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PRICES OF PRODUCE...JOUNTAIN FARMING,
roots and nourishment of vegetables. These effects
MOUNTAIN FARMING. of lime in soils, except in those that are gravelly or During the month of July last, we spent a week sandy, cannot be accounted for simply on mechani- rambling among the farmers of the Catskill Moun. cal principles, but may probably be explained on tains. Our main route was thus. We landed at such as are chemical.
Saugerties, passed up the Kauterskill Clove, down (a) Has this fact generally been observed by Plattsville, thence round to the head waters of the
the valley of the Schoharie several miles below American farmers, who have given their land Delaware, thence to the sources of the Sodus heavy dressings of lime ? If so, to what cause do Creek, and thence down its course to Kingston. they attribute it ? Have they derived any advan- Daring this tour we occasionally deviated from the tage thereby in clayey soils ?
main route, making short excursions through
various defiles of the mountains, and ascending PRICES OF PRODUCE.
some of their loftiest peaks-among others, that of WE hear much complaint on the part of farmers, the Round-Top, the highest of all. The view from about the present low price of produce, and fears this peak is much more grand and extensive than are expressed that they may be still lower. We from the celebrated fashionable resort—the Moun. are of opinion that this last cannot well be, our rea- tain House. Late barometrical observations make sons for which are brief.
its height upwards of 4,000 feet above the level of First, the potato crop is badly injured by the rot the sea. The top is conglomerated rock, with very in Great Britain and Ireland; the consequence is, little soil upon it; yet, notwithstanding this, and these countries will want large importations of its great height, the forest is quite dense. We Indian corn and wheat from the United States, to found many of the trees from 35 to 50 feet high, supply their place. Nearly a million bushels of with a diameter of 18 to 30 inches. Their growth Indian meal were given out last year, by the Gov- seemed thrifty and vigorous. Quite a variety of ernment, for the use of the Irish peasantry, in con- flowers flourish there, and the mosses are beautiful, sequence of their loss by the potato rot; and this, and very abundant. be it understood, notwithstanding the late high The Catskill region embraces a surface of at duties, and the strong prejudice of the people least forty square miles, bristling with several hunagainst this new article of food. Now, that preju- dred peaks, scarcely one less than 1,500 feet dice is rapidly wearing away, and the article can high, measuring from the base from which it be afforded at a much lower price. Owing to its springs. The scenery throughout is grand and nominal free admission, under the new British varied. This is a much superior farming country Tariff, the consumption for the coming year will to what we had anticipated. The land bordering be greatly increased. The potato rot in our own the creeks is generally a rich alluvial, varying country proves much more extensive than last from a few rods to a quarter of a mile in width. year, which will add something extra to the con- We found all kinds of crops, except corn, growing sumption of flour, meal, and rice. Second, an un-up the sides, and on the table lands of the moun. common demand has lately sprung up in Germany tains, at least 3,000 feet above the level of the sea. for American rye, for distillation and other pur- The early kinds of corn ripen well in the valleys. poses, and this seems likely to be on the increase. Roots do exceedingly well here, especially turnips; Third, mechanics and manufacturers generally find and the grass is famous for its sweetness. Much full employment, and in our humble opinion are of the butter passing under the name of Goshen, is likely to continue to do so, notwithstanding the made among the Catskills. It is a great dairy disreduction of duties under the new American Tariff trict, but we think it would be still more profitable Act. In addition to this, several thousand persons if the higher portions of it were turned into sheep the past season have left their agricultural pursuits pastures. The soil generally is a red shale, formed and engaged in the Mexican war, and thus, for a by the disintegration of a reddish-brown slate short period at least, have made themselves con- stone. The rocks are of great variety. sumers instead of producers. Fourth, business We saw many excellent farms during our tour generally is very good, not only in this country but among the mountains, and found their owners inin Europe, giving active employment to the people. telligent, industrious, and disposed to make the The combined effect of all this must have a ten- most of their situations; but the general method of dency to keep prices from falling any lower than cultivating rough hilly land, throughout the United they now are.
States, is wrong in the extreme. We conceive that But supposing produce to be lower this year than this arises mainly from an erroneous principle, it was last, are not other things correspondingly, which is carefully instilled into the minds of so? We do not speak of the prices of four dur- American farmers. It is this—“ every one should ing the insane speculations of last winter-for raise all he wants to consume on his farm and in his they were totally unwarranted, as subsequent family.” Acting upon this principle, the possessor events proved—but of the healthy ruling prices of of a rough mountain farm adopts precisely the the first ten months of the year 1845. Labor is same course in its cultivation that the owner of cheaper, especially that of mechanics; and many smooth fertile plains does. Can anything be more kinds of manufactured goods are also cheaper, with absurů? Just calculate the difference in the cost of a tendency to downward prices. Considering all plowing the one and the other; the carting out of things, the farmers have great cause to be thankful manure and the harvesting and carting home of the for their abundant crops, and that prices are so good crops; and then the difference in the yield is greatly as we find them.
in favor of the latter. Such is not the method of
culture usually practised in Europe ; though land A man and boy can easily press two tons of hay in there commands, on an average, four times the a day, which may look like small business to some price that it does here, and labor is not more than of our large hay-pressers; but it appears to us that half so dear.
such a machine is wanted by many of our small If asked what would be our system of farming farmers who find it necessary to send their hay to mountain land, we should reply, cultivate every market in its ordinary bulk. We are authorized to alluvial valley and level spot in the most perfect say that any one may build these presses without manner, with grain and root crops; the next section the fear of molestation of a patentee. A press of above it we would devote to fruit trees, hay, and similar construction is in the possession of our the pasturage of a fine-boned, medium-sized, hardy worthy friend and correspondent, Mr. Tyler Founrace of cattle, like the Devon, for instance, or Black tain, of Peekskill, where it may be seen in operation, Galloway; and the rougher or more mountainous and who has furnished us with a drawing, and the parts, entirely to the pasturage of sheep. The sur-dimensions of some of the materials of construction, plus products for sale then, would be fruit, butter, cheese, cattle, sheep, and wool ; and the only product necessary to purchase in return, would be wheat flour. Under this system little hay would be necessary, as we should dispose to drovers in the autumn all sheep and cattle, except such as were necessary to be retained for breeding the following spring
Thousands of acres of mountain land in the United States, are annually put under the plow for a regular succession of grain and root crops, which in Europe would be kept undisturbed for sheep pastures, for they have well considered and experimented in the unprofitableness of rough hilly culture. Under this system not a fence is required, which would be a vast saving of expense. As soon as the forest is cleared off, the surface stones should be picked up and piled into heaps, and the land then be sown with a mixture of several of the best kinds of grass seed. When well set, turn on cattle and sheep in large herds and flocks, with shepherds and dogs to take care of them. In this way a few persons would manage several thousand acres at a trifling expense.
DEATH OF COL. ALEXANDER MACDONALD.We deeply regret to learn that this gentleman died after less than a week's illness, at his residence, at Eufaula, Barbour County, Alabama, on the 16th of August last. His disease was fever. Col. Mac
Har-Press.-Fig. 70. Donald was President of the Barbour County Agri
a, Hay when fully pressed. cultural Society, and one of the most efficient pro
b, Follower. moters of agricultural improvement at the South.
c, Pressing beam. He was a frequent correspondent of this and other
d, Windlass. journals. He was a good citizen and professing Christian, and died in hopes of a blessed immor
e, Rope or chain,
f, Aperture for guiding the pressing beam. tality. His loss will be severely felt in his com.
8, A bar for fastening
up the door. munity, nor will it be easy to supply his place.
h, Section of the doors for retaining the hay.
Dimensions of the Frame, &c.—4 posts, 8 feet ECONOMICAL HAY-PRESS.
long, 4 inches by 4 inches ; 5 girths, 5 feet 10 in. HAVING had many inquiries for hay-presses from long, 4 in. by 4 in.; 6 cross-girths, 31 feet long, time to time, and not being able to answer them 4 in. by 4 in. ; lower ones 2 feet apart; 2 sills 7 ft. satisfactorily to ourselves, in consequence of those long, 10 in. by 4 in.; 4 cross-sills, 34 feet long, within our knowledge being either too cumber- 10 in. by 4 in. ; inside lined with 14 inch plank. some or too light to be efficient in their operation, we think we have now found one that will answer PROPER SITUATION FOR A GREEN-HOUSE.—The the purpose when only a limited quantity of work aspect of a green-house may be at any point from is required to be done, and the hay is not to be very east to west, following the course of the sun; or densely pressed
it may even be a little to the north of east or west; The description subjoined we trust will be suffici- but only a little, and the less the better, otherwise ently intelligible to enable any ingenious carpenter the plants will not generally thrive in it, nor will to build a machine of this sort after the iron castings the flowers acquire their natural colors. A south are furnished, the whole press not costing over $40. aspect is to be preferred."
to their crops.
NEW YORK FARMERS' CLUB. sugar. By this means, good wine can be made The meetings of this Club have not been very from the juice of unripe grapes. While the must fully attended the last few months, owing to the is undergoing its first fermentation in the vats, a extreme heat of the season, the absence of many scum or froth rises to the surface, in a similar manpersons from the city, and the necessity of the far-ner as the pomace and other impurities do in the mers in the vicinity to remain at home and attend working" of cider, which is skimmed off. When
it becomes clear it is put into casks, and kept in a Grafting the Tomato upon the Potato.—Mr. cellar or cave of a temperature of about 60° F., Meigs read from the “ Annals of the Royal Horti- where a second fermentation takes place, and cultural Society of Paris,” an account of a suc- where the wines are finally prepared and kept for cessful experiment of grafting a stem of the tomato use, or for exportation. In the manufacture of upon the stalk of a potato, by which a crop of wine, he said, the addition of alcohol is unnecestomatos was raised in the air, and one of potatoes sary, and contrary to the prevailing opinion, it will in the earth. He also read from the same journal keep and bear transportation as well without it as an extract from a paper by Baron D’Hombres- with it. While in Spain, he ascertained that most Firmas on a
of the wines of domestic consumption, as well as Journey to Pæstum, in which it is stated that, those exported to the West Indies and other colo. near Naples, they cultivated large fields with nies, for the use of the Spaniards, were made withgourds, and among them heads of cabbages, cauli- out the addition of brandy; whereas, all the strong Howers, salads, and other kitchen vegetables, all of wines shipped to Britain and the United States, which grow and prosper together. They also cul- contained at least 25 per cent. When the makers tivate large quantities of melons, the consumption of wine for export to England or to this country of which is enormous, for nearly half the year. were asked by him, why they put brandy in it, These melons are preserved in winter suspended in the answer was—“ You, English, have hot mouths, straw under the roofs and about the windows of and we must gratify them.” the houses both in the country and in town. Large Wine from the Isabella Grape.—Mr. Hall obfields of Indian corn were mentioned, the stalks of served that he had made some excellent wine from which served for beans to climb upon and ripen the Isabella grape, in a perfect state of maturity. after the ears had been gathered. Plantations of By adding to the must, or grape-juice, three. mulberry-trees were also observed, entwined by fourths of a pound of sugar to a gallon, he obtaingrape vines, and the grounds beneath them richly ed a wine much resembling the quality of hock; Jaden with bolls of cotton which are picked from by adding a pound to a gallon, a fair wine was August till October, and dried in the sun. The produced ; and with the addition of a pound and a mulberry-trees, which shaded the cotton plants, half of sugar to a gallon, he obtained a fine sweet after having fed two generations of silk-worms, wine, which, when tasted by some gentlemen who were in vigorous leaf for the third time.
were experienced in the qualities of wine, not Valencia Winter Melons.-Mr. Charles Henry knowing whence it came, was pronounced by them Hall, who resided several years in Spain, and par- as a foreign article of a delicious flavor, resembling ticularly directed his attention to the products of that of Muscat. that country, said, that the melons mentioned by Mortality among Horses..—The Secretary called the Baron of Hombres-Firmas, are the same as the attention of the Club to a distemper prevailing those known at Valencia by the name of winter among horses in the neighborhood of this city. melons. They are preserved there for half the year The disease was principally confined, at first, to by being suspended in small nets under the project- Kings County, Long Island, but has since appeared ing parts of the roofs of the houses, in a similar at Flushing, Staten Island, and other places. This manner as they are in Italy. He said that, when malady appears to reside in the head, and generally he returned to the United States, he brought home proves fatal in one or two days. In every instance, several of these melons in a perfect state of preser- it is said, the horses had been turned out to pasvation, and that others were consecutively cultivat- ture, and those which have been constantly kept in ed from their seeds, in New York, until they run stables, have escaped the disorder. In several out by cross-fecundation.
cases, the animals have been carefully opened, and Wine-making.-Mr. Hall stated that he had had every part, except the head, was found to be some experience both in raising grapes and in sound, The brain, on dissection, appeared like a making wine; and that he had personally examin- mass of clotted blood. The disease, it would ed the vineyards in Europe, and the caves or cellars seem, is not contagious, because, in one instance, a there, which are indispensable for the manufacture horse died, where there were standing in a stable and preservation of good wines. He said that several other horses by his side, and none of them wine is made with as much facility, nearly, as cider. were at all affected. It is believed by many that Before the “ must,” or expressed juice of the grape the disorder has been produced by the effects of the undergoes its first fermentation, it may vary in its sun, which, if true, it is hoped, as the weather bespecific gravity according to the kind of wine into comes cooler, will soon disappear. which it is to be made. That of the best white Mr. Hall stated that he had seen a similar epiwines of France and Spain has a specific gravity of demic in the horses of Spain, a kind of apoplexy, 1.083, which is determined by an instrument known or “ blind staggers." He said that it had been under the names of hydrometer, aérometre, saccha- cured by winding blankets steeped in hot water rometer, &c. If the specific gravity of the must is around the head of the animal, and following it up below this point, it is increased by the addition oil by copious bleeding.
Pauper Labor on Randall's Island.-A deputation stable now in process of erection, intended for the appointed by the American Institute a few weeks cows in winter. All this is entirely the result of since, to visit the New York Alms House Depart. pauper labor. ment on Randall's Island, presented the following We sincerely hope that Mr. Leonard may be perpaper on that subject, which was read :
mitted to go on and carry out the plans he has intiThe undersigned from the Farmers' Club on the mated to us, of furnishing labor to all the inmates invitation of Moses G. Leonard, Esq., Commission of the establishment capable of performing such, er of the Alms House Department, having visited stimulating thèm by a system of rewards which Randall's Island on the 5th inst., in company with will call for no additional charge upon the city, his Honor the Mayor, several of the Aldermen, and and, if successful, will materially lessen the cost of other citizens, ask leave to Report
maintaining its poor. That Mr. Leonard's object was to present to the The Island is the property of the city, having citizens some knowledge of the success which has been purchased from the Messrs. Randall in 1832 thus far attended his endeavors to cultivate this for $60,000. There could not be a better place for farm by pauper labor. It affords us much pleasure the experiment than is here afforded. The milk to bear testimony to the excellence of his arrange- alone which has been already furnished, estimating ments, and the great promise which is thus far it at 4 cts. per quart, provided the quantity should afforded of signal success. Since the failure of an be continued, will amount to more than 7 per cent. experiment attempted some years ago on the Long per annum, on the cost of the Island, and, so far, Island Farms, it has been deemed impracticable by there have been but 70 paupers employed. There many to cultivate the soil advantageously by pau- are in the establishment nearly 500, that may be per labor. But after witnessing the progress made employed in agricultural labor, besides a large prounder the direction of Mr. Leonard, we are far portion of the children, whose labor, at particular from adopting any such conclusion ; on the con- seasons of the year, may be made extremely trary, we feel much encouraged to believe, that by valuable. steady perseverance in a well devised plan, the It is not extravagant to estimate that the 70 paupers of our city may be made to contribute paupers employed on Randall's Island have, thus largely to their own support, without exacting far, maintained themselves, and produced a surplus from them a greater amount of labor than will be which would be equal to over $4,000 per annum. found essential to their own comfort and well If, then, the whole 500 could be engaged in agribeing. But it cannot be expected that any plan, cultural labor with corresponding advantage, tohowever well devised, for the accomplishment of gether with the occasional sabor of the children, in an object so desirable, can be expected to prosper, addition to their own maintenance, they would if the supervision of its details is doomed to con- produce to the city a revenue of $30,000 per tinual change from one to another. Once under annum. the supervision of those having the requisite quali Two of the Messrs. Randall having been present fications, it should, upon no slight cause, be or the occasion of this visit, we have obtained changed.
fron them some reminiscences worthy of record. Randall's Island is about nine miles distant from The Island, formerly called Montezoue, was pur. the City Hall, lying between Harlem and Long chased by the family in 1784, from Col. Ogden, of Island. It forms on one side a part of the east New Jersey, for $6,000. It was then in a very bank of the Harlem River, and on the other side a neglected state, nearly destitute of trees, fences, part of the west bank of Long Island Sound, with &c. The excellent fruit which has been produced narrow channels on the north and south, difficult here, and is still retained to some extent, has reof navigation. It contains 138 acres, of marsh and sulted from the labor and enterprise of this family. upland. Some of the best fields on the island, Peaches were formerly one of the products in great however, have been rendered unfit for immediate abundance, and of the very best quality, but about tillage by the erection and recent destruction of 40 years ago the crop failed, and the trees gradubuildings by fire, intended for the accommodation ally decayed, since which, very few have been proof the poor of the city.
duced on the Island. This was the case also in the Mr. Leonard did not get possession of the Island adjacent country, and was generally attributed to a until the middle of May last, at which time no pre- change in the climate, as no other assignable reason paration had been made for producing a crop. seemed to present itself, until the disease called the Nevertheless, he has secured from 80 to 100 tons of yellows' and the peach borer were found to be excellent hay; there are two fields of Indian corn, the cause. containing at least five acres, equal in appearance to The Vergaloo pear was produced in great abunany we have seen, averaging full twelve feet in dance and perfection until about twenty years ago, height; one field of six acres, bearing potatoes; when the crop failed. The trees have since yielded one of buckwheat, four acres ; and one of turnips no fruit worth gathering. They put forth their 14 acres, all in excellent order, and of fair promise ; blossoms and foliage in the spring, and appear to also 2,000 heads of cabbage. From the 15th of be vigorous, but the fruit, after attaining about bali June to the present time 40 cows have been milk- its usual size, turns to a dark color, cracks, and ed, furnishing daily 300 quarts of milk to the nur- dries up; some specimens of it are herewith presery on Long Island, where there are 700 pauper sented to the Club. These trees may be restored, children, reserving as much as is required for the we think, by proper culture. farm. There have been two very comfortable Cherries have been very abundant upon the buildings erected o! Randall's Island, for the Island—there are several varieties, and the quality accommodation of the laborers, and there is alexcellent—the Blackhearts are most numerous.
CULTURE OF THE VINE IN AUSTRALIA.
305 The celebrated Dyckman cherry, or Black Tar- CULTURE OF THE VINE IN AUSTRALIA. tarian, was first grown in America on this Island, about 40 years ago.
Through the kindness of A. H. Palmer, Esq., The Newtown pippin flourished on the Island, Director of the American and Fcreign Agency, at one thousand barrels of which have been obtained in New York, who holds an extensive correspondence a season. In all there are about 20 acres of fruit trees. in all the countries of the East, we have received
In 1820 the receipts for produce sold off the the “ Journal of the Agricultural and Horticultural Island amounted to $6,000, independent of the Society of Perth, Western Australia,” from which supply of the family. The produce sold consisted we make the following extracts from the “ Report entirely of fruit, vegetables, and hay. The hay of the Vineyard Society,” formed for the purpose of alone, after retaining enough to winter 26 head of establishing in that colony a Model Vineyard :cattle, sold for $1,600. In 1839 Mr. R. sold 14,000
The season of preparation for the vineyard being lbs. of cherries.
alreally advanced, it is proposed in the present letter The elder brother, who was present (Mr. John to treat only on such operations as should occupy Randall), resided on the Island over 50 years. He the interval between the present time and the first states that the family, with the exception of one week in August (a), when, at the latest, the plantyear, 1824, enjoyed uninterrupted good health. ing out of vine cuttings should be completed. During that year, they were afflicted with ordinary Those operations will therefore comprise—1st, the bilious fever, of which three members of the family selection of land for the new vineyard, as regards died. Intermittent fever had not been known to the soil, situation, aspect, and shelter; 2d, the preparafamily during their residence on the Island.
tion of the land-viz., manuring, trenching, and ADONIRAM CHANDLER.
fencing; 3d, the best varieties of the vine from D'JAY BROWNE.
which to select cuttings; 4th, the treatment of old FRANKLIN KNIGHT.
vines and vineyards. HENRY A. FIELD.
On Soils.—The soils best adapted for vineyards New York, Sept. 15, 1846.
are classed in the order of their relative superiority. Mr. Charles Henry Hall pointed out the import- ist, light calcareous soils ; 2d, light soils on granite; ance of bringing up pauper children to habits of 3d, light soils on other rocks or gravel ; 4ih, light industry; and of all pursuits, he said that of agri- sandy loam; 5th, sand; 6th, loam, or any soil culture had the most salutary influence in the for- except clay. mation of their characters, and consequently pre
It is to be observed, that almost all wines of the pared them for usefulness when they came to be highest reputation in Europe are produced in calcamen. He said there is no reason why they should reous soils, rather deficient in fertility, and genenot be brought up as well as farmers' sons-to be rally on elevated hilly ground. The produce, of taught to know that they are accountable beings, course, is small. The ordinary wines are the and that it is their duty to do something for them growth of richer soils, making up in quantity for selves, and be made to feel that they are not entirely deficiencies in quality, and the latter are frequently dependent upon the bounty of the city for support;
the most profitable. Under similar treatment, but live in a land in which they are capable of be therefore, the comparative quantity produced in coming useful citizens, and can enjoy the sweets of different situations will afford a tolerably accurate freedom, independence, and happiness. He said test of the various qualities of the wines. that it has long been his belief, that, under judi
The best situation to select for superior wine in cious management, our alms-house can be made to this country will be a hill side, sheltered from the support itself by pauper labor. He cited several harsh southerly winds, with a calcareous or granite instances where this has been done in other cities, soil, and having an easterly aspect, which will and as a case in point, he referred to that of Salem, protect it from the rays of an evening sun. For in Massachusetts. He hoped that this subject ordinary wine, the alluvial flats or other rich lands would not be suffered to pass the Club without will be preferred, and a medium quality of land will further notice, and expressed a wish that the gen
be chosen for a somewhat better wine. tlemen who had so ably and correctly reported
Raisins, Zante currants, and sweet wines, should upon the agricultural capabilities of Randall's be cultivated on rich lands. Island, be invited to continue their inquiries.
The first market to be supplied will be at home, Similar sentiments were also expressed by Drs. for internal consumption; the settler will therefore Field and Underkill, and by Messrs. Hyde, Van select a situation for his vineyard near his home. Wyck, and others, whereupon it was moved by stead, and within reach of protection, combining as Mr. Wakeman, and sanctioned by the Club, that à many advantages as he can. The banks of red and vote of thanks be tendered to the gentlemen of the brown sandy loam descending into the alluvial Report, and that they constitute a committee for the lands on the Swan, and generally known as nativefurther investigation of the subject.
hole lands, have already been proved to answer
well for this purpose, by a gentleman who has AGRICULTURAL MEETINGS.-The American Agri- taken the lead in the cultivation of the vine, and cultural Association will hold a regular meeting on from having been constantly moved by the natives Wednesday, the 7th inst., at 7 o'clock, P.M., at the in search of roots, would require little preparation. Historical Society's Rooms, N. Y. University. An upland stubble, or any light soil of a tolerably
The N. Y. Farmers' Club will hold their next fertile character, and well drained, will answer for meeting conjointly with the Farmers , Gardeners, this purpose, provided it be sufficiently sheltered. and Silk Culturists' Convention, on the 12th inst., at Preparation of the Land.—Trenching from two to 11 lock, at Mechanics' Hall, Broadway. three feet deep, according to the soil, is quite essen