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SAXTON & MILES,

Also just received Essays on Agriculture by Adam Beatty, and

a work on the Cultivation of the Grape and Manufacture of BOOKSELLERS, PUBLISHERS, AND STATIONERS, Wine. By Alden Spooner. No. 205 Broadway, New York,

Orders promptly attended to, for all kinds of Books in every

department of Literature. Would particularly call attention to their assortment of works

Also, on hand, a complete assortment of School, Classical, pertaining to Agriculture and Rural Economy, a few of which Medical, and Miscellaneous Books, which they offer at wholeare enumerated, with the retail prices, from which a liberal dis- sale and retail, at the lowest prices for Cash. court will be made when a number of works are ordered at one

THE AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST. time, viz. :

Published Monthiy, by Saxton & Miles, 205 Broadway, New Townley on the Honey Bee. 50 cents.

York, containing 32 pages, royal octavo. The American Flower Garden Directory. Price $1.25.

TERMS-One Dollar per year in advance; three copies for Two The American Shepherd. Price $1.

Dollars ; eight copies for Five Dollars. Johnson's Agricultural Chemistry. Price $1.25.

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among the members, the price will be only FIFTY CENTS A Stock Raaiser's Manual. Price 83.

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per copy for bound volumes. It will be expected that these Treatise on Cartie. Price $3.

orders come officially, and be signed by the President or Secretary The American Florist. Price 38 cents.

of the Society. The object in putting our periodical at this very Parnell's Applied Chemistry. Price $1.

low rate is, to benefit the farming community more extensively Ure's Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, &c. Price $6.

than it could otherwise be done. We hope, henceforth, to see Dana's Prize Essay on Manures. Price 12 cents.

the Agriculturist in the hands of every Farmer and Planter in the Fessenden's American Gardener. Price 80 cents.

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scine, tasteful books, and make very desirable premiums for disEvery Man his own Gardener. Price 124 cents

tribution with Agricultural Societies, ard should also find place The Horse, its Habits and Management. Price 12 cents. in all our District School Libraries. They constitute the best and Boussingault's Organic Nature. Price 50 cents.

most complete treatise on American Farining, Stock-Breeding, The American Poulterer's Companion ; a practical Treatise on and Horticulture, extant. When several copies are ordered, a the Breeding, Rcariog, Fattening, and General Management of liberal discount will be made. the Various Species of Domestic Poultry, with Illustrations Editors of newspapers noticing the numbers of this work month(fifty or sixty) and Portraits of Fowls taken from Life. By C. ly, or advertising it, will be furnished a copy gratis upon seading N. Bement. Price $1.25.

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PROUTY AND MEARS' PLOWS. Sheep, and Swine. 50 cents.

Quite a variety of the above plows can be had at the New The American Turf Register and Stud Book. By P. N. Edgar. York Agricultural Warehouse, together with the most complete Price $2.

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CONTENTS OF SEPTEMBER NUMBER.
Encyclopædia of Gardening. Price $10.

French Mode of Making Apple Butter
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Preservation of Apples

265

} Bridgeman's Young Gardener's Assistant, new edition, much Importation of Pure Merino Sheep...

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268 The Farmer's Mine, being the most complete work on Manures Application of Gypsum or Plaster of Paris; Anderson's ever published. Price 75 cents.

Patent Hammer; Preparation of Tomatos; Dande 269 The Vegetable Kingdom, or Hand Book of Plants. Price $1.25. lion Coffee ; How to boil Green Corn, &c. Youаtt on the Horse ; a new edition. Price $1.75.

The Alpaca, No. 4.....

270 Rural Economy. By Boussingault. Price $1.50.

Peruvian Guano on Wheat and Grass Stable Economy, by Stewart. Revised by A. B. Allen. Price 91. Deterioration of Barn-yard Manure

21 Johnston's Catechism of Agricultural Chemistry and Geology. To prevent Smut in Wheat; Sido-hill Plow 25 cents.

Repeal of the British Corn Laws

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273

Southern Agriculture, James S. Peacocke
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........ 275 Price 31 cents.

Seed-Sowing and Plaster Spreading Machine, Bees, Pigeons, Rabbits, and the Canary Bird, familiarly de Wm. J. Jones and H. C. Smith

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276 scribed. Price 37), cents.

Remedy for Colic in Horses, J. B. M.
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Superior Corn Bread, A Traveller
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273 The Theory of Horticulture; or, an attempt to explain the Adulteration of Milk, A Friend to Health and Honestys principal operations of Gardening upon Physiological Principles, Crops in Middle Georgia, Win. Terrell...... by J. Lindley. Price $1.25.

Drovers' Dogs-Boxer and Rose Gardening for Ladies, and Companion to the Flower Garden, Domestic Fish-Ponds, No. 4, D'Jay Browne by Mrs. Loudon. Price $1.50.

Practical Facts about Bacon, Solon Robinson.
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How to destroy the Canada Thistle, An Old
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Private Agricultural Schools, A. B. D..... A Muck Manual for Farmers, by Samuel L. Dana. Price 50 cts. Horticultural Notes, An Amateur Gardener

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Boys be Kind to Domestic Animals, *W*....... Treatise on Milch Cows. 33 cents.

Foreign Agricultural News.......... Stable Talk and Table Talk. $1.

Editor's Table............................................. 992 American Herd Bouk. By L. F. Allen. Price $3.

Review of the Market..................................... 24

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AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST.

Agriculture is the most healthful, the most useful, and the most noble employment of man.-WASHINGTON. VOL. V. NEW YORK, OCTOBER, 1846.

NO. X. A. B. ALLEN, Editor.

Saxton & Miles, Publishers, 205 Broadway. TO POSTMASTERS.

Thursday, Friday, or Saturday. The chance for a Many of the Postmasters throughout the Union favorable location will be increased by an early dedo not seem to know that letters on Post-office livery, which should not be later than Friday or business go free. It is only necessary to mail the Saturday afternoon. letter unsealed, and write outside upon it “ P. O. First Week of the Exhibition.Monday, Oct. 5th. Business,” with the name of the Postmaster, and — The Fair will open to the public at 12 o'clock, M. where mailed. For example, if a paper has a Vegetables, Fruits, Flowers, &c., for the Horticul. wrong direction, or it be refused, or anything of tural Room, should be brought early this morning. the kind takes place, by following the above Fresh supplies of Flowers are desired every day. directions, we can be informed of the facts without At 75 o'clock, P. M., the OPENING ADDRESS will taxing us with postage. Postmasters ought, in all be delivered by the Hon. Mahlon Dickerson, of New cases, to make themselves acquainted with their Jersey, President of the Institute. After which privileges. We trust that those unacquainted with there will be a grand display of Fireworks. the law will excuse this paragraph, as we have Tuesday, Oct. 6th. The Horticultural Exhibition frequently had to pay postage on their letters, when opens this morning at 9 o'clock. An Address by they could have gone free.

a member of the Institute, at 12 o'clock, M.

Wednesday, Oct. 7th.— The Steam Engine, with TO PRESERVE GRAPES.

the long range of Machinery, will be in operation Take a well-bound cask, from which the head is

this day. At 9 o'clock, P. M., a display of

Fireworks. to be removed, and place at the bottom a good layer of fine saw-dust or bran. On this place a layer of grapes, address.

Thursday, Oct. 8th.–At 3 o'clock, P. M., an then bran and grapes alternately, until the cask is full, taking care that there is sufficient bran between

Friday, Oct. 9th.-Plowing and Spading Matches.

An Address in the field. each layer of grapes to prevent their touching each other. Put on the head, which is to be cemented, with a splendid display of Fireworks.

Saturday, Oct. 10th. The evening will close and the grapes will keep well for a year. When used, in order to restore their freshness, cut the Live Stock must be made on or before this day,

Monday, Oct. 12th.--Entries of Cattle and other stalk of each bunch, and place it in wine, as and pedigrees delivered. National Convention of flowers are placed in water.

Farmers, Gardeners, Silk Culturists, and their

Friends, at 11 o'clock, A. M., at the Mechanics' CATTLE SHOW AND FAIR OF THE Hall, No. 472 Broadway. AMERICAN INSTITUTE.

Tuesday, Oct. 13th.-Making lists of Cattle. Programme of the General Arrangements.- Agricultural Convention continued. Specimens of all kinds of fabrics of Art, Machines, Wednesday, Oct. 14th.-First day of Cattle ExhiModels, Inventions, &c., intended for competition, bition. They must be on the ground by 9 o'clock, must be delivered, and entered on the books of the A. M. Agricultural Address at 7 o'clock, P. M. Fair, at Castle Garden, October 1st, 2d, or 3d, viz., Thursday, Oct. 15th.-Second day of Cattle Ex

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hibition. ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS in the Taber- the man of science the same question, and he will nacle, at 75 o'clock, P. M. The New York Sacred answer, “ that after growing a certain kind of Music Society have, as usual, kindly volunteered grain, vegetable, or plant, in the same soil for a their services, Visitors may obtain tickets free of series of years, the said soil will become exhaust. charge, at the Clerk's desk.

ed of the necessary elements to perfect the said The Managers desire strongly to impress ex- grain, &c.; that it ihen inevitably deteriorates, and hibitors with the necessity of bringing their contri- must be renovated by bringing similar grain from butions early, to avoid the crowd and confusion a distant locality, grown in a soil with somewhat usual on Saturday afternoon and evening, and the different elements, and that such seed will be sure delay caused thereby, in well arranging, in season, to produce with pristine vigor.” And forth with he the articles for opening the Exhibition, which will adopts the change, without inquiring whether the not be delayed beyond 12 o'clock on Monday, the seed actually has the exhausted elements required 5th of October. Again, the Judges meet early the in it, or reflecting whether an article so small as first week, when the examination takes place of many seeds are--wheat for example--can possibly articles for competition, after which a re-examina- hold a sufficiency of said elements to increase its tion will not be admissible. Further conditions growth of straw and grain in said exhausted soil, and regulations of the Fair will be posted on the sufficiently to make it a good crop. desk and in other parts of the Garden. A label ac We hold it utterly impossible in this instance, companying the articles, with the price and place and most others; for what is now wanted is as where sold, would be a convenience to purchasers, plain as the nose on a man's face. It is this : not a and for the interest of the exhibitor.

change of seed, but a restoration of those elements In no case, whether there are competitors or not, to the soil of which it has been exhausted by the will any article be entitled to a premium, if unde- crops carried off. For example, in wheat. Potash serving of particular commendation.

is the principal matter which has been carried off At the last Fair, 34 gold medals, 35 silver cups, in the straw; gluten and starch in the grain; so 181 silver medals, 255 diplomas, 170 dollars in that to grow good wheat again on the exhausted cash, and 128 volumes of books, were awarded as soil, it must be dosed with barn-yard manure, or premiums. They will be increased at the coming muck, or vegetable mould, or with ashes, charcoal Fair.

dust, lime, and bones. Then we may have good The importance of an Annual National Exhibi- wheat again without the necessity of change of tion in so central a situation as New York, the seed. Indeed, the seed may be improved rather than great mart of trade, where producers of all occupa- deteriorated by constantly growing it on the same tions resort in such multitudes, is obvious. It en- soil, as has been repeatedly proved in this country. sures a full display of the most perfect specimens Trees and Shrubbery Around the House.-A great from the fields, the gardens, the factories and work- error in disposing of these, lies, in planting them shops of our country; and enables the accurate ob- too near buildings—the house especially. No server to compare improvements from year to year, large growing tree should be nearer to the house and note the progress of our growing republic, in than 100 feet, and if several acres of lawn are producing and multiplying the enjoyments of life. around, a distance of 200 or 300 feet would be still The visitors, at a single Anniversary, have exceed- better. The smaller growing trees and shrubbery ed two hundred thousand, representing most of the should be proportionally near. States in the Union-an assemblage that has no The objections to trees being placed near to parallel in this country. T. B. WAKEMAN, Sec’y. buildings are, first, if ever blown over they endanNew York, October, 1846.

ger the house; second, they keep the sides and

roof so constantly damp, that if of wood, it decays POPULAR ERRORS.No. 1.

much faster than it otherwise would ; third, they UNDER this head we intend to write a series of harbor flies and mosquitoes; fourth, they hide the articles showing up various fallacies in practice view of the surrounding country, and make the among the good people of our country. They will house dark and gloomy. be theoretical or practical according to the subjects There is nothing so beautiful immediately around treated, and as we happen to be in the mood. For the house as a well-kept lawn, interspersed with any hints from our friends by way of assisting to little mounds of flowers, and an occasional flowercarry out our scheme, we shall be much obliged. ing shrub. English grounds are thus arranged, We shall aim to make the articles entertaining as and they are usually in much better taste than in well as instructive.

America. If shade be wanted, it is much better to Changing Seed.— There is no greater popular have a verandah running all round the house, with error than this, namely, that it is beneficial to bring Venetian blinds or a movable canvass curtain atseed from a distant field or farm, or different section tached to it in front. This is the plan adopted at of the country, or even a foreign land, for the pur- the South, where their houses are kept as cool in pose of change, in supposing that this change alone the summer as ours are at the North, and without will obtain a superior crop, except occasionally the danger, annoyance, and gloom, of trees planted from a high latitude to a low one, and sometimes too near. vice versa. Ask the reason for this opinion, and the ordinary answer is, “ Well, I don't know, CYDONIA JAPONICA.—The fruit of this handsome but I reckon or guess," as the case may be, Mowering shrub, which is abundantly produced, is “it is a good thing to change. After a while, a great improvement to an apple tart, if cut into things in our country run out, and come to nothing, thin slices or finely minced. One fruit is sufficient and to keep 'em up we must make a change.” Ask for a small tart, and two for a large one,

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THE ALPACA.-No. 5.

Proper treatment,” says Mr. Walton," is not, Diseases, &c.—Inca Garcilasso tells us of a tion. In my own mind I have long been convinced,

however, the only point to be taken into consideraplague, wearing all the symptoms of a malignant that the mode of obtaining these animals in Peru cutaneous disorder, which attacked the tame as well was injudicious, and, as regards the ruinous manner as the wild varieties, and by the Indians was called in which they are generally brought over, the facts carache, literally meaning the itch. This epidemic occurred towards the year 1544, and the disorder) already adduced will speak for themselves. I have

even ventured to think that there are better breeds chiefly showed itself under the belly and round the joints, on those parts most divested of hair, and, Europe The first proposition is placed beyond

on the Andes slopes than those usually sent to spreading outrageously, carried off nearly two- doubt by the incontestible evidence of General thirds of the country sheep, from which period they O'Brien, who, a few days after visiting Knowsley, have never been so numerous as before.

wrote to me thus:reached the guanaco and vicuña, but among them

“ I think that the mode generally used for bringwas not so destructive, in consequence of their inhabiting a colder region, and not going so much in For instance, the captains of ships who arrive on

ing the alpaca over to this country is defective. flocks as the tame breeds. This, however, was a the coast of Peru, give an order for two or three rare occurrence, occasioned, no doubt, by the state of the atmosphere, as it extended to the foxes and pairs, which are brought down from the interior, other wild animals, and one that has never since not be à judge of the animal, is glad to take what

say fifty leagues' distance. The captain, who canbefallen the country. It has frequently been re- he can get, good or bad, as the first cost is only marked in Peru, that both the llama and alpaca, trifling, say from eight to twelve shillings each when taken down to the lowland towns, and kept (about $3). He then puts them on board, with there as pets, perspire as soon as the hot weather

some dried clover. The animals are sure to be old comes on, and, if neglected, a scurf forms on the

ones, as the aborigines are cunning enough to keep skin. In their new character the coat is, of course, the younger stock for themselves, and one-half die carefully preserved, as being ornamental; but if it before the vessel doubles Cape Horn. The others, is shorn off, and the animal bathed in the cool part which the captain brings to England, not unfreercise, or the natural warmth of the climate, the quently are old and past bearing, and even live

only a short time—but why? Because, I answer, sufferer, in a short time, invariably recovers.

It

they are placed on some rich and heavy soil, protherefore, follows, that the loss of their fleece at the bably in a park, as I have seen them at the Earl of proper season is serviceable to these sheep, and Derby's and other places. They do not there enjoy helps to preserve them in good health. Dr. Unanue, speaking of the climate of Lima, then probably comes on the mange.

the high mountain air; they become sickly, and

Their native remarks “ that cold and damp, suddenly coming on, home is at least 10,000 feet above the level of the are apt to check perspiration, which produces an

The highest and most barren mountains in irritation on the skin, and this, if neglected, ends in this country would be more congenial to the ani. an eruption, and finally in the itch; but that, when mal

. Although the Earl of Derby, and others here, taken in time, it is easily cured by a cooling medi- take particular care of them, yet those gentlemen cal treatment.” The same causes produce similar must pardon me when I say that they are mistaken. effects on the alpaca. Soon after leaving the sul. I speak from experience ; for I have bred some try coast of Peru, shut up in a crib fastened to the thousands, and also used them as beasts of burden deck, the poor animals are hurried through the

to carry down the ores from my mines.' variable latitudes of Cape Horn, where heavy gales

Nothing can be more just than these remarks. frequently occur, accompanied by torrents of rain, Too liberal an allowance of rich and stimulating which necessarily must affect the prisoner. The food to an animal extremely abstemious, and habitfirst visible symptom is, that the animal experiences uated to live on coarse and light herbage, and that a nausea or sea-sickness, and abstains from food; in small quantities, must be injurious; but, above in which case it droops, lingers, and dies. If, all, if we are to have alpacas, let us begin by plachowever, it has the spirits to accept the dry pro- ling them in a suitable climate, the more necessary vender offered, sometimes tainted with bilge water, after a long and tormenting voyage. guano manure, or otherwise affected by the smell

“ Convinced that one-half of the failures in rear. of the vessel, it survives in a weak and languid ing Peruvian stock were attributable either to state; but too often contracts the disorder com

wrong food or over-feeding, I wrote to Alfred plained of, in consequence of the wet and cold Higginson, Esq., surgeon, of Liverpool, to whom, currents of air, under the sails, to which it has in 1841, I was indebted for an interesting series of been exposed, and through neglect and long stand- remarks on the stomach and intestines of two ing, the eruption assumes a serious character.

alpacas dissected by himself. Knowing that his The cooling remedy above pointed out they them- attention had ever since been directed to the same selves seek; for when taken down to the heated subject, and that subsequent opportunities had preatmosphere of the plains, should this rash break sented themselves to him of further examining the out, both the llama and alpaca instinctively go in digestive organs of several more which died withsearch of a refreshing stream. This Mr. Stevenson out any ostensible cause, I requested him to favor noticed in his llamas, erroneously supposing that it me with the results of his last operations, which he was with a view to allay thirst. No alpaca run, politely did under date of May 15th, and in these therefore, if possible, should be without a rivulet; words: one, indeed, that in some part has a depth equal to «« Of the three dissections of alpacas dying in this three feet, but, if more, it ought to be paled off.

neighborhood, the last was, perhaps, the most im.

sea.

300

TENDENCY OF LIME TO SINE BELOW THE SURFACE OF THE SOIL.

portant, and most characteristic of over-feeding, of ourselves could not masticate until they have passa which there were, however, signs in all. It may ed through the millstones. The herbage which be nearly two years since my examination of the they cull on their native hills, is to them meat and last, which died in a pleasant part of the country, a drink, and they vary it according to taste and the few miles from Liverpool, and where, as I am in- season. They select it themselves on a wide range, formed, the animal had the range of a paddock, in this respect evincing a strong instinct; and if it with several more of its kind, and had sufficient is wished that they should prosper, they must be access to water at all times. I found no fat in the allowed to do the same with us. interior cavities of the body of this, or the other “ There is not, I feel assured, any disorder to animals; but on the surface it was rather more which Andes sheep are liable, either at home or abundant in this tòan in the other two. It was a here, that could prevent them from being success. female, and the state of the bones showed it to be fully bred in our isles. Mr. Tayleure mentions the not quite fully grown.

disease with which his little flock was afflicted; but “ * The viscera of the chest were in a healthy con- insinuates that the circumstance was owing to condition; but those of the abdomen drew my atten- tact with animals imported subsequent to the postion as being out of order in, perhaps, several session of his first alpacas. Mr. Edwards remarks, respects. The stomach was much gorged with that those he had were subject to the scab, and food, hay, and oats; the former very imperfectly seldom free from it; but at the same time gives us masticated, and the latter quite whole. Whether to understand, that this disorder was attributable to their condition varied in the different cavities I canthe nature of the food of which the strangers parnot say, as the stomach, being wanted for a prepa- took. The other breeders agree that they have ration, was not cut open, but evacuated of its con- fared well, even in situations by no means eligible; tents through the esophagus, with much difficulty. and their earlier maturity with us is an additional Large quantities of half-digested food loaded the proof that the climate agrees with them, and that intestines; whole oats and hay, in a still fibrous on our pastures they find kindly herbage state, being found in the small intestines, and much hard fæcal matter in the large intestine.

" The intestines were pretty extensively adhering TENDENCY OF LIME TO SINK BELOW to each other by their peritoneal coat, on which a

THE SURFACE OF THE SOIL. rough deposit of crystalline particles, of great It is remarked by Dundonald, in his “ Treatise minuteness, but very numerous, had taken place. showing the Intimate Connection that subsists beThis deposit having formed most in the parts most tween Agriculture and Chemistry,” that lime is dependent after death, made me think that it was known to have a tendency to sink below the upper probably of post mortem occurrence; and I have surface, and to form itself into a regular stratum lately been confirmed in this opinion, by observing between the fertile and the unfertile mould. After the same to have occurred in a dead rabbit. I breaking up pasture ground that formerly had been thought the coats of the bowels weaker in some limed on the sward, it is frequently observed in parts than is natural, for they gave way very easily, this situation. This has been generally ascribed to chiefly in the small intestines, in attempting to its specific gravity, and to its acting in a mechanical wash out their contents with water. The head was manner. In gravelly, or sandy soils, there can be not opened, and the immediate cause of death may, no doubt but that the diffusibility and smallness of therefore, have had its seat in the brain; but there the particles of lime will induce it mechanically to is no doubt that such a state of repletion with food sink through the larger particles of the sand or would much predispose an animal to fatal disorders. gravel, and to remain at rest on the more compact I have not had such opportunity of observing the stratum which may resist its passage. diseased state of the alpaca's feet, as to give any When lands of this description have been limed, definite notions on the subject of its ordinary ap- and kept constantly under annual crops, the greater pearance and course.'

mechanical process of the plow will operate “ The preceding results clearly show that the against the lesser one of subsidence, and keep the animal dissected, besides having taken improper lime diffused through the soil; but in clayey or nourishment, had been over-fed—the mistake com- loamy soils, which are equally diffusible with lime, mitted by the greater part of our early breeders, and and nearly of the same specific gravity, the tenthe one which, beyond all doubt, gave rise to many dency which lime has to sink downwards cannot deaths. Mr. Edwards confesses that, at the begin be accounted for simply on mechanical principles. ning, his alpacas had a good deal of hard food In lands of this description, under the plow, the oats, beans, &c., besides grass and hay; but when lime is dispersed or mixed with the soil, until such they died so rapidly, he discontinued the practice, time as these lands are laid down with grass seeds. and only gave them grass, hay, and vegetables. After remaining in this situation at rest for a cerNotwithstanding Mr. Stirling's success, I here take tain number of years, on breaking up, a floor of occasion to repeat, that the experiment of giving calcareous matter will frequently be found lying beans to animals accustomed to succulent herbage, immediately beneath the roots of the grass (a). is, in my opinion, a dangerous one. Their pecu- This effect, contrary to the general opinion of its liarly framed stomachs are not adapted for dry and being disserviceable, is of great utility, as the staple hard food, the best proof of which is their habitual or depth of the soil is always increased and renabstinence from water. If, at home, they are ever dered less retentive of water in proportion to the treated with grain, it is maize or millet, in their distance which the lime penetrates downwards; green, soft, and milky state. A Peruvian would and thus by increasing the depth of the soil a laugh to see us giving them substances which we greater scope is afforded for the expansions of the

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