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pounds ; in six years, from eight to ten pounds, and two males, that follow her from one bunch of weeds after that, the increase is from one and a quarter to to another, upon which the ova are deposited. The a pound and a half every year, until they arrive at ova are very numerous, there being, according to a weight of thirty pounds, when it may be calcu- Bloch, nearly 300,000 in a fish of four pounds lated that the fish is twenty years old. A spiegel weight. carp, however, at sixteen years of age, has been The tench, in England, is reckoned as a whole. known to weigh thirty-one and a half pounds. some and delicious food; but the Germans are of a Boccius states that he has seen a pair of carps taken out of a pond, the male of which weighed forty-three pounds Saxon (46 lbs. Avoirdupois), and the female forty-eight pounds. Some years afterwards the same fishes were taken again, when the male weighed fifty-two pounds Saxon, and the female, fiftyfive pounds. In warmer countries they attain a much larger size, and grow, as stated hy Cuvier, to the length of four feet. Under favorable circumstances, the fecundity of this fish is very great, no
CARP-FIG. 67. fewer than 700,000 ova having been found in a different opinion. By way of contempt, they call single carp; and this property is thought to in- it the shoe-maker. Gesner even goes so far as to crease with age. The ova are deposited upon say that its flesh is insipid and unwholesome; but weeds, among which the female is followed by this diversity of opinion is to be ascribed more to two or three males, in the months of May and the difference in feeding them, than to other exterJune, in the British Isles; and they are in best con- nal circumstances. Both the carp and tench thrive dition from October till April. The carp is very well on boiled potatoes, or Indian meal. tenacious of life, and may be preserved out of the It is remarkable that no fish of prey will ever water for a considerable time, especially when attack a tench, which, it has even been supposed, covered with some moist substance, in cool wea. acts medicinally on other fish. In Germany, it is ther. In Holland, it is sometimes suspended in called the doctor-fish, and Walton calls it the nets full of moss, in a damp cellar, where, being “ physician of fishes,” especially to the pike; for, moistened with water or milk, it is said, it " the pike,” says he, being either sick or hurt, is will not only live, but actually improve, under the cured by the toueh of the tench. And it is observed process.
that the tyrant pike will not be a wolf to his phy. A ten-pound well-fed carp is considered a great sician, but forbears to devour him though he he delicacy; but the flesh of a thirty-pound fish is never so hungry.” If there be any truth in this tough ; indeed, when they much exceed ten pounds, supposition, it may arise from the glutinous, slimy they are fit only for breeding. The flesh-like mem-quality of the skin of the tench; for it is certainly brane in the roof of the mouth of the carp has been affirmed by many naturalists of repute, that when falsely called a tongue.
Walton, who believes fish have been wounded by the fangs of an enemy, this, says, quaintly enough, “ The tongues of carps or struck by a hook, they have frequently been obare noted to be choice and costly meat, especially served, and taken in company with the tench. For to those that buy them.” The tongue of a carp is this reason it has been recommended that in stocking very small and slender.
a pond with fish, a proportion of them be of tench. The tench (Tinca vulgaris) is a thick fish, rather short in proportion to its length, with the color of its back, its dorsal and ventral fins of a dusky hue, and its head, sides, and belly, of a greenish cast, most beautifully mixed with gold. It sometimes attains a considerable size, often weighing 10 or 12 pounds.
TENCH.-FIG. 68. It is extremely partial to deep ponds, with muddy! Brooding. The proper time for brooding a pond bottoms, where, in company with the carp, it is about the end of October, in Europe, but earlier buries itself in the mud at the same period. In this in the northern parts of the United States. Boccius state it remains torpid during the winter months; recommends for every acre of water in extent, 200 and, as spring advances, it quits its slimy bed; brood carp; 20 brood tench ; and 20 brood jack or spawns, in Europe, from June to September. The pike, all of one season's spawn. Each of the sucfemale, as stated by Yarrell, is usually attended by cessive ponds is to be stocked in like proportion ;
PRACTICAL FACTS ABOUT PORK AND BACON.
that is, the second pond the year following the first, The following table will show the weight of and the third, again a year later, so that each will each hog, and the weight of each piece of meat cut then come round in its turn, to be fished. By this for bacon. arrangement there will always be a superabundant quantity of brood in store, to restock the stew.
Hogs. (Hams. Shoulders. Sides. Heads. ponds, and sufficient left for sale.
312 lbs. 30 lbs. 32 lbs. 44 lbs. 23 lbs. By overstocking the ponds, the fish become
30 sickly, lean, and bony; and it is stated as a re
308 .. 29 34 40 markable proof of the care required in this respect,
30 35 that if the proper number of fish be stored, the 295 30 35
19 .. weight in three years will prove equal to what it
32 35 34 would have been, had twice the number been put in;
289 29 29
34 so that the smaller number actually produce the same
27 30 38 259 27
26 weight as the larger from a given area of water.
27 24 New York, August 15, 1816. D’Jay BROWNE.
181 20 19
19 12. TRE TOMATO.--Thomas Jefferson Randolph, the
1644 331 348 393 117 protege of Jefferson, in an address before the Agricultural Society of Albemarle county, Virginia, de Scraps, &c.—21 lbs. of feet; 213 lbs. of
sausage livered some time since, stated that Mr. Jefferson meat, and ribs and back bones and trimmings of; couid recollect when the tomato was cultivated as 150 lbs. of leaf lard and fat trimmings; 71 lbs. loss an ornament to the flower-garden, and deemed in cutting, and difference in weighing; 331 lbs. poisonous..
weight of 12 hams; 348 ditto 12 shoulders; 393
ditto 12 sides; and 117 do. 6 heads :-1644 lbs. PRACTICAL FACTS ABOUT PORK AND This pork when killed was worth 3 cts. a pound BACON,
-I will say it would only shrink the 44 odd pounds What is the loss in weight on making pork into in taking to market, at which it would amount to bacon? This question is often asked, and every $18. The lard tried out 129 lbs., a most beautiful farmer, particularly in the West, ought to know article, the scraps not being much squeezed, as that how to answer it. As a general and safe rule, would rob the good wife's soap tub. from facts, within my own knowledge, I have On the 28th of April, the bacon being well always contended that it is better for the purchaser smoked and dried, was ready to bag up. I weighed to buy pork in the hog, and make his own bacon, it, and found that the 12 hams weighed 304 lbs. when he can do it for one half the price per pound, (loss 27); 12 shoulders, 331 lbs. (loss 17); 12 than to buy it ready made. That is, if pork is sides, 259 lbs. (loss 34); I am inclined to think usually worth 3 cts. and bacon “hog round,” 6 cts., that an error of 10 lbs. was made in the weight of it is better to buy the fresh pork. I am writing for the shoulders, as I have heretofore found the per the West, and in Western language. That your centage of loss about the same on these as on the Eastern readers may understand, I will say that hams. I will therefore throw off ten pounds on “ hog round” means 2 hams, 2 shoulders, and 2 these, and we have 1,113 lbs. of bacon and lard in sides-out of which latter the bones should always good weight and order, for market, which at 64 cts. be taken. I always trim off belly pieces for lard. a pound, which is a fair average price, will Hams and shoulders too are well trimmed. The come to $69.56. The heads and sausage meat are method of salting often astonishes some of the new worth one cent a pound, $3.30; 24 feet, 14 cts., emigrants from Yankee land. Nobody ever made will make an even sum of $73; from which take better bacon for 15 years than I have, and I never the $48 price of hogs before cutting, and it leaves use a pork barrel. I sprinkle about 2 oz. salt petre a very pretty little sum to pay for a dollar's worth and 6 Ibs. of N. Y. salt to a hundred of pork, piled of salt and saltpetre, and the little trouble of up on a bench, or in the corner of the smoke- handling. But it must be small-boned fat hogs, as house, like a pile of bricks. I let it lie about as these were, to do it. In this case I could sell the many days as the hams weigh pounds each-over- bacon and lard at 44 cts., and be well paid for hauling once. Then hang up far away from the trouble and cost of making bacon, because the fire, in a very open and airy smoke-house, and heads, &c., are worth much more than I ştated them smoke well with hickory or other sweet wood. at in any family. Then draw loose cotton bags over each joint, and The principal object in this statement is to inform tie round the string by which the meat hangs. Do those who have had less experience in this matter this before the flies come in the spring, and you than I have, whether it is most advantageous to sell may let it hang as long as you like, and it will be their hogs fresh, or cut and salt; and for that pur. good—at least, mine is so. For many years our pose I have endeavored to be accurate. Each perhouse has not been without a supply of this most ex- son in his own place will judge of his own market cellent kind of meat, which is a much more healthy and relative prices, and if his hogs are not so food than the eternal round of fresh beef, &c. good as mine, make greater allowance for loss and
But to return to my subject. On the 20th of offal. January, 1846, I killed 5 hogs, about a year and a Will some one who keeps a pork barrel, make a half old, and one about half that age, of the Berk- similar statement, and publish for the benefit of your shire and China breed, fattened upon corn fed in rea:lers ?
SOLON ROBINSON, the ear, the quantity not counted, as it was too cheap to regard that.
Ind., May 15, 1846.
Lake Point); }
HOW TO DESTROY THE CANADA THISTLE.-IMPORTED DURHAM CATTLE.
HOW TO DESTROY THE CANADA THISTLE. worth cultivating. I told her I had been weeding
I am an old man, and not much in the habit of on my neighbor's side of the fence--that Jackson using my pen, as you will easily guess-having in was sick, and I had found the blue thistle (Echinum my younger days been more remarkable for plow- vulgare) was beginning to spread about here.] ing a straight furrow than writing straight Iines ; A friend of mine, in a Yankee settlement, not far but you seem to be very good-natured, and I hope from the New York line, conquered the Canada will let me “ tell my experience,” as they call it
, thistle in pretty much the same way, when nearly about weeds on farms ; which I shall try to do as twenty years ago it was first noticed there. He briefly as possible, trusting that others may be the first proposed to have a bee (a), and exterminate better for it.
the intruder at once, but it did not take with his In the July No. of your paper, a “ Canadian neighbors, who thought it would be time enough Naturalist” complains with much justice, of the when the weeds came up upon their ground; so he, carelessness of farmers in suffering perennial-root- with two other gentlemen, made it their business, in ed weeds to take possession of the soil, to the in- their leisure hours, and when they walked out, to jury of the crops; and says, if farmers would be cut off all the flowering stems, when they could unanimous in their efforts to exterminate them, not take time to destroy the roots; and besides even the Canada thistle might be conquered. It is a conquering the thistles, they gained a victory over vile weed, which has had as many names as a pick- their stupid neighbors, who now acknowledge that pocket (if he is a patriot, he will thank me for re- they have been benefited by his having taken the minding him that it is not a native of this conti-thing in time, for they find that wherever neglectnent); and he does not wish to get rid of the un-ed, the weeds will spread ; and each one encouwelcome intruder more earnestly than his brother rages his neighbor to weed on both sides of the farmers on this side of the St. Lawrence. But fence. AN OLD PENNSYLVANIAN FARMER. though they appear to be indifferent, on one point July 7th, 1846. they are unanimous, and that is, in lamenting most (a) Lest any one should suppose a bee means feelingly that individual care is of no use, and that nothing more than the industrious little insect of all should go to work together.
the name, and as it is a somewhat local term, Now I say, let every man weed on his own side of among my Down-east brethren, I will explain—but the fence, if he can do no more, and I prophesy that it shall be at a more convenient season. in a short time weeds will be as sure a mark of bad farming as a broken gate, or a dead horse hauled
IMPORTED DURHAM CATTLE. out on the common, and left unburied, to taint the HILPA, the first cow of the two which I wrote pure breath of heaven for miles around, wasting you some time ago Mr. Bates was to send me, ammonia enough to fertilize a forty-acre field. reached here this morning. She came in the packet
When I took my present farm it was the worst ship New York, Capt. Cropper, which arrived in in a circuit of ten miles, making my house the centre your city a day or two ago; and I hope you had an point; and now I believe it is in a condition to opportunity of seeing her there, (a) as she is, I think, bear a comparison with some of the best farms in a fine animal, and not inferior to any Mr. Bates has the United States—for instance, that of George sent me. She has a superior brisket, and remarkaSchaeff
, Esq., in Whitemarsh, about fourteen miles ble width across the loins. Her handling is very from Philadelphia, which is much less known than good. The Bates cross in her is plainly discernible. it should be. There are no weeds in my fence She stands right on the ground -not too high, nor corners, unless you can so call a fine large wild too low. I hope you have seen her; and if so, you clematis vine, which I left to ornament an old tree, are much more capable of forming an opinion of with its clusters of snowy blossoms, where the her than I am. Mr. Catlin, who shipped her from cows love to stand in its shade on a hot dayor New York up the river, informs me that Capt. an elder bush or two, just enough to give the old Cropper speaks highly of her milking qualities, both women elder flowers for medicinal purposes; or, as to quantity and quality. perhaps, here and there, a cluster of purple asters This cow, Hilpa, was stinted to Mr. Harvey's and golden rod, so disposed as to show that they celebrated prize bull Walton, on the 28th of May, are left on purpose-but no wild carrot : (Daucus two or three days before she was shipped, by direccarota), no Ben Salem (Chrysanthemum leucanthe- tion of Mr. Bates. You know Walton is a descendmum), or rausted weed.
ant of Mr. Bates's herd. The other cow, Cecilia, Now the whole secret of this beautifying process Mr. Bates purposed to have stinted to his second is this; I weed on my neighbor's side of the fence, Duke of Oxford, before she is sent out. I have, as well as on my own; not a weed is suffered to so however, written to him to put her to his fourth raise its head in peace--for the proverb is true, as Duke of Northumberland, which bull he informs me most proverbs are, which says, * One year's seed- he retains at home for his own herd, while the other ing makes seven years' weeding." I have a good Duchess bulls are all let out for the season. I chisel firmly set in the end of a strong cane, which herewith enclose you a copy of the pedigree of the I always carry when I go out with my men; and I two cows, signed by Mr. Bates, which I wish you generally come home pretty well tired with the would do me the favor of publishing in the Agri. labor of cutting off close to the ground, every large, culturist
, with his signature at the bottom, and rooted weed I find in my walk. One day when I also the remarks he makes in relation to the prize had been out longer than usual, and had kept calf of Hilpa, calved in 1844--which certificate is breakfast waiting, my granddaughter was very in his own hand-writing, and is signed with his curious to know what I had been doing on neigh- own name.
GEORGE VAIL. bor Jackson's hill, a stony field, that was hardly Troy, July 15, 1846.
PRIVATE AGRICULTURAL SCHOOLS.'
Pedigrees of two cows bought of Messrs. Bell, and mismanagement of the whole affair. Where Kirkleavington, near Yarm, Yorkshire, England, by salaries and appointments are, there will these George Vail, Esq., Troy, United States of America. characte:'s insinuate themselves, in spite of all the
Mr. Thos. Bell's cow Hilpa, roan color ; calved guards and checks that can be thrown up to preMay 23d, 1840. Got by Cleaveland Lad (3407), vent it. The less officers, money, and machinery, dam (Hawk-eye), by Red Rose bull (2493); grand there are used in the administration of a government, dam (Hart), by Rex (1375); great grand dam bred the better. Every consignment of the objects by Mr. Richardson, of Hart, Durham County, who mentioned above, to the state, violates this plain had the breed above thirty years, and were all roan political maxim, and should therefore be discoucolors, and good milkers.
raged by all good citizens. Mr. Robert Bell, Junr., cow Cecilia. Red and Probably, more than three-fourths of all semiwhite color; calved October 6th, 1841. Got by naries of learning in the world, have been sustain3d Duke of Northumberland (3647), dam by ed by individuals, in a private associated capacity: Short-Tail (2621); grand dam (Chapman), by Skip- This being the fact, in regard to legal, medical, and ton Bridge (5208), and from a tribe of cows, all theological science, why may we not infer that it good milkers, and long in possession of the breed is just as feasible in regard to agricultural knower thereof. I can certify that the above are correct ledge? If the State can justly be called upon to pedigrees, the Messrs. Bell having had their stock take the latter in hand, why may not mechanics from me.
also claim their “ State Institution ?" The son of Hilpa, named General Sale, by Duke In the very nature of things, we might reasonably of Northumberland (1940), when a calf in 1844, expect that private enterprises would be the more obtained the highest premium given by the York-likely to succeed. Acting from motives of devoshire County Agricultural Society, at their Show, tion and attachment to the spread of knowledge, or held at Richmond; and also the same autumn ob- with a view to pecuniary profit; in either case, tained the highest premium at the Durham County they have every inducement to adopt the best Ag. Society Show, held at Stockton; and the fol- modes of conducting an institution, in order to selowing day also obtained the highest premium cure their end. Give us teachers and managers given by the Cleaveland Ag. Society. I certify to whose “ hearts are in the matter,” rather than any the correctness of the above facts.
salaried governmental professor. Signed, THOMAS BATES. The advancement of human knowledge, and Kirkleavington, March 16th, 1846.
especially agricultural knowledge, is an object
well worthy the best efforts of any man. But (a) We noticed this superb cow, on page 261 of those who look to the State to do this for them, our last number; but the owner's name, and some wishes for the “ diffusion of knowledge among
will often be most sadly disappointed in their other particulars, were, in our absence from town, unfortunately left out in making up the form. We
men,” as the late Mr. Smithson styles it, in his need only say, that Hilpa is all, and more than her most unadvised bequest of half a million to our owner represents, he having been quite diffident in government. Who does not believe, that if the his description above, in giving all her good points. matter had been left in the hands of private trusIt is gratifying to add, that Mr. Vail has been emi- tees, the fund would long ago have been apnently successful as a breeder, and is annually been benefited by it, and fitted to be useful to their
plied to its proper object, and hundreds already making considerable sales of stock. that several of his animals will appear at the forth-country, and the world? How would the donor coming Show of the State Ag. Society, on the 15th, decide this question, could he rise from his resting16th, and 17th of this month, at Auburn.
place, and see the manner in which his trust has been neglected, not to say abused; for I verily be.
lieve, a large majority of our public men would be PRIVATE AGRICULTURAL SCHOOLS.
glad to have this business off their hands, not I CANNOT at all
your “ Reviewer,” as knowing exactly what to do with it, and feeling to the practicability and future prospects of Agri- they have a service laid upon them, not belonging cultural schools, in private hands. At a single to thsir stations. dash of the pen, he seals their fate so positively, The other branches of human learning being as seems to indicate a desire on his part, to prevent already comparatively well provided for in this any further development of that patriotism he so country, it certainly is desirable that this fund highly commends.
should be devoted to the spread of agricultural We have a class of people in this country, who knowledge, and we are not without hopes that this seem to be always looking to government for the direction may finally be given it. Let us have no supply of every want of a general character, that " national school.” Let our only experimentis, in which any considerable portion of the com- West Point-settle this question. But let us have munity are interested. Sound views on this sub- an annual appropriation for the collecting of maject would lead us to see, that the true aim and end terials, and sending forth substantial public docu. of government is to accomplish only such things ments, containing real information to the agricul. for the governed, as cannot be reached by indi- tural community, in regard to their business. vidual action. Whenever a state dips into matters Witness the regular, systematic manner, in which beyond its proper sphere, and takes in hand bank- the British Legislature so zealously collect inforing, colleges, internal improvements, and the like, mation in regard to the various useful arts of life. there will always gather around a horde of office. Let us follow their example. The periodicals of seekers and political speculators——to the detriment our day are last creating a taste for this kind of
HORTICULTURAL NOTES.REPLY TO REVIEW OF MARCII NO.
reading: and we hope the day is not far distant white fly, and a general appearance like down, when such documents will be read with attention which, when looked at with a glass, is seen to be and profit.
animated. The foliage becomes rusty, and the “ But especially let us encourage agricultural fruit of course is more or less injured. Will some schools in private hands; for, in the language of of your correspondents make known a remedy? Judge Buel, our country needs them.” And we would stripping off the old bark, and washing with have the fullest assurance of their final success. I soap suds in the spring, destroy them? had noted down some further remarks in regard to At the extremity of the branches of the vines, this subject, after reading the observations of " Re-myriads of small black ants are often seen.
I am viewer” upon which we started, but for the present always reminded of old Hays and his posse of forbear.
A. R. D. police officers, when I see these sentries. Are Hacketts Town, N. J., July 10th, 1846.
they after other insects ? If so, what insects, and
what harm will they do? I have seen also a HORTICULTURAL NOTES.
small black fly, and another insect, resembling a Isabella Grapes. -My gardener had permission injury. More on this subject hereafter
flea, but am not aware that they have done any to prune one of my vines in his own way. It had
AN AMATEUR GARDENER. been spur-pruned in February, one eye left at each joint, and the laterals broken off in June. Early in July he shortened the bearing branches two eyes beyond the last bunch of fruit. The grapes ad REPLY TO REVIEW OF MARCH NO. : vanced rapidly in their growth, and for two or three Your June No. came by an accidental oppor. weeks were the best looking in the garden. They tunity to-day, from the office, and I set myself at then became stationary, and those treated in ano- once to answer Reviewer. The information he ther manner became much larger, and of a health- desires I will cheerfully give, to the extent of my ier aspect. It would seem, therefore, that stopping, abilities. at any rate short stopping, is not the best mode of The people of the North are greatly mistaken if treating this vine.
they think the soil of Mississippi to be inexhaustiA friend of mine has a most magnificent young ble. A portion of it is as rich as the lands on the Isabella vine in the city, which he has not pruned banks of the Nile; and a portion as poor as the at all, since he shortened it in early spring. My poorest lands in New Jersey, where the black-jack own vines have been treated as follows:-Winter- runners kill themselves searching for food for the pruning on the spur system (too much bearing tree. Our soils vary exceedingly, no country more wood left, I suspect), one eye only left to each so; the lands lying on the Mississippi are a rich joint, the laterals carefully and repeatedly broken alluvial, with a heavy vegetable mould on the suroff, and (against my wishes) some shortening dur-/face, and containing much siliceous matter, but in ing the summer, and only one bunch left on a very minute particles; the subsoil is clay, and a branch. The comparative result is this.
My very rich earth, having much the characteristics of friend has most fruit; mine is the handsomest and loam and also of marl. I speak more especially of most perfect.
Warren County, directly west of me, the county One of my neighbors pruned some old vines last seat of which is Vicksburgh. Vegetables will rear, very severely cutting off large masses of grow most luxuriantly in it, and it is an excellent old wood. This year he has left the vines entirely top-dressing to land; it possesses the peculiarities untouched; the yield is very large, and a great deal of apparently getting neither wet nordry—it is very of the fruit is good—much of it inferior. A single valuable. Farther back, lands are not so rich, vine, from which he removed the laterals at one when level, are generally good, say as far as 25 to joint from their origin, has turned out the best. 40 miles on a line; some level lands are now poor
My conclusion is this—the Isabella requires in the woods, cold, whitish clay; some hilly lands severe winter pruning, if the spur system is adopt. are the richest. To know the country it must be ed, but one eye should be left.
seen. My pen, though “ free," lacks a head to Manures. I gave two of my vines a rich top-guide it, to give a faithful description. Much of dressing of half-rotted stable manure, late in June. our lands, if fresh and under good cultivation, will About one-third of the fruit became mildewed, and produce say 30 bushels of corn; but if plowed, as the whole of was otherwise inferior to the rest of is very usual, two or three inches deep, the sun the crop. My friend manures freely, with the causing rapid decomposition and rapid evaporation, same manure, in the autumn_his fruit is not with real rains, not showers, they soon deteriorate. mildewed. Too rich stable manure is not the I can show a plantation, now worn out, that proonly cause of mildew in the grape. I see it where duced 15 years ago 8 bales of cotton per hand, there is a want of free circulation of air.
under a thriftless course of culture. Insects.—I met with the brownish-yellow beetle, that “ the subsoil possesses all the requisites of a one inch long, in the leaves, on which it appears to good soil,” having stated previously that the soil feed; but their depredations have not been exten- was worn out-I meant that the salts existed in sive enough to do harm. The rose-bug consumed sufficient quantity to form a good soil, by proper the leaves two years since, leaving only the net- attention. And this attention should be deep and work of vessels remaining. I have not seen them fine tilth, a bountiful supply of vegetable matter, since. The turde-bug is beginning to show itself, and protection from the sun. but they do more larm to the squashes than to the As to returning to the earth more than we take grapes. I find unup the grape leaves a small away, I will tell you what can be done. The last
When I say