. At this moment, the flocks of

If the soil is not leachy or exposed to be washed both alpacas and llamas sometimes break up and by winter rains, we will recominend that guano be disperse, running in different directions through the applied to wheat, rye, or grass, in the fall of the country, and weeks may elapse before the owner year, otherwise as early as March the following is able to collect them again. Hence, when this spring. Some sow guano and harrow it in either season approaches, the Indian shuts up his sheep, before or with the seed. Being so powerful a maseparating the male from the female, in pens, pur. nure, and when coming directly in contact with the posely constructed in such a manner as to allow of

young roots of plants, burning and killing them, we their putting their faces together, and caressing think that this system is more or less hazardous ; each other a week or a fortnight before the day ap- we would therefore recommend those using guano pointed to bring them out.”

for winter grain, to let the plant get up about three Owing to the extremely lascivious disposition, weeks high, and then sow broad-cast upon it, at however, of the Andes sheep, great care must be the rate of 300 lbs. of Peruvian, or 400 lbs. of observed when the males are admitted to the African per acre. If the causticity of the guano females. Both by night and by day the shepherd destroys some or even many of the leaves of the should be vigilant'; for besides quarrelling with one plants, it is of no great importance ; for by this another, where two males are allowed to compete for time they will have become well rooted, and others the same female, they might trample her to death, will immediately spring up to supply their place. Hence every possible precaution ought to be used The great benefit of applying guano, and indeed all to keep them apart. * Upon this point General other manures, to grain and grass crops in the fall, O'Brien remarks, that should the alpaca ever be is, that they remain a slight covering to the ground, introduced into Great Britain, on a large scale, and assist in keeping it warm, are gradually decom. as a national benefit, breeders must adopt the Peru- posing, and by early spring become soluble and vian mode of separating the males from the females, well prepared for the crop to take them up and at least a fortnight before the union of the sexes assimilate their elements for its rapid growth. It takes place, and in order to prevent their wander- has been ascertained in England, that a crop of ing away.

grass or grain guanoed in the fall, will ripen from * In some parts of Peru," Mr. Walton observes, a week to ten days earlier than the same would “the llameros prepare small folds, in which they under similar circumstances un-guanoed. Before shut up one of each sex. The male begins his purchasing guano, we advise every farmer to look caresses by antic tricks and boundings; the female, about him and gather up and apply all the manure at first, appears shy, and moans, while at intervals and fertilizing substances that he can find upon or one spits at the other. After a day or two they around his premises. Let him remember that a become more intimate, when at length the female, penny saved is twopence earned, and that it is with her fore-legs bent under her, and resting on easier to save than to earn. her breast, assumes that position in which only she can receive the embraces of ber mate; but this is DETERIORATION OF BARN-YARD MANURE. not a forced prosternation on her part. It is, on Dung, in the opinion of the late Judge Peters, bethe contrary, the easy and natu posture

which

gins to deteriorate after it is one year old. “ I have she takes when reposing. If she evinces anything put it on,” says he, “after lying several years, with. like caprice, and difficulties should arise from her out any perceptible benefit

. But the practice of repugnance to assume the position required, the plowing in hot and fresh dung, has often been to me keepers place a slip.noose, called pajal, on the à subject of regret. It not only produces smutty lower part of the fore-legs, when pulling from be- crops, in parts, over stimulated, but cannot be equally hind, they trip her up, and alighting on her breast, spread or covered, so that much straw and little grain with their assistance, she easily receives the act of generation. The state of excitement into which appear in spots, which often lie down; and, in

any advantage is derived. Muck, The male has been worked up, is at this moment so composted, will keep the longest, without injury to great, that he is immediately afterwards turned out its fertilizing qualities. Dung and muck, in conseparate, and left to repose, never being coupled fined places, from which free air and moisture are twice in the same day. One, however, suffices for excluded, undergo a degree of combustion, and twenty females.”

become dry-rotten, mouldy, and useless."

$

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TO PREVENT SMUT IN WHEAT.-SIDE-HILL PLOW.-ETC.

TO PREVENT SMUT IN WHEAT.

terial for this purpose, if to be had. It will dry in ALTHOUGH we have given directions how to half an hour in the sun, and is then ready to be prevent the smut in wheat in a former volume, sown. Copperas water and urine are frequently many of our readers do not seem to have read used instead of brine to soak the seed; but we them, and therefore we repeat them. Make a brine much prefer brine, as it is clearly, and never danstrong enough to bear up an egg, be careful that it gerous in application. Some say grain may be is not above blood heat, then let the grain soak in soaked 24 hours in the brine without injury, but it from one to twelve hours, as is most convenient. if it be a thin-skinned variety, we should think it While in soak, stir up the grain occasionally, and would endanger its germination to soak over four every time this is done, take off the scum, foul hours or so. It is a good plan to prepare rye, stuff

, and light seeds that rise to the top of the barley, buckwheat, and oats, for sowing in the brine. As the grain is taken out, spread it on a same way as wheat, especially oats, as they are floor or in the sun, and scatter slaked lime, ashes, frequently as liable to smut. or plaster, over it, to dry it. Lime is the best ma

SIDE-HILL OR SWIVEL PLOW. THESE Plows are so constructed that the mould board is easily and instantly changed from one side to the other, which enables the operator to perform the work horizontally upon side-hills, going back and forth on the same side, and turning all the furrow slices with great nicety, downward. This prevents the washing of the soil by heavy rains, to which all side-hills are more on less liable when plowed as level ground.

SIDE-HILL Plow.-FIG. 63. They are much liked at the South for horizontal, the Atlantic, and if the people of the United States plowing ; for by this system of turning up and lay- expect any such thing, they will find themselves ing the soil, it is prevented from being washed into greatly mistaken ; a rise of prices is only to be those deep gullies, so_destructive to the general looked for after a bad harvest in one country or the face of the country. They are also highly useful, other. With our widely extended and highly fer. and by many much approved for level plowing, as tile territory, and unprecedented increase of rural this leaves the field without any centre dead or population, there is a constant tendency in reasonfinishing furrow; nor does it make bauks or ridges ably favorable seasons, to produce a large surplus by turning two furrows toward each other. They of provisions. Now if we were obliged to keep are likewise useful in enabling the plowman to this surplus at home, there must inevitably be a turn the furrow from his walls and fences. Ano- steady fall in the prices of agricultural products, ther advantage, they save much trouble in enabling and a greater or less loss every year from the injuthe team to turn short about at the end of the fur- ries to which such bulky and perishable articles are rows, instead of obliging it to travel across the wide constantly liable. The ports of Great Britain being ends of each land in the field. Price $5 to $14.

now nominally free, we shall easily get rid of our

surplus produce, and thus be able to maintain fair REPEAL OF THE BRITISH CORN LAWS.

prices. If the tillers of the soil will take this fact We had the gratification in our last, of announc- July into consideration, they will see that it is likeing the repeal of the exorbitant and odious Custom ly to be a greater boon to them than fluctuating House duties which have been so long levied upon high prices. Under the former tariff, Indian corn, the importation of breadstuffs into Great Britain, to one of the largest productions in the United States, the serious injury, and often heart-rending suffer- was virtually a prohibited article—now it can be ings of her people. It is one of the most beneficent exported in large quantities. acts of the age, and does honor to the men who Notwithstanding the promising harvest in Euwere instrumental in passing it. The people of rope the present year, it would not surprise us if the Great Britain and Ireland have at length attained exportations of corn, wheat, beef, pork, lard, butter, the common rights of humanity, and are now en- and cheese, should amount to twelve or thirteen abled to supply themselves with food where it is to millions of dollars. This amount will be steadily be had best and cheapest. We hope henceforth to on the increase, and in a few years doubtless aphear no more cries for bread, from half-famished proximate to twenty millions ; while the freight thousands, when it can be had at a low price from and charges earned by American citizens will be a neighboring country.

five millions more—and let it be recollected that It is not, however, as an act of beneficence those engaged in the transportation of these prowholly, that we desire to call the attention of ducts are consumers, and not producers. Hence American farmers to the repeal of the British Corn the disastrous effects cannot be so great as apprelaws, but as one likely to redound to their perma- hended by some, as many of our fariners will grow nent interests. We are not, and never have been so richer by the sales of their produce, our shippers sanguine in our belief, that their repeal would raise and sailors will find employment, and the country the price of breadstuffs materially on this side of will still prosper.

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FOREIGN CATTLE, SOUTHERN AGRICULTURE.

273

to go.

FOREIGN CATTLE,

tracting considerable notice, as the attention of I notice your remarks in the July No. of the breeders has been, in a peculiar degree, directed to Agriculturist, on the subject of Foreign Cattle, and the characters which indicate the property of proheartily coincide with the opinions advanced. The ducing milk. They are a tough, hardy race, well question has often occurred to me, “ Do we gain suited to light soils, and scant fare. much at the present time by continuing our impor

Albany, July, 1846.

C. N. BEMENT. tation of cattle from England ?” It has for some time appeared to me that we have all the materials

SOUTHERN AGRICULTURE. for improving our stock to any extent, among our- I have for some time past been examining the selves; and that we have as fine, well-bred, and as American Agriculturist, and the interest mani. valuable animals among our cattle, sheep, and fested by it in the South, and the many valuable swine, as could be found in England, with perhaps items of information it contains, induce me to be. very few exceptions. It appears to me, we are come a permanent subscriber. You will therefore, getting in this respect, as well as in many others, if you please, forward me the numbers for the preto place too much value on a thing merely because sent year, from its commencement. While I am it has been imported.. I may be mistaken, but it writing, perhaps it may not be amiss or irrelevant seems to me the practical effect of this continued for me to make a few remarks. There is a gradual disposition to look abroad, is to lessen the prices change creeping over the minds of the Southern obtained by our enterprising breeders at home, planters in regard to the leading features of agriculwhen the home-bred animals are in every respect ture—they are more ready to catch at any im. equal, if not superior, to the commonly imported provement, and more cagerly take interest in any ones. Occasional importations will continue to be novelty in the profession—they do not dislike in. necessary; the fundamental laws of good breeding, novation. This I can readily believe is brought and occasional infusion of blood from other races about by agricultural works becoming accessible to of the same family, demand this; but further than the mass, and from the interest which seems to be this I can scareely conceive it necessary at present felt by the scientific in the analysis and synthesis of

soils, the application of manure, rotation of crops, Acting upon this principle, I have always pur- deep plowing, and in fact in all matters relating to chased my stock at home instead of sending abroad, the business. Feeling, as I do, an all-absorbing although many of them were imported. I had the interest in the advancement of our profession, I good fortune to obtain some of the Ayrshire cattle consider it the duty of every man, to add into the you saw standing in the Ayrshire quarter of the common stock every item of practical information, State Cattle Show at Poughkeepsie,” in 1844. I so as to repay, in part, for the advantages he has purchased the imported bull and cow, together with himself gained from the experience of others. My their produce, and have now in my possession one feeble efforts have always, and shall ever be, for male, and five females, all thorough-bred Ayr- the benefit of farming in the South. shires, abandoning all other varieties, although I In respect to our worn out lands, it is almost use. must coniess I am well pleased with the cross with less for any one to waste paper and ink to write to the Durham and Ayrshire. For the dairy, I esteem the Southern planter, telling him to manure. It is them superior to my full-bred Durhams. It was well enough for the Northern farmers to talk ; they from a heifer of this cross that one pound of butter can well afford to fertilize their little spots of ten was produced from eight quarts of her milk. or a dozen acres; but a southern plantation of five

The very laudable attempts which have been or six hundred acres in cultivation, would take all made to improve our farm stock by importations, the manure in the parish, and all the force to do it and, in some instances, by judicious crossing and justice. Our plantations are too extensive to magood keeping, cannot but prove highly beneficial to nure thoroughly, consequently it is half done, or our country. Our native cattle, it is true, originally not done at all. Again; we have no time to haul sprang from the same stock as those of Great Bri- large quantities of manure to the field; for it gene. tain ; and, with the attention to improvement that rally takes until January to get out all our cotton, has been bestowed in England, they would, at this and we have to rush it then, to get time to make retime, probably have been inferior to none. But pairs, before we go to plowing for our next crop, from want of care in retaining the best individuals You might say, why not take part of the hands and as breeders, and from an almost total disregard to put them to making manure, while the others are purity of blood, and propriety of crossing, in our picking ? Because we then would have to leave a stock of neat cattle, we are unable longer to identify great deal of cotton in the field, which would be a distinct breeds, and consequently we have been, till loss; and many other things would have to go within the past few years, retrograding rather than undone which we should have done. Only place a improving in this branch of our business. In Northern farmer in our places, and he would be Great Britain, the business of rearing, or, in other about as bad off as we are—what with waste, dewords, of improving the form and value of domestic predations, the buying of all we have. animals, has, on the contrary, formed a distin- However, not to look all the time on the dark guished and lucrative branch of farming, for the side of the picture, we will see what is the last eighty or hundred years; and the success of remedy which exists and has existed with us. Our the gentlemen engaged in this business has not lands have yielded nearly all the nutriment 10 exonly greatly increased the agricultural wealth of hausting crops, by the ruinous system of farming the nation, but procured for many large fortunes. thus year after year the same crop is planted, until

The Ayrshire breed of cattle are at present at- the land is totally worn out. I know fields now in

274

REMOVING STAINS FROM CLOTH.

cotton, where the same staple has been cultivated for of the surface, because the dust which rests on it is fifteen years consecutively. What wonder, then, lighter. Alkalies dissolve most readily these that our lands are worthless! Here a judicious ro- stains, but there is great danger of injuring the tation of crops, with a proper system of manuring more delicate colors ; hence they should not be used (gradual), cleansing the ground with the cow-pea, except by the most experienced scourers. soiling with this and other green crops, and if pos. Any good hard soap will answer to remove the sible wood earth, if it can be hauled and thrown into stains from blacks, blues, browns, drab, invisible the drill (it would require too much to lay it broad- green, &c., by means of hot water, and the soap cast); then small portions of lime, if necessary, to and water may be removed by a sponge, rubbing promote decomposition. And here let me say a word the nap in the right direction. In any delicate in relation to lime. Some of our northern friends re- colors, if soap be used, we should always first try commend from 50 to 300 bushels of lime per acre. a piece of the same kind of goods with the agent This might do among those who have the carbon before using it on the article to be cleaned. ate within 100 yards of their doors, and get it cal- In all cases, where several colors are involved in cined there; but those who have to import it and the stain, as in carpets, it is preferable to use the have it re-shipped as we do, until a barrel of lime white clay or French chalk. "The latter is better, is worth as much as the land, would find it rather on account of being easier to remove, although an uphill work. We have some cold clayey land either will answer the purpose, and in the absence to which lime would be beneficial, but not in the of both, common chalk will do as a substitute. large quantities as recommended above.

The mineral should be reduced to a fine powder, There are many planters who could afford a few and made into a thin paste with water, and spread weeks hauling for one or two teams, between the over the stain, and when dry removed by whipping 20th of December and 15th of January. To those with a rattan, and using a brush. The oil having I would most strongly advise to make their manure greater affinity for the chalk than for the goods, is piles after the manner of Bommer ; to clean out thus taken up and removed. If the stain be not their stock yards, pens, stables, &c. ; put the ma- entirely removed by the first trial, the process nure in a pen and add wood earth, ashes, soap should be repeated. suds, dirt, and all kinds of refuse and offal. It may happen that none of the above materials This by the end of the year would become quite a can be obtained on the farm or plantation, at the pile, and thus gradually increasing without any ap- time when an accident happens, but ox-gall could parent effort, will, in the following spring, greatly always be had in such an emergency, and is both increase the fertility of the land. Now, by safe to use and certain in its efficacy to remove the changing the water furrow and drill, every other stains. It requires some preparation, and should be year, or every third year, all the land will be gra- kept on hand for that purpose. It dissolves all dually enriched. If corn or cotton is planted, I fatty or oily bodies, and has a tendency to make would drop peas between the rows. I think other the colors brighter rather than more dim. crops may be made as profitable as cotton, and it is Preparation. Pour the galls of recently killed worth the attention of the Southern planter to ex- oxen into a jar or basin, and after settling 12 hours, periment and publish statements. At this present pour off the clear liquid into a shallow basin oi writing I am trying several experiments with differ- copper or earthenware such as would float on a ent manures. When arrived at maturity, if you like basin partly filled with water.

Now apply wish it, I will take pleasure in forwarding you a the heat of a charcoal fire to the latter, and by statement. I am growing some Cuba tobacco after means of this water-bath evaporate the gall to the the manner of the West Indians. I derived my in- consistence of molasses, or thin paste.

Now reformation from a suppressed pamphlet sent to me move it from the basin, and spread it out on a from Havana.

shallow plate before the fire, and there let it dry, I find I am transcending my limits at present, but until it becomes quite solid, not horn-like, but only the subject is so full of interest to me that I must be so as to be yet somewhat flexible in the fingers. pardoned.

JAMES S. PEACOCKE. Put it by in earthen jars loosely covered, for future Redwood, near Jackson, La., June 21, 1846.

When it is required, dissolve a small portion,

enough when dissolved to cover well the stain, in REMOVING STAINS FROM CLOTH.

12 to 15 times its bulk of hot water ; spread it on Nothing is more common than the soiling of the goods, and when it has remained long enough clothes by grease, oil or fat, acids, inks, sauces and to perfectly saturate them, add a little more, enough preserves, coffee, varnish, white lead, paint, &c. to make the stain thoroughly wet ; remove it, by All of these, if taken in time, may be removed with rubbing with a sponge, until the stain is removed. out much difficulty. As the whole subject is too

It must be remembered that a recent stain is relengthy for a single article, I will treat them in moved very easily, while one of long standing renumbers.

quires more effort to remove. I will next point out 1. Stains from Oils, Fats, or Grease.--Removed by the method of removing stains of acids, ink, and soap, chalk, white clay, French chalk, or o

iron rust. ox-gall.

G. They most frequently occur on carpets and articles

New York, July, 1846. of dress. They give a deep shade to the ground color of the goods, and continue to spread for some time after the accident has happened. They hold on the first symptoms of the disease, grub up the

CURE FOR THE YELLOWS IN PEACH TREES. fast whatever dust falls upon them. On a very dark ground the stain becomes lighter than the rest trees, and commit them to the flames.

use.

MANAGEMENT OF HONEY-BEES,NO. 3.

275

MANAGEMENT OF HONEY-BEES.-No. 3.

have any ventilation above the bottom of the hive,

presuming that the bees would never take the pains The bottom being hung three-eighths of an inch io so closely cement the upper structure of their from the body of the hive, affords ingress and hives, if it were necessary that they should have egress from all sides, which contributes greatly to ventilation in that quarter. Now, a few more the success of the bees, for the reason, that they are words regarding ventilation below. I have found enabled to perform much more labor than when re- that the more the fresh air is infused among the stricted to a single opening in front, on the ordinary bees at the bottom of the hive, both in summer and plan. When they are confined to an entrance of a in winter, the healthier are the bees--the greater few inches, the clusters of idle bees that almost their increase--the fewer die, and when spring constantly, in the heat of summer, hang about the opens, my hives are full, strong, vigorous, and entrance of every strong stock, prevents, in a great healthy; in fact, I am astonished at their appearmeasure, the entrance of the workers, or, at least

, ance, being but a very few bees less in March than retards their operations, and after having gained there were in November preceding. These facts admission, they are then compelled to force their taken into consideration, satisfy me that my plan of way through a solid mass of bees, to such parts of hanging the bottom-board is absolutely necessary the hive as they wish to attain; whereas, if admis- to perfect success. I do not say that it is solely sion is afforded on all sides, they can enter on my plan. I believe it was first practised in the such side as they wish to deposit their honey, Eastern States. pollen, or farina, whatever it may be, with no ob- Having settled the matter of size of hives, &c., struction, and depart in the same easy manner. I the next point is the bee-house or bee-stand. Bee. look upon this system of arranging the bottom houses I condemn in toto. If I had a dozen pros. board as the most important branch of the manage- perous hives of bees, and wished to get rid of ment of bees, and of sufficient importance to justify ihem in the course of a year or two, I could not me in dwelling upon it. Indeed, I am fully satis- more effectually do it, than by housing them up exfied that no system can ever fully succeed perma- posed to a hot sun, and the cool air excluded from nently, on any other plan. It appeals so forcibly the back and ends. The winter season would do to our reason, as a mere matter of ingress and the job for them, if placed in some very warm nook egress, that we cannot but admit its necessity; yet, or corner, where the rays of a mid-day winter sun as a means of ventilation, it is of no less conse- would raise the thermometer to about 50 or 60°, quence. That bees require the healthful influences when in the open fields it would stand, say at 30 of fresh air, in the greatest possible degree, does or 40°. This is the way many people do. They not admit of a doubt in my mind, yet it must come think if they but place their bees in some nice from the bottom of the hive; and to stop up every warm place in winter, where the bleak westerly avenue for the admission of air to hives, except a winds cannot reach them, they are safe enough. small aperture in front, and then place them on the This is the very best way to destroy bees that I south side of some close fence or building, exposed know of, except the brimstone method. All you to the burning rays of the sun, I consider down- have to do is to let them stand, and almost every right cruelty, yet this is the practice of many clear still day, when the thermometer in the open people.

fields would stand at about 35 or 40, hundreds will The subject of ventilation of hives has long be allured forth, by the false temperature immedioccupied the attention of bee-masters, the different ately around them, never to return. But the best modes of which are too tedious to mention ; suffice sport of all is immediately after a heavy fall of it to say, that in my opinion, no air should be ad- snow, when the sun shines clear and warm, just mitted at any place except at the bottom. Let us around the hives. It is a most capital trap for look into the philosophy of this. Bees, while in them. The silly bees take it for granted that there the embryo state, require a heat of at least is no difference in the surrounding warmth, and seventy degrees, in order to arrive at maturity. they come out by thousands—fly a few rods-give This heat is artificially produced by the bees when a wheel or two, and drop down on the snow. the temperature is lower without the hive; now, if It is a beautiful sight to see one's bees all lie dead a ventilator is placed at the top, or side of a hive, upon the snow, or it would not be practised to so near the top, the only effect must be to operate to great an extent ! Some people who dislike seeing the detriment of the larva in its natural state of them killed off that way, prefer closing the endevelopment, by causing a current of air to flow trances, and causing their death by partial suffocaamong the brood combs, rendering the natural heat tion, or artificial heat produced in the hive by the of the hive, in certain parts, below what is requi- rays of the sun, without any opposing coolness site to bring the young broods to maturity. This, from the rear, to counteract it.

In this way as I view it, is placing a strong barrier to the natu- most of the bees may be taken out dead about the ral and successful operations of the bees, as nature first of March. For my part, I am not partial to intended them to be, in the matter of the re-produc- this amusing way of killing bees; I like to have tion of their species. Again, if we examine the my hives as full in February and March, as in the operations of the bees, we find them carefully fall previous, 60 I follow a different plan. I hang cementing every crack and corner of their domicil them up in the open air in the following way.

1 above, and if any small aperture is made, though select a place as near my house as convenient, in the rains cannot possibly penetrate in any situation, which there can be no deception as regards the yet they close such openings with great care, when general temperature of the atinosphere. I do not not too large, which, to my mind, is conclusive shun a northerly or westerly exposure in the evidence that it is not necessary that they should least, nor do I want any board fence, shed, or any

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