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REPLY TO QUERIES OX BUTTER-MAKING.-ETC.
Of these historians, first in the series, came the make good my original position. This I shall do, late George Culley, of Grindon, Northumberland, because of the reason that my views and opinions who, in 1784, published a book on Cattle. He was have been harshly assailed, and against me, in cona Short-Horn-breeder (and that of distinction, versation, I have had quoted Youatt and Berry as twenty years before either Colling commenced), authority, as if they were the only people in the and the Herefords fare badly in his hands. Next world who ever did, or could, know anything of followed Bailey, of Durham ; and then in the suc- Short-Horns and Herefords. cession of time, the Rev. Henry Berry; and, finally, By the issue I will abide, trusting at some not Youatt, who merely re-produced the account of Berry, distant day, to see the Herefords scattered all over re-written by Berry. All these men were the open those regions of our country which grow beef and advocates of the Short-Horns, and two, Culley and travel it on the hoof to market. In such regions Berry, breeders of them. Is it wonderful, then, that the Short-Horn can never beat the Hereford. in America we should have erroneous opinions re Let me not be misunderstood. I am the advospecting them? In the only histories we have of cate of Short-Horns; the best cattle I ever saw them, written by interested parties, they are decried were Short-Horns, bulls cows and oxen. But the by interest, and that of the keenest kind,-a rival Short-Horns are far from an even race of cattle. interest.
The worst cattle I have ever seen were ShortHere we have never heard of the great number Horns. Not so are the Herefords; they are very of Hereford breeders, equal in skill and success to even in quality, and are far superior to ordinary Price (father and son) and Tompkins. Who ever, Short-Horns in everything, and are superior as among us, heard of Westcar and the two Seignors, travelling and working beasts to any Short-Horns. and I might add a host of equal reputation ? And
A. S. yet these men, for an age almost, held sway, and uninterrupted sway, at the Smithfield Christmas REPLY TO QUERIES ON BUTTER-MAKING Cattle Shows; and have been succeeded by others I HEREWITH reply to the queries on butter-making, equally unknown, who now carry away eight out which appeared page 252, August No. of the of every ten of the prizes offered by the Smithfield Agriculturist. Club. And still the Herefords are merely the Let the cows be milked early in the morning, tenant farmer's cattle, and only in one instance before the flies trouble them, and as late as possihave they found a titled patron, the Earl of War- ble in the evening—for the same reason. wick; while the Short-Horns are the gentleman's Let the milk be immediately strained into pans, cattle, and Dukes, Marquises, Earls, Viscounts, which have been previously filled to the depth of Barons, Baronets, Gentlemen and Tenant Farmers, half an inch, with fresh cool spring water. are the breeders and feeders of the Short-Horns. Skim off the cream while the milk is sweet. Against the Herefords are wealth and rank, and Keep the cream cool, and churn it while it is only in the hands of wealth and rank have the sweet. I prefer stone churns, they being more Short-Horns been able to beat the Herefords, when easily kept clean and sweet—this is all important. shown at Smithfield. How many prizes have Great care must be taken to keep the milk pans been won at Smithfield by tenant' farmers, with sweet. Short-Horns? None. Earl Spencer and Sir A teaspoonful of salæratus to a gallon of cream Charles Tempest have won. Can any man in is sometimes an assistance when the butter does America say he has ever heard of prizes carried by not come readily—a little salt may also be used Short-Horns fed and shown by untitled men ? Can but these are not certain remedies. The surest all this mean nothing? Surely no. Wealth can way is to keep your cream in an ice-house in do almost anything. It can unprofitably feed and warm weather. show a Short-Horn, and win the prize against a pro Sour milk, we find, will not produce so much nor fitably fed Hereford. But this it will rarely do, so good butter as fresh milk. and the result is, that rarely do the Short-Horns We churn our cream at a temperature of about beat the Herefords at Smithfield, and this is the 60°—cooling the churn by. pouring into it, during only field of any distinction where they meet in the churning-say three times a little cold water. common, and on equal terms.
The steadier the churning, the sooner the butter I mean this as a sort of preface to a criticism will come—say from 15 to 30 minutes. upon the histories of Culley, Bailey, Berry, and We always churn our cream-never the milk. Youatt. The two last are regarded as authority as The above is the result of three years' careful to cattle in America, and by a certain party, experiments, and may, I hope, be of service to the Youatt is looked upon with veneration. As to inexperienced. Berry, I think Mr. Lewis F. Allen, in his lately For want of a better, a stone pot may be conpublished (and capital) book, the History of the verted into a churn in 15 minutes, by any true Short-Horns, has entirely demolished him as au- farmer—as all such understand the use of tools. thority on Short-Horns; and I shall endeavor to Setauket, September, 1846.
A. H. show that he is not entitled to regard as authority on Herefords.
PLANTING TREES.—The Spaniards are infinitely Mr. Youatt did not even write the various accounts more careful than other nations in planting trees; which he published, and is not regarded in England for it rarely happens, when a Spaniard eats fruit in by breeders of any of the approved races of cattle, a wood or in an open country, that he does not set the Short-Horns, Herefords, Devons, &c., as entitled in the ground the pips or stones; and hence in the to the least consideration. I feel that it is necessary whole of their country, a vast number of fruit-trees to make a clear field before I proceed to atteinpt to of all kinds are to be found.
DEVELOPMENT OF BUDS IN CORN. -PLASTER-CASTS FOR FRUIT.
DEVELOPMENT OF BUDS IN CORN. to dispose of them. If not, you will fully appreciWHILE recently conversing with an observing ate their value. The practical reasonings from them and experienced farmer upon the laws of develop- belong to another lecture, which I may, at some ment in the kingdom of nature, I mentioned a de- time, present to you. Light, or rather want of monstration which I had observed, and used before light, doubtless has much to do in reversing the the Senior Class in our Institute, in my course on
order of development.
J. DARRACH. Vegetable Physiology. The facts were new to
Walden, Orange Co., N.Y., Sept. 8, 1846. him, and supposing them so to farmers generally, he requested their publication.
DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING PLASTERAs I have so often promised our mutual friend,
CASTS OF FRUIT. Mr. S. Wait, Jr., to furnish something for you! PROCURE a square box large enough to admit the columns, I have concluded to send you the extract fruit, and leave a space of at least half an inch on from my manuscript. The particular topic of the every side ; divide this box into two equal parts by lecture was the " Formation and Development a horizontal section, and fit the parts together with of Buds."
pins, in order that it may be taken apart and pul “ You will observe, gentlemen, that this stalk (a together again in the same position with facility; stalk of sugar corn from ny garden, about in the fit a tight bottom to one half, and having made a bunch, as they say at the South, dissected longitu- composition by melting together two parts of beesdinally) has twelve leaves or blades. At each axil wax and one part of rosin, fill the half box having of the seven lower blades, you perceive a bud cut the bottom with it, nearly to the brim, and when through its longest axil. The white line in the nearly cold, sink the fruit into it to its greatest diacentre, with the indented line on either side, is the meter, and hold it steadily there until the composipith of the cob; those delicate silky filaments pass- tion is hard enough to bear its weight; the fruit ing from each re-entering of the indented line, are should first be prepared by covering it with a thin the styles or silk, exterior to these are manifest the coat of oil that it may slip readily from the mould blades of the husk.
-and if of a kind having cavities at the ends, as “ I would call your attention to the fact visible the apple or pear, a hole should be made through before us, that of the seven buds upon this stalk it from the blossom to the stem, to allow the air to the lowest is at this period most developed. Did escape when pressed into the wax. When the you ever see seven ears of corn upon one stalk? composition is hard in the lower box, grease the I did, once; it was several years since, in a garden face around the fruit to prevent its adhering to upon the eastern shore of Maryland, the white the wax of the upper half of the mould-place on dog-toothed corn. It grew alone. ... Next autumn the upper half the box, and pour in the composi. when corn is ripe, you will find this present mani- tion until the fruit is covered ; a plug should be fest order of development reversed. Those stalks placed between the boxes in such a manner as to which perfect any of these buds into full ears, will form, when taken out, an opening into the mould ; perfect the top ones. Then
will find the when all is perfectly cold, the boxes may be sepadegree of development decrease as regularly down-rated, and the fruit and plug taken out; cover the ward as it does now upward. This lowest bud, inside with a slight coat of grease rubbed on with now the largest, will probably be found to have the finger; place the boxes together again in their made no advance-the next a small one-the next proper position, and the mould is finished. Mix an increase upon that, and thus to the perfect ear. now sufficient well calcined plaster with water, to Should you find a stalk with no manifestation of about the consistency of thick cream, to fill the sets, an examination will exhibit every bud, and mould, and pour in immediately; and in a few with the same relative degrees of development, moments the plaster will be set, and may be though each less advanced than when the top bud taken out. is perfected.
Before painting, it is well to give the cast one or “ The formation of the buds always takes place two coats of copal varnish. Oil colors should be if the leaves are developed. The order of early and used, they stand the weather better. later development, though reversed in regard to The greatest difficulty I have found in making a each other, is in all my observations the same. I perfect cast is in getting it free from the little speak of corn as usually cultivated. The degree bubbles of air that remain in the plaster and settle of development depends upon variable circum- on its surface; to prevent this, shake the mould stances, and is consequently variable. The num- while the plaster is a settling." ber of buds depends upon the variety; some varie Care should be taken to place the fruit in the box ties forming more, some less. This sugar corn, you in such a position as will allow it to “ draw;" the perceive, has seven; our varieties of field corn vary division of the mould must be exactly at the greatfrom five to seven buds. Our modes of cultivation est diameter of the fruit. The mould may be taken perfect from one to two, sometimes three, and with plaster in the same manner as with wax, in occasionally four, very rarely five.”
which case it is necessary to varnish it before using. Since copying for you the above extracts, I have The stem of the fruit that is cast, should be preexamined the Peruvian corn, the seed of which served and put in the cast; it adds greatly to the I received through your kindness last spring. It appearance, and is sometimes characteristic of the has nineteen leaves, and has formed ten buds, variety. though none are perfected.
If there is anything peculiar about the flesh or If the facts mentioned above have before been core, the cast may be cut in halves and painted to noticed in your paper you will of course know how represent the inside. - Onio Cultivator.
MANAGEMENT OF HONEY-BEES.--NO. 4.
MANAGEMENT OF HONEY-BEES.—No. 4. except from the south, and we find such situations
The only covering or roofing necessary for hives calculated to decoy out the bees in the dead of placed as before described, is a couple of boards, winter, when the sun shines clear! But do these say 15 inches wide, fastened together with stout bees ever return? Look upon the snow around leather hinges, and placed upon the top of the your bee-stands—that will answer the question. I hives, with a small block of wood upon each hive, I have often seen the old women, and even men, in order to raise the centre of the boards, and give picking up the torpid bees in pans, and endeavor. a descent to the sides, to carry off water. Previous ing to warm them into life; and if they should be to strapping the boards together, they should be restored to the hives, perhaps the next day they secured from warping by cleats upon the upper would be found in the same condition. These sides, fastened with wrought nails. When there people had not sense enough to know, that by are several hives to cover, it is best to divide the beating out the backs and ends of their bee-houses, roof into strips of six feet long, or half the length the bees would stay at home! Well, my dear of ordinary boards, for the greater convenience of reader, if you have always seen bee-houses face removing them, which, at certain seasons, is neces- the south, I do not care, I shall front mine to the sary to do, in order to remove hives from one sta- east. There were upon a time two certain husband. tion to another-a very important matter—as will men living near each other; the one allowed his be shown hereafter. This roofing may be secured hired hands to sleep till the sun had reached a con. from removal by heavyweights, hy cords attached siderable altitude-and it was remarked how little to the sides, and secured to the posts that support he performed during the season. The other called the hives. The question may be asked why it is forth his hired men as soon as the dawn of day necessary to have any roof at all. A roof of about would admit, and people were astonished at the 25 to 3 feet wide, is important for various reasons. quantity of produce gathered into his barns ! In the first place, to protect the hives from natural Now, the result of two stocks of bees, the one decay. Secondly, it affords protection to the bees facing the east, and the other the south, may not be when they cluster out largely, as they will take to
dissimilar. The bees facing the south wait for the the inner sides of the hives, and thus be secure in morning sun to throw his rays upon their place of almost any storm. Thirdly, it protects the supersegress, before they will venture forth, which is from the melting rays of the sun, which would en- some two hours later than upon the hives facing the danger the combs. I once found the honey run- east. Then you will see the bees of the one at ning in a stream from the bottom board of one of work long before the bees of the other think of my hives, and on examination I found the combs sallying forth, and the result of their labors, when in the super melted down flat, from the effects of a the honey-season is past, may not be disproportion. June sun, in a case in which I had omitted to cover ate to the result of the labors of the two husband. the hive. Even the old combs below would be in men. This difference of the bees departing to the danger of melting, without any roof; but this kind fields in the morning, is the most perceptible in the of roof will shade the hives half-way down to the months of May and June. When the heat of bottom, which is sufficient. In the spring of the summer approaches, there is not so much difference, year, let the roof be removed back, so as to present from the fact, that the bees find the temperature, at the entire front of the hives to the sun, as it helps any time, suited to their wants. When there is but generate the necessary heat within to bring forward a single hive suspended on my plan, with the botthe young brood. As the season advances, say tom-board hung so as to admit ingress and egress about the first of June, then let the roof be brought from all sides, it does not matter how it fronts; but forward to the centre, if fronting the east, and some when there is a tier of hives, they should face the what past the centre, if fronting the south, in order east, as the easterly end hive would only be rightly to give the bees the greater shade.
placed if all should face the south. The bee-stand I consider this kind of bee-stand as the most must either face the south or the east. It will do economical, and, at the same time, the best adapted well to front the south, but better to front the east; to the natural requirement of bees. It allows the and in either of these positions, it should be ex: hives to be suspended, instead of resting upon a posed to the full force of the sun. In the spring it shelf or board at the bottom, and permits the is very important, but not so much so in the sum. bottom-board to be suspended also, with small wire mer.
Avoid the shade of trees, for the drippings hooks, the importance of which has already been retard the bees in sallying forth after showers. Let spoken of. It gives a free circulation of air around your location be one without shelter from any quar. the hives, and affords as little shelter to the insects ter, and particularly where the winter winds will as possible; and when they do get a footing, one have a fair chance to sweep among the hives, for has an easy opportunity to dislodge them. When by this means the bees are kept at home, where made with care, with posts planed and painted, its they belong in the winter season. I do not advo. appearance is not bad, but rough posts and rough cate a change of situation for hives in winter, as boards for a roof, with a good coat of whitewash, some do. It is attended with too much trouble will answer the purpose very well.
where there are many hives, and a good winter lo. The situation of the bee-stand will next claim cation is a good summer location, and vice versa. our attention. The reader will, as a matter of If your dwelling stands very near to the banks of a course, say, “ it should front the south,” because river, pond, or Jake, place the stands as far from the he has always seen them so. I admit that we gene- water as possible, as the bees are liable to be forced rally see them so, and we also see the hive housed down into the water, by high winds, while they are up in the warmest possible situation in the winter returning home heavily laden. T. B. MINER. season, where not a breath of air can reach them, Ravenswood, L. I., Sept. 16th, 1846.
COMPARATIVE VIEW OF THE COTTON CROP.
COMPARATIVE VIEW OF THE COTTON considered as an average weight of bales, we would CROP,
find the receipts in Great Britain as 342,182 bales A GREAT many readers of yours will run over about enough for 12 or 13 weeks' consumption. your news of the “ Last Year's Cotton Crop,” George Holt & Co., cotton brokers in Liverpool, without giving an examination, and will thus be under date Dec. 31, 1845, give as import of 1845, influenced-may be, it will have considerable effect 1,855,700 bales. See Commissioner of Patents' in our market. I presume that none but the bigoted report, pages 795 and 797. will hesitate to admit, that the cotton crop has more influence on the welfare, or probably on the
The amount received in 1844 and '45.
945,203 prosperity of America, than that of any other
515,052 always premising that we had our “ daily bread;"
298,936 therefore, the correction of any unfavorable impres In Charleston,
416,431 sion would be of more or less advantage. But to
184,288 the matter in hand.
21,200 By the Report of the Board of Trade, it is proved
In North Carolina,
12,080 that, in 1845, 1,069,320 cwt. of cotton were imported into Great Britain ; during the present year,
2,393,190 1,019,738 cwt. The difference in weight is thus
Crop in 1845-'46 2,026,848 reduced to a trifle less than 50,000 cwt., or above
Decrease to July 28,
366,342 bales. 15,000 bales. In other words, the falling off in weight this year, as compared with last year, is
Amount received in 1845 and '46, up to July 28, over 4 per cent., but the falling off in the number
In New Orleans, of bags above 26 per cent! The inference then
1,033,737 In Mobile,
420,162 drawn, is that there is no faith in the shortness of
176,370 the crop, and that prices cannot improve.
240,456 I have seen the remark made_" deliver us from
131,867 our friends,”—and well may the cotton region re
12,125 peat it, when alluding to our Northern friends. I In North Carolina,
9,131 am very willing to admit that we have often erred in our estimates, but I deny the inference, that we
2,023,848 intended to deceive. The cotton crop is more diffi
Later dates up to August 1, give me cult to estimate until gathered, than any other
The export to Great Britain grown, so much depends on the season and the
last year, at
1,428,935 bales. lateness of frost. We have been so sanguine at To date this year,
1,053,353 times of a shortness of the crop, and desiring to have an honest advantage of the fact, that we have
375,582 bales. prematurely judged ; the season proving more favorable has made our estimates fail. I may not Export to France last year was 345,330 know myself, nor may I know others, but I believe,
To date this year,
339,271 nevertheless, that a more magnanimous and honest people than the cotton planters do not exist this side
6,059 of heaven, and I would tell my own dear parents that they spoke hastily at least-if they would say
To other ports last year, 280,489 that we made false statements for
To date this year, money.
181,004 to you precisely my opinion of this estimating,-I
99,395 do not believe there is any man who can tell within 100 lbs. per hand, what I will make, scarcely one
Total exports to foreign ports year out of ten, on the 1st day of August, and that
2,054,754 he will frequently fail one bale, and just as apt as To date this year,
1,573,718 not full 100 lbs. per acre, of seed cotton. In alluding above to our Northern friends, I mean to say
481,036 bales. that they generally give publicity to the largest estimates, and some insist that they know best. Add to this a decrease in Northern ,
17,450 toreign data, but the data are so glaringly absura And we have a decrease of exports that
in toto, of
498,486 any one ought to detect the error. Agreeably to information received from a cotton merchant in New Orleans, J. A. Ruff, I am able to Now, sir, you see at once that your data are too show that the falling off in receipts in the United erroneous to be any criterion, and that we must States, up to August 1, was 361,745 bales; I would rely on the receipts and exports according to the like to see how this deficit is made up in Great U. S. accounts—which will place the crop without Britain. The quantity you state as being imported much doubt on the 1st of September, that being into Great Britain in 1845, 1,069,320 cwt., if multi- the usual date at which the year closes, at plied by 112 lbs. in a cwt., will give 119,763,840 full 500,000 bales short, which, added to the de. Ibs. Only, and the receipts in 1846, 1,019,738 cwt., creasing stock on hand, will and must leave the or 114,210,656 lbs.
stock at less than 700,000 bales, supposing the If the first number be divided by 350, which is consumption to continue in ’46, as in ’45, at over
29,000 bales per week. As to weight of bales, the same fix, or if not, the grass in cotton fielas it is impossible that the increase in weight of bales shows they ought to be. The thing is certain—it is can make up the deficit between the apparent de- impossible for Mississippi with her mammoth load crease of 26 per cent., and the real one of 4 per of 550,000 bales, to get it into market as cent., and I believe it is a mere catch penny ma- early as last year; and though she may make the næuvre. Consider, the bales of the southwest average crop, yet, with an ordinary season, much of it must about 420 lbs., and those of Carolina about 330; add be a total loss. Again, all cotton planters know, to these even 25 per cent., and we have Mississippi that a seasonable, rainy year, is not favorable for a bales at 525 lbs., an increase that never occurred in large crop, and that a crop in the grass from May to one year even on one plantation; and I venture August
, cannot mature as early, nor make so much, that the difference in weight has not varied 20 lbs. and that large, pretty cotton, is always deceptive. for 15 years, if we take out the advance made on I therefore conclude—the crop of ’46 is more decotton per bale, by banks. I mean to say, that the pendent on the latter part of this season than any I present average weight of bales has not been 10 lbs. ever saw; that an early frost, with these constant less or 10 lbs. more for any one year, in 15 years, rains, will cut the crop under two millions of bales; except the banking years. And I say further, that and if the fall be very late and favorable, that we a jury of twelve men selected from the cotton make the largest one that ever was made—but the fall states, or from the cotton-receiving cities, would must be very late, because there is not a crop of say the difference in weight has not been over 20 early fruit, nor a fair show for a middling one ; our lbs., if that, for the past five years. And why dependence then is for a late crop of fruit
. I should it be? Freigħts have not advanced, our would not be at all surprised if our crop dropped presses are not more powerful, nor is our cotton under two millions, which, with peace
with Mexi. easier compressed—and a majority of us could not co, and no more experiments by the Government of press 500 lb. bales without a greater loss of time these U. S., will bring forward the most thrifty and labor than would be compensated by the little times we have seen for ten years. M. W. PHILIPS. saving That the shortness of crop admits now of Edward's Depôt, Miss., Aug. 9th, 1846. no possible doubt, I am well convinced, and I believe it exceeds the apparent difference. Why, say
DISEASES OF FOWLS. you. Because I know of some planters who held A CORRESPONDENT in your journal (p. 241, on to a part, or the whole of 1844 crop, hoping current volume), who signs his name S., has better prices, and that the improvement in 1843 thought proper to condemn my mode of curing caused them to send it forward, which was added fowls by a surgical operation. He says he has to the ’45 crop, but of course it does not affect the opened the crops of many hens, but never saved quantity received. If you will refer to page 279 of one. His modus operandi must have been wrong; the Report of the Commissioner of Patents, you will for, from its simplicity, a child with a common pensee that I estimated a probable decrease of 300,000 knife, could perform the operation. S. comes to bales, on the 5th of last September.
the conclusion that, had I given my fowls plenty of The matter now that presses forward—“ what lime and gravel, the case would not have happened, hopes have we in an advance ?” I believe we may Now I contend that my fowls had plenty of lime, hope for it, not only on account of the certain vast gravel, and fresh water. Consequently, it could reduction of stock ihat must be on hand, January, not have been that your correspondent intended to 1847, but from the prospect of this crop. I am lead your readers to believe that my fowls had aware that new cotton has gone forward already, a none, and had become crop-bound. Furthermore, few bales, and I believe it will injure the U. S. to he says that he doubts whether any fowl would hundreds of thousands of dollars, because the fact swallow anything liable to obstruct the passage of of cotton going into market before the 8th of the stomach. If any one has any doubt of this, I August, is too strong proof of the forwardness of can only affirm that the most apt thing that hens the crop, for the opinions of all planters to the con- are liable to swallow, is dead particles of grass, trary, to show the truth. Notwithstanding this, which become matted, and create a stoppage. and that I will have no credence, I assure you that In conclusion, I would merely say, provide your the crop, so far as I see, or can hear, is from two hens with proper food-lime, charcoal, gravel, and weeks to one month later than the last crop. 1 fresh water ; and if they get crop-bound, resort to have seen many large fields, have conversed with the knife, as directed on page 142 of this volume. a large number of planters, and the information is Keyport, N. J., Sept. 5th, 1846. H. T. LLOYD. “ two weeks later,” “ three weeks later," “ I believe about one month later" than last year's crop. ATMOSPHERE NEAR THE SEA.–From various In my immediate vicinity, there are five families experiments made by the savans of Europe, it has belonging to our connexion, of which I am one, been ascertained that the atmosphere over the sea and I know we were picking cotton at this date last contains less carbonic acid than that over the land; year, whereas I can see no prospect of being three that, when the sea is rough, and especially when weeks hence where we were at this date. As to the wind is violent, particles of sea-water, in a myself, my cotton book, kept accurately for 15 state of great tenuity, float in the air, particularly years, will show that on the 15th of August
, 1845, on the coast where the waves break; and that these I gathered an average of 160 lbs. per hand, and that particles are carried to greater or less distances, acI began to pick on the 4th of August. This year I cording to the violence of the wind, and the degree have not seen an open bowl, and have not yet to which the sea is agitated. Hence the influence my team or my hoes, a thing tha
sea-air upon the soil and vegetation in places occurred before. My neighbors are generally in near the sea.