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REPLY TO REVIEW OF MARCH NO.
week in May peas can be sown between rows of have seen them, but never dared touch. It rises corn, these will cover the land entirely before the from 3 to 6 inches, and branches off, and continues 15th of September. The first frost will kill the vines. to branch, until the close of the season. I have In September or October sow down rye or Egyptian seen, on good land, where 8 to 12 quarts had been oats; these will feed stock during winter, will pro- sown to an acre, the peas so rank that a horse as tect land from rain measurably, and from washing, stout and fleet even as Boston, could not make his and can be turned under in February or March. four miles through them, in a day. Here are two crops; but if desired to turn under at “ What, good for?” « haulm.” You say too difierent times, do so in fall, sow grain, and then much. How know you that they have a haulm? turn under the grain. If desirable to turn under But, never mind, I care not to ferret you out. again another crop, sow oats in February and "What good for ?" Like the negro's rabbit, “good March ; turn these under about June, when head-for ebery ting.” The vine, if pulled or cut before ing out, and plant for corn. Here are three crops frost, and cured, will feed horses, cattle, and sheep: turned under. But it is better to sow peas in The pea, if gathered and kept from spoiling, will March, say about the 15th ; these will cover the feed inan and beast, will fatten superior to corn. ground in May, plow in, and sow again, and I be We sow the pea, or drop it, either at second lieve a third crop can be plowed in time enough working of the corn, if in hills, or when we plow for grain. Last year, and the two preceding years, to lay by, which is generally done when corn is in I plowed in as much rye as my plows could turn bunch-that is, when the tassel is in a bunch of under, in March, having had the pea-vine on it in leaves at the top, but has not quite appeared—that the previous summer. I think that good lands can is what we call “in bunch.” The vine is cut or be kept good; and I believe I have land now with pulled as late as we can, to avoid frost. We the twentieth crop on it, that will yield more corn seldom gather peas but for seed, and then when or cotton than it did in 1830, or about that time, most are ripe, about frost or a little after, we feed comparing with the best crops of the period. To the residue on the land to hogs, or by giving them prove it, my crop in my orchard, cut, gave me last the run of the field. Coke has to gather peas, for crop, on one part, over 1,600 lbs of seed cotton ; on want of corn. another part, about 50 bushels of corn. In 1833 Feeding hogs on cotton seed and peas,'ground! -'4, my cotton was 900 lbs. per acre. I remember From February to August we have as much as we that year, by my first experiment with Gulf seed; can all do to kill grass, then pull fodder, and then the past year I tried a similar one on the same land. enough to gather our crop, that feeds and clothes And it is this that led me to remark on the negli- one-half of you all, until February. We can make gent cultivation of my brother “ planters.” We cotton at 4 cents per lb., and buy meat at 4 cents, are“ planters” here, not because we are all large better than go to all that sort of work. But no “planters,” nor that “a farmer" is a disreputable need for it. I can show you clover two feet high ; name, but that we confine ourselves to one crop. I can show you feed for hogs without fences.
To tell you what sort of planters we are, would “ This may be plain English in your latitude.” require time; but we are a very clever set of fel. Why, sir, suppose my friend S. were to send me lows, and you Northerners may thank your stars his boy, to live with me, and I was to direct him that we are not more attentive to our own interests ; thus :--S. Jr., I wish you would not spend more if we loved money more, you would see less of it; time from the cotton field than would suffice to we make a great deal of money, and spend it in all gather rye, oats, and peas, for seed, to plant our sorts of “ Yankee notions,” and sometimes spend it next crop: Would it not mean that we reaped and before we make it-but this is personal-excuse gathered for seeding alone, not for selling or for
You may ridicule, but, sir, as sure as you feeding? Why, sir, at this very time, I have some live, we can turn under a coat of cow-peas every 10 acres, more or less, of rye, that will not be year, fully equal in value to your best clover leys, cradled, because I have cut enough for seeding all and as it is killed by early frost, of course we can the land I desire to seed. The seed is the crop; sow grain and plow that in, for March or April the balance of the rye and peas is left on the planting.
ground for hogs or catile. Is there anything mysThe « cow-pea”-wegenerally call all this family terious in this, only that we have no need to gaiher cow-peas -differs in every particular from the anything? Have you never heard of the West garden pea, which we country people call “ the feeding large fields of corn to stock, not gathering English pea”-they differ in shape, color, and the crop ? size. The black crowder is about as large as The grass that follows oats and rye, is crab grass, the marrowfat. The grey crowder nearly as and equal in nutritive qualities to any grass in the large. These are rounder than the real cow-pea, Empire State, or among the prairies, near the which is nearly as large, but more kidney-shaped, North Pole.” We cut our grain from the 5ih to and of a russet color. Then comes the red ripper, the 15th of June, crab grass then springs up on smaller, and not quite so long, but still kidney-good land, and will cover the earth before frost, so shaped; then the stock or tory pea, lady pea, cala- as to give nearly two tons of cured hay, vanse, &c., the latter of greyish color, and about the I have no “ poor starved niggers." So far from size of a duck shot, a very delicate table pea, and it, I guess they dine on as nice bacor, cabbage to my notion is just ahead of any of your foreign heads, beans, and Irish potatoes, these days, as any English peas. The vine will grow, I verily be other man—white or black. Of course they cannot lieve, 20 to 100 feet, in a season, if we take the starve even if they get no othe meal, as I can branches, and add to the main vine. The stem is prove by one white man, who is content with one frequently as large as a town lady's little finger-Ilgood meal a day.
About fencing-why should I quarrel about of fineness. As soon as the smallest layer of earth this matter, although the editor of the Agricul- is formed on the surface of the rock, the seeds of turist has something on this subject? We cannot lichens, mosses, and other vegetables of the kind, teach “Wahoo Indians” that we can do without which are constantly floating in the atmosphere, fences.
and which have made it their resting place, begin “ Write again, Doctor." Thank you, friend to vegetate; their death, decomposition, and decay, Reviewer; but this liberty is already secured to me afford a certain quantity of organizable matter, by our A. B. A. But if he would not admit my ar- which mixes with the earthy materials of the ticles, I would write for somebody else, or burst. rock; in this improved soil more perfect plants are The steam gathers so fast, that I must let off occa- capable of subsisting ; these in their turn absorb sionally. But, friend Reviewer, be ye careful, you nourishment by the agency of water and the atmomay drive some valuable pens off; many are wary, sphere; and, after perishing, afford new materials they can't bear to be ridiculed. M. W. PHILIPS. to those already provided; the decomposition of the Edward's Depôt, Miss., June 14, 1846.
rock still continues; and at length, by such slow and gradual processes, a soil is formed, in which
even forest trees can fix their roots, and which is GARDENING.No. 7.
fitted to reward the labors of the cultivator. The next step in the study of the science of gar The formation of peaty soil is produced from dening, is to consider the natural agents of vege- very opposite causes, and it is interesting to con. table culture.
template how the same effect may be produced by The earthy matters which compose the surface different causes, and the earth which supplied of the earth, the air and light of the atmosphere, almost all our wants, may become barren alike the water precipitated from it, the heat and cold from the excessive application of art, or the utter produced by the alternation of day and night, and neglect of it. Continual pulverization and cropby chemical composition and resolution, include all ping, without manuring, will certainly produce a the elements concerned in vegetation.
hungry, barren soil; and the total neglect of fertile Earths are the productions of the rocks which tracts will, from their accumulated vegetable proare exposed on the surface of the globe, and soils ducts, produce peaty soils and bogs. Where sucare earths mixed with more or less of the decom- cessive generations of vegetables have grown upon posed organized matter afforded by dead plants and a soil, unless part of their produce has been carried animals. Earths are, therefore, variously. com- off by man, or consumed by animals, the vegetable posed, according to the rocks or strata which have matter increases in such proportion, that the soil supplied their particles. Sometimes they are approaches to a peat in its nature, and if in a situachiefly formed from slate rocks, as in blue clays; tion where it can receive water from a higher dig. at other times from sand stone, as in siliceous soils; trict, it becomes spongy, and permeated with that and mostly of a mixture of clayey, slaty, and lime- fluid, and is gradually rendered incapable of supstone rocks, blended in proportions as various as porting the nobler classes of vegetables. Lakes their situations. Such we may suppose to have and pools of water are sometimes filled up by the been the state of the surface of the dry part of the accumulation of the remains of aquatic plants; and globe, immediately after the last disruption of the in this case a spurious peat is formed. The fercrust ; but in process of time the decay of vege. mentation in these cases, however, seems to be of a tables and animals forms additions to the outer sur- different kind. Much more gaseous matter is face of the globe, and constitutes what are called evolved; and the neighborhood of morasses, in soils; the difference between which and earths is, which aquatic vegetables decompose, is generally that the former always contains a portion of vege- aguish and unhealthy; while that of the true peat, table or animal matter.
or peat formed on soils originally dry, is always The manner in which rocks are converted into salubrious. soils, Sir H. Davy observes, may be easily con Soils may generally be distinguished from mere ceived by referring to the instance of soft granite. masses of earth, by their friable texture, dark color, This substance consists of three ingredients, quartz, and by the presence of some vegetable fibre or carfeldspar, and mica. The quartz is almost pure bonaceous matter. In uncultivated grounds, soils siliceous earth in a crystalline form. The feld- occupy only a few inches in depth on the surface, spar and mica are very compounded substances ; unless in crevices, where they have been washed in both contain silica, alumina, and oxide of iron; in by rains; and in cultivated soils their depth is the feldspar there is usually lime and potassa, and generally the same as that to which the implements in the mica, lime and magnesia. When a granite used in cultivation have penetrated. rock of this kind has been long exposed to the in Systematic order and an agreed nomenclature fuence of the air and water, the lime and potassa are as necessary in the study of soils, as of plants contained in its constituent parts are acted upon by and animals. The number of provincial terms for water or carbonic acid; and the oxide of iron, soils which have found their way into books on which is almost always in its least oxidized state, cultivation, is one reason why so little use can be tends to combine with more oxygen ; the conse- made of their directions. A correct classification quence is, that the feldspar decomposes, and like- of soils may be founded on the presence or absence wise the mica ; but the first the most rapidly. The of organic or inorganic matter in their bases. This feldspar, which is, as it were, the cement of the will form two grand classes: viz., primitive and stone, forms a fine clay; the mica partially decom- secondary. These classes may be subdividedinto posed mixed with it as sand; and the undecom- orders, founded on the presence or absence of posed quartz appears as gravel of different degrees saline, metallic, and carbonic matter. These orders
WOOL-GROWING IN WESTERN NEW YORK LANDS, -ETC.
may be subdivided into genera, founded on the pre- few figures, which I believe will be found to fall vailing earths, salts, metals, or carbon; the genera below rather than exceed the net profits to be deinto species founded on their different mixtures; rived by judicious management. In most instances the species into varieties founded on color, texture, the figures are from my own experience. &c. ; and sub-varieties founded on moisture, dry 1,000 acres, say $10 per acre,
$10,000 ness, richness, lightness, &c.
2,000 sheep, $1 per head (high)
2,000 Plants are the most certain indicators of the na 10 breeding mares, $75,
750 ture of a soil; for while no practical cultivator Waggons, harnesses, tools, &c.,
300 would engage with land of which he knew only the results of a chemical analysis, or examined by Capital invested,
$13,050 the sight and touch a few bushels which were
Loose change, say,
1,000 brought to him, yet every gardener or farmer, who
$14,050 knew the sorts of plants it produced naturally, would be at once able to decide as to its value for
Expenses. cultivation. For example, the garget and striped Interest on capital -say,
$1,000 maple are generally found on a warm, loamy soil: 2 hired men per year, and board,
400 the rush on a clayey soil; the mullein and sorrel Extra hireu help in haying and harvest,
200 on a dry, sandy soil; and the cranberry on a peaty soil. But these plants, however, are not to be ab
Receipts. solutely depended upon, as, they are sometimes
Wool of sheep,
$2,000 found in soils directly opposite; as climate and na
Increase, tural irrigation have much more influence on these
500 plants than mere soils. The remaining natural agents of vegetable cul.
$3,200 ture, I shall treat of in another number; and shall here close the subject of earths and soils by stating It would thus appear that a man can realize at that, according to the chemical analysis of Berg- least 11 per cent. for his capital and time, with the man, the soil best suited for the culture of most utmost ease. vegetables, contains four parts of clay, three of In making the estimate, I have allowed 300 acres sand, two of calcareous earth, and one of magnesia. for wood land and waste, about the usual quantity
L. T. TALBOT. on that number of acres. This could be diminished
by at least 100 acres, and adding at least $300 per WOOL-GROWING IN WESTERN NEW YORK annum more to the income. I divide the cleared LANDS.
land; 420 pasture, 210 meadow, and 70 grain. If I am glad to see so much interest manifested in the manure made by the sheep and horses is proour Western New York lands. They are not pro- perly returned to the land, both the meadow and perly appreciated. There is no better grazing land grain land may be decreased, or the flock increased. in any state, or situations more healthful or plea. Twelve tons of hay for 100 sheep is an ample sant. All that “Western” says on the subject is allowance for the winter. If fed on grain they will true, as I know from my own experience. We not eat so much. Ten tons of hay and 50 bushels have two small farms lying upon the high land, back of corn would winter a flock of 100 in the very best of our main farm, and upon the Genesee slate, manner. I have allowed 20 acres of pasture, 10 of which underlies the most, indeed, nearly all of meadow, and 3 for grain, for every 100 sheep. this section of the country. When it came into Eight acres for meadow is sufficient, for there is our possession, some twelve years ago, it had been little meadow land in that section that will not worn out, as the owner supposed. We stocked average at 13 tons to the acre, and two acres of down all that was under the plow, and have used grain is all that need be given. I have not thereit for a sheep-walk and meadow ever since. The fore overstocked the farm. An active enterprising land that with difficulty carried three sheep to the man could realize as much from his capital here as acre, will now carry six well, and serve better than in any other section of the Union. it did three at first. There are thousands of acres I am really glad you are closing that sheep conwhich can be purchased at from $6 to $12 per acre troversy. Like Mr. Bingham, I rejoice in all real -that 40 acres will carry 100 sheep well, both improvement of sheep. But let the public have summer and winter, anu after a few years the same some other proof than the “ guessing" of owners can be done on 30 acres. I can pick out a great about heavy fleeces, and all that kind of “gammon.” many farms with good buildings, and the land very Mr. Bingham takes the true course, and I venture fairly fenced and cultivated, that it is safe to calcu- to say will have but few competitors. late 300 sheep to every 100 acres of cleared land,
Darien, July 4, 1846.
T. C. PETERS. which can be bought for $10 and $12 per acre.
To make it profitable, no man should undertake FEEDING LARGE DOGS IN Town - I would ad. without adequate capital. A man wants at least vise horse's flesh, or bullock's liver, well boiled, to 1,000 acres, and the money to stock it, and enough be given once a day, from 1 lb. to 1flbs., according to carry it on for a year, without looking to the to the size of the animal. Potatoes, or odd pieces avails of the farm. Thus situated, with a good of bread, soaked in the liquor that the meahas flock of sheep, and a few breeding mares, he can be been previously boiled in, may be given for brak. about as independent a farmer as need be. Indeed, last. The dog must have a constant suppl; of none can be more so in any country.
good water ; he ought not to be fed more than To show what might be done, I have made a liwice a day.
LADIES' DEPARTMENT.BORS DEPARTMENT.
WHAT IS A PARAPETTICOAT?
A CHAPTER ON GRASSES.No. 2. We are astonished at the numerous inquiries The following definition of a true grass is copied that have reached us about this article. Its name from a lecture delivered before the class of the reveals its nature. It is a hybrid between a para- Chester County Cabinet of Natural Sciences, by sol and a petticoat. This is not banter, but fact. Dr. Darlington, of West Chester, Pennsylvania, an And why should there not be such a thing ? excellent botanist and practical farmer; brief and What is there in rerum natura to prevent an inge. simple as it is, it will be found to contain the most nious
person from applying those two needful arti- striking characteristics of the tribe :-“ Whenever cles of shelter and dress to gardening purposes ? we meet with a plant having a cylindrical, jointed They will fade, and wear thin, in the custody of the stem; with the joints solid, and the intervening most economical gentlewoman, and to find a use portions hollow-or, in a few instances, filled with for them afterwards is an adaptation of means to a pith-like substance—the leaves alternate, one end which cannot be too highly commended. originating at each joint, embracing the stem with
Let us give a receipt for making a parapetticoat. its base, and forming a sheath, which is slit on one First find a good-sized parasol, or small umbrella, side, down to its origin—and the flowers protected covered with cotton, and not rubbed into holes. by those peculiar envelopes known by the name of Then select a cast-off petticoat, not a crinoline, chaff, we may take it for granted we have before us which Mrs. Malaprop calls a Kremlin, nor yet a a genuine grass.” To the same lecture I am inflannel, but some other form of the vestment; it debted for many of the facts here stated, but as I need not be very full; indeed, it will be the better quote from memory, I dare not make another for being scanty; sow up the opening, and it is answerable for my inadvertencies. ready for attachment to the parasol. For this pur Botanists enumerate upwards of three hundred pose the latter instrument must be opened, and species of grasses indigenous to the United Stateskept so; then the upper end of the petticoat is to yet all the cultivated kinds, and their almost innube sowed to the edge of the parasol, and a staff six merable varieties, are believed to be introduced. feet or more long is to be secured to its handle. The uses of this interesting tribe are almost too Thus the parapetticoat is constructed.
well known and too various, to require enumeraBut what a word! cries Sir Erasmus Verbal. tion-some few I will point out, and the boys may What a barbarous compound of Greek and Saxon ! do the rest. Those considered of most value to the The thing may be well enough, but its name is un- agriculturist in the Middle and Western States, as endurable. Pray call it a parachiton, or a para- affording the best hay and pasture-though if I do chitonisk. We can have no objection to the not place them in their proper order of excellence, change, if the world prefers it; and we agree with the same young observers must set me right-are, Sir Erasmus, that it will be as well to adopt it when " Meadow grass" (Poa pratensis);
“ blue grass parasol is called parahelion, and parapluie a para- (Poa compressa); “ Timothy” (Phleum pratense); ombrion-but not till then.
“ red top” (Agrostis vulgaris); “ fescue grass” And what is the parapetticoat for? For, (Festuca pratensis); “ orchard grass” (Dactylis Madam ! for a most important purpose. It is an glomerata); “ray grass” (Lolium perenne); and instrument of execution; it is the shirt of Nessus; “ sweet-scented vernal grass,” (Anthoxanthum odoit is the robe of Atropos. It is to enable the gar- ratum), which gives a delightful perfume to the dener to dispatch his mortal enemies. It is to re- hay. Some others are occasionally cultivated ; lieve his rose bushes from that foe which he assails but, I believe, not to any great extent or advantage. in vain with snuff, gas water, and smelling salts. The sugar-cane ( Saccharum officinarum) is a true It is to kill green flies.
grass, which, in its structure and habit, bears a strikThe instrument is used thus. In the first place, ing resemblance to Indian corn; but unlike it, the the petticoat is drawn up till it rests upon the out. chief value consists in the rich juice with which the side of the parasol. The staff of the latter is then stems abound-and if any boy should be so ignorant introduced "perpendicularly into the centre of a as not to know that it furnishes sugar and molasses, rose bush, and secured in its place by being he should be made to learn the lesson before he is pushed into the ground. The petticoat being then again allowed anything better than sour apple pie, drawn down, the bush is completely covered in by or dry bread for his luncheon. the garment. The gardener then blows his tobacco A species of seed, which in Brazil forms impesmoke beneath it; in a few minutes the rose bush netrable thickets, grows to the height of thirty or is enveloped in a cloud which has no outlet; the forty feet, with hollow stems six inches in diamegreen-fly seeks in vain to escape from the fatal at- ter, which are filled with a cool, pure liquid, mosphere which enters every fold and lurking- capable of quenching the most burning thirst. Of place; he clings in vain to his beloved rose-buds; this the hunters are so well aware, that, when in his grasp relaxes;
he dies, and with him need of refreshment, they, with their machitis, or Unnumber'd corses strew the fatal plain.
large two-edged chopping knife, cut off the young
shoots just below a joint, and drink the delicious Five minutes suffice for the execution. The beverage so bountifully supplied by nature. veil may then be raised; the instrument removed, A very coarse paper is manufactured in this and the operation repeated upon a new horde of country, from oat straw, which is found to resist the delinquents.- Gardener's Chronicle.
effects of damp better than other kinds of cheap
paper. In the native country of the Bamboo,” | ness to them, and protection from outrage and opBambusa arundinacea, the stately culms, or stems, pression. A portion of the humane spirit of those furnish spars for sail boats, as well as stout walk- precepts has pervaded all countries, and descended ing-canes, much valued by pedestrians; and of in a particular manner to the nations of the East. some of its congeners are made the pretty “rattans” One of the tales of a philosopher of India, elucidates and “supple jacks—and fishing rods,” such as good this fact in a striking manner. A traveller who was old Izaak Walton never dreamed of.
permitted to visit the place of punishment of cri. Excellent mattrasses are made from the soft inner minals, saw there every part of the body of a man husks of Indian corn, properly dried and hetchelled. of high rank in Names, except one of his feet. UpNothing affords a warmer thatch for outhouses on asking the reason why that part of his body, than rye straw; and in Great Britain the cottages alone, was exempt from the rage of the fire, he was of the laboring classes are universally roofed with told, that the only kind action that man had per it; and what could our neat housewives do without formed during his whole life, was to liberate a lamb the aid of the fine branching panicles of the broom which had been entangled, by one of its feet, by corn? (Sorghum saccharatum.)
means of a brier, in crossing a field, and that, as a The creeping suckers and tangled roots of seve- reward for that act, his foot was exempted from ral species of otherwise useless grass, are exten- punishment. sively useful both in Europe and America, in fixing We are also bound to study the diseases of dothe shifting sands of large tracts of sea coast, and mestic animals, and the remedies that are proper to preventing the ravages of the winds and tides--for cure them, by a principle of gratitude. They live This purpose the Arundo arenaria and Cynodon only for our benefit. They require in exchange dactylon are most valuable. But I should weary for their labor and all the other advantages we de. my young friends, as well as myself, were I to save rive from them, nothing from us but food, shelter, them the pleasant labor of finding out all the ways and these often of the cheapest and coarsest kind, in which
grass contributes to our comfort and luxu- so that there is constantly due to them an immense ry-mats, bags, ropes, ladies' bonnets, boys' hats, balance of debt from us. This motive to take care and a hundred other useful and ornamental articles of their health and lives will appear more striking Even the melancholy sounding whistle, which when we consider the specific benefits we receive every schoolboy can make of a green rye straw, from each of them. The horse is not only an imnot knowing or dreaming perhaps, that he is doing portant appendage, but a necessary part of the cewhat men did thousands of years ago,—when they ment of civilized society. He plows our fields, first invented the musical instrument, since called he draws home our harvests and fruits to our barus “ Pan’s pipes,” which after various modifications and cellars. He conveys them from distant parts of became the soul-entrancing flute !
the country, oftentimes over rough and difficult I dare not mention among the useful productions roads, to our sea-ports and market towns. He rethe much abused whiskey distilled from rye, nor ceives, in exchange for them, the products of foreign the rum and ratafia from the sugar-cane.
climes, and transports them to the interior and reStraw, kept dry, appears almost incorruptible, mote parts of our country. He administers to our which is owing to the abundance of silex which health and to our pleasures under the saddle, and pervades the cuticle or skin, for they have no bark in the harness. In short, he adds to the increase --that it is so filled can easily be proved by burn- of our commerce, national wealth, and happiness. ing a straw upon a piece of glass, when the vege- To the horned cattle and sheep, we are indebted for table portion will be consumed, and the complete many of the blessings and comforts of life. The skeleton left in the silex.
strength and patience of the ox in the plow and in It would be an agreeable and useful employment the team, have added to the wealth of the farmer in for the boys, to collect and preserve a specimen of every age and country. The cow has still greater each kind of true grass, and arrange them according demands upon our gratitude. Her milk, in its simto their natural affinities, in books made of straw ple state, furnishes subsistence to a great part of paper, loosely stitched together. Each specimen mankind. Its products in cream, butter, and cheese, should have a label of writing paper, with the sci- form the most agreeable parts of the aliment, and entific and common names, neatly written, the place even the luxuries of our tables. Her flesh affords and mode of growth, cultivated, naturalized or us food. Her skin protects our feet and legs from indigenous, time of flowering and of ripening the the inclemencies of the weather in the form of boots seeds, with the several uses it can be made to and shoes. The sheep affords us, by her wool, a answer in rural economy, to man or to animals. great portion of our clothing during every year of Eutawah.
E. L. our lives, and likewise furnishes us with a whole
some aliment in the form of mutton and lamb. The BOYS, BE KIND TO DOMESTIC ANIMALS. dies. But this is so far from being true, that he is
hog is said, like the miser, to do good only when he One of the patriots and heroes of the War of In- dishonored by the comparison. He sattens upon dependence, who died suddenly, some years ago, the offals of our kitchens, and is also made to perin his barn-yard, said, with his last breath, to his form the office of scavenger in cleaning our streeis. servant, near by,“ Take care of these creatures.” At his death he bequeaths us his fesh for food, his By the same kind direction we are bound to study hair for brushes, and his fat for culinary pur. the means of preserving the health and administer- poses, and is useful in the arts. Other benefits are ing to the wants of domestic animals, by all those derived from the ass, the goat, the cat, the dog, and precepts in " Holy Writ,” which recommend kind other animals.