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above the usual expenditure will be retained in the kindly taken as models for you. The beetling one country and expended in the home market this will save you much labor, and no mill can do its season, contributing thus to the welfare of the work so well—the rippling combs, I hope also to community at large. But to prove, my Lord, that hear will be in great use next season, even if you this calculation is not fallacious, we have positive can afforil to throw away the bolls of your flax, corroboration of the fact, by taking the official re- then take them off, as no flax can be properly turn of imports of foreign flax for the last four handled with them on. It should be done at the years, which shows a gradual decrease, and in a time of pulling, or if the flax is dried and stacked, ratio commensurate with the Society's successful then they must be threshed out carefully like grain, exertions to increase the growth and promote its but without untying the beets. -Condensed from better preparation at home. It was stated before a Warnes' Treatise. committee of the House of Commons in 1840, that the amount of the importation of foreign flax from

THE MOSS ROSE. all the Continent furnishing into Great Britain, was The Moss Rose (Rosa centifolia muscosa), or 80,000 tons; in 1841 it was much under this Mossy Provence Rose, is most probably an acciamount ; in '1842 it was in round numbers but dental sport or seminal variety of the coinmon Pro67,000; and in 1843, 55,000 tons. Here we have vence Rose, as the Old Double Provence Rose, facts substantiating the former views that we are which was introduced to England from Holland in gradually becoming more independent of the 1596, is the only one mentioned by early writers foreign supply; and I can affirm on the experience on gardening. If it had any claims to be ranked of the past and practical knowledge acquired by an as a botanical species, the single-flowering Moss agriculturist abroad and at home, that no reason Rose would most probably have been the first exists whatever why the whole quantity of the raw known and described; but the single moss, as commaterial required to keep our manufactories in full pared with the double, is a new variety. The year employment, may not be produced at home, both in 1724 is recorded by botanists as the date of its introquantity and quality, and thus the great drain of duction, or rather of its being first noticed in Europe, wealth, the purchasing of it from foreign countries and Miller mentions it in 1727. Some few years (countries, too, with whom we have no reciprocal since a traveller in Portugal mentioned that the transactions), may be checked and circulated at Moss Rose grew wild in the neighborhood of home to the enrichment of our farmers, and weal Cintra; but most likely the plants were stragglers of Ireland. Let there be, therefore, no cessation of from some garden, as I have never seen this asserexertion to raise the supply required, and be assur- tion properly authenticated. The origin of the ed that we have both the climate and the soil to Double Moss Rose, like that of the Old Double grow it to any perfection, if but due skill and atten-Yellow Rose (Rosa sulphurea), is therefore left to tion are given to it. But look at these specimens conjecture ; for gardeners in those days did not of flax, and those beautiful fabrics which I brought publish to the world the result of their operations with me, as samples of what the Irish farmer can and discoveries. As regards the Moss Rose this is produce, and the Irish weaver can turn out. No a subject of regret, for it would be very interesting country in the world can surpass them. This linen to know how and where this general favorite of 28vo, was woven near Lisburn, and this cambric originated. Probably, when first noticed, gardenat Lurgan--the prize pieces were even finer. The ing was of such small consideration, that the dislinen that obtained the medal of the Royal Agricul-covery of a rose, however remarkable, would not tural Society was 30vo, and will be presented to be thought worth registering. That it is merely an her Majesty. At the recommendation of the Flax accidental sport of the common Provence Rose is Committee, the Royal Agricultural Society gave strengthened by the fact, that plants produced by premiums for yarns at their late meeting, the object the seed of the Moss Rose do not always show of which was to try if the description of yarn made moss; perhaps not more than two plants out of use of in the manufacturing of cambrics could not three will be mossy, as has been often proved. be furnished at home. It is of a quality the mill. Those that are not so are most evidently pure Prospinning cannot produce, and some £30,000 worth vence Roses, possessing all their characters. To has now to be imported annually for the cambric show, also, the singular propensity of the varieties factories at Lurgan, Warringstown, and elsewhere, of Rosa centifolia to vary, I may here mention that that are so successfully competing with and exclud- the common Moss Rose often produces shoots ening the French and other foreign countries from the tirely destitute of moss. Mr. Rivers makes mention English market. The result was most gratifying. of his having observed a luxuriant branch of the Some forty specimens of spinning on the old system Crimson or Damask, which is generally more were sent in, and the lowest number of them was mossy than the Old Moss Rose, that presented a 23 hanks to the lb., and up so high as 41 hanks. remarkable appearance, being almost smooth. The Now from 16 to 30 hanks to the lb. is what is re- next season it had entirely lost its moss, and bad quired, and if the count could be depended upon, produced semi-double flowers, the exact resem. and quality be equal, 40 hanks at any time would blance of the Scarlet Provence. The White Moss find a good market, and the poor industrious woman is another instance of this singular quality, for that make the value for her husband's fine flax of a lb. originated from a sporting branch ; the Mossy de not worth 6d., amount to 20s. or 30s. New re- Meaux is also a curious deviation, and the Crested sources are thus opening out for our people, and Moss or Provence, is another case in point. It those of this fine country becoming daily further seems, therefore, very feasible, that the Provence developed. In conclusion, I would just direct at- Rose, from being cultivated in Italy through so tention to these flax machines which Lord Erne has many ages, produced from seed, or more probably

PRESERVATION OF POTATOES.—BURRALL'S CORN-SHELLER.

337

from a sporting branch, the Double Moss Rose, that in a warm kitchen closet, and were found to be peris, a Double Cabbage or Provence Rose, covered fectly good. If the potatoes, instead of being rewith that glandular excrescence which we term moved in five days, are continued in the ammoniacal moss; this brancher plant was propagated, and the water for three weeks, the potato becomes tough variety handed down to us, perhaps as much or and shrivelled while in the liquor, and, when dried more admired in the present day as when first dis- by exposure to the air, assumes quite a new form; covered. These Roses always have been, and I it appears consolidated, and its qualities are greatly hope always will be, favorites; for what can be lost, for on boiling it assumes the appearance of more elegant than the bud of the Moss Rose, with sago, or starch, yet still firm, and retaining its form; its pure rose-color, peeping through that beautiful if used in the dry and uncooked state it has a mealy and unique envelope ?

favor, and the properties of grain. There is no The assertion advanced by some writers that this chemical change effected in the potato, but merely Rose, when cultivated in Italy, “ loses its mossi- a mechanical consolidation and extraction of moisness almost immediately, through the influence of ture ; for precisely the same effect may be pro. climate,” is puerile, when the fact is so well known duced by immersing potatoes in a strong solution of to us that it retains this distinctive character at salt and water, taking care to remove by subsequent New Orleans, and at other localities far exceeding ablution the whole of the salt, and this requires Italy in an approach to a tropical climate. some time, and repeated changes of water.- Edin

The ancient variety which we have referred to, burgh Journal of Agriculture. called the Common Moss, Mossy Provence or Red Moss Rose, is of a pure rose-color, and when in

BURRALL'S CORN-SHELLER. bud is surpassingly beautiful. When fully expanded it is a fine rose, but at that period, the moss being concealed beneath the petals, it no longer presents to the eye its distinctive attraction. During nearly a century that this rose existed in Europe, no new variety was produced, but of late years the greatest attention has been devoted to the production of seminal varieties, and the success has been so triumphant that not less than 70 fine yarie

LO ties have been produced, including some which bloom several times during the year, and others hybridized with the Bourbon and other classes of roses. I have, at great expense, imported the entire collection.-Prince's Manual of the Rose.

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PRESERVATION OF POTATOES. IF potatoes are immersed for four or five days in ammoniated water, containing an ounce of the common liquor ammoniæ to a pint of water, they will, on removal, be found to have their vegetative principle greatly checked, or altogether destroyed, so that they may be preserved throughout the year without the least deterioration of their general qualities. The temporary action of the ammonia in no way affects the potato beyond that of destroying its power of growth; if, however, any change is produced, it is rather beneficial than otherwise, somewhat improving the appearance and flavor of

BURRALL'S CORN-SHELLER.—FIG 79 inferior potatoes, and giving ihem a mealiness they This truly labor-saving machine is constructed of did not possess. The transient nature of the appli- various sizes, and is made entirely of iron. The cation removes any suspicion of injury from the upper part consists of a strong chamber or box, in material employed, and it is all lost by evaporation, which revolves a short cylinder or disk armed with so that not a trace remains behind ; nor could the numerous teeth, as is also a portion of the inner most fastidious ever detect that the potatoes had surface of the box. The ears of corn are dropped been immersed in ammonia, so volatile is its nature, by hand or otherwise, into the opening, a, and so perfect its escape. The exportation of potatoes when the cylinder is set in motion by means of a to foreign climates, chiefly within the tropics, is an crank or other power, the cob comes out at c, and object of importance ; and for the comfort of sailors the corn falls through a hole at b, perfectly shelled. there is nothing in the way of diet greater than the A man and boy can shell five bushels in an hour, luxury of a potato with their salt food. As a and if a steam or horse-power be applied, with promeans of prolonging their enjoyments, and adding per fixtures for feeding in the corn, 100 bushels 10 the healthful diet of a sea life, this mole may be may be shelled in a day! We strongly recommend adopted with advantage. The expense of immer- this machine to farmers, notwithstanding its cost, as sion is very trifling, and they subsequently require an improvement in every respect over the common to be spread in an airy situation to dry. Potatoes mode of shelling corn with a frying-pan or fire. 80 treated, have been used after ten months' keeping shovel, by hand. Price $10 to $12.

338

POPULAR ERRORS. --NO. 2.-ETC.

POPULAR ERRORS.No. 2.

them, to make wood and fruit. We can instance Shrinking and swelling of Meat in the Pot.many a place in this vicinity, where it is said the When children, we used to be told that pork, beef, pear or peach tree will not flourish. Now this is &c., killed in the old of the moon, would shrink in all gammon. We say they will grow, and that the pot; and if in the new, it would swell ; and a luxuriantly too, and bear any quantity of fruit. great many good, honest farmers, religiously ob

A friend of ours, in Westchester, was told by his served her waxing and waning quarters for their neighbors when he first set out his peach trees, that periodical packing. That some meat shrinks, they would all die because the soil was not suit

able for them. He had little faith in such prognoswhile other swells, is a fact too notorious for cavil; but that the moon is to be praised or blamed for tications, but went resolutely to work. Dug large this agency we most fully deny. The true cause

holes-put a wide flat stone at the bottom-cut off of these changes is to be found in the manner of the tap-root-manured the ground well-plowed it feeding the animals before slaughtering.

An ani- deeply-planted potatoes—then corn—then put mal that has been long and well fed, till the fat plenty of charcoal and lime about the trunks of the cells have become fully charged with solid matter, trees—then more manure and planted again in powill, on exposure to boiling water, absorb a portion tatoes and then sowed oats and grass seed. In of it

, and consequently swell the dimensions of the five years from planting the peach stones, he had a flesh; while that which has been hastily or but large quantity of the finest quality of fruit, which partially fattened, will diminish in cooking from his neighbors were very glad to beg of him, notihe abstraction of the juices which occupied the withstanding they had prophesied he could not cavities or spaces between the lean fibres. This is grow them. the whole secret of the shrinking and swelling of

Another friend of ours, on the south side of Long meats. It will thus be perceived that one carcase

Island, found a patch of stiff soil, with an admixof equal weight may differ materially in value from ture of clay in it, not far from his residence. He another of nearly the same apparent quality. This set out pear trees on a poor sandy soil, and carted difference in value is equally manifest in the quality tree. In other respects he treated them and the soil

three loads of this stiff soil and spread around each of fish and poultry. Eggs from well-fed hens are also much more rich and substantial than those very much as our Westchester friend did the peach which are produced by hens sparsely fed. The

trees. This was nine years ago. Now, he has latter will invariably be found meagre and watery plenty of choice pears

, while his neighbors

, for Horseshoes—not for shoeing horses, but for miles around, have not single one, merely because " keeping out witches,” are still a staple article they acted on the belief that neither the soil nor the among the farmers of our country. Indeed, they

climate was suited to grow them! have not yet been entirely driven out of the printingoffices, for we saw a formidable one recently pro

COMPARATIVE VALUE OF IRISH AND VIRGINIAN tecting the only door to this domicil of the printer's Tobacco. - In the year 1829-30 the cultivation of devils. What particular style of shoe is necessary

tobacco in Ireland excited much attention among for the utmost efficiency of keeping out witches, we agriculturists, and several hundred acres of it were are not advised; whether of concave, flat-toed, raised in different counties ; in consequence, the atsharp-corked, or what not; but we believe it tention of the Royal Dublin Society was directed to should invariably be pretty thoroughly worn; the the subject, and the author was requested by a older and the uglier the more efficacious. We select committee of that body to institute experishould think additional virtue would be imparted ments on tobacco with a view to determine some to it, if taken from a horse that had died of stran- questions of a practical nature, as to whether its gulation or some unknown disease; and if from an root contained nicotin, and in what quantity, and to old blind, spavined, wind-broken mare, that had ascertain the comparative value of Irish and Virslunk her foal, we presume entire impunity would ginian tobacco. be secured.

The author's experiments were made on average Reason and philosophy have both been brought samples of Virginian and Irish tobacco; for the to bear on this subject, without success, for here is former he was indebted to the kindness of Mr. a practice above and beyond the reach of both. Simon Fcot, and for the latter to Messrs. Wild, “Our fathers did it, and they are wiser than we,

Cuthbert, Cathwell, and Brodigan. From a num and nobody knows that it does not keep them off

, and ber of experiments the author was led to conclude, we shall do as they have done." As old horseshoes that the dried roots of Irish tobacco contain from are not expensive, and have been found a good sub- four to five parts of nicotin in 100 parts; and that stitute for new hemp, which is more saleable, and at one pound of good Virginian tobacco is equivalent a higher price, we commend the present practice in value to about twenty-four pounds of good over the older one, where hemp was almost entirely Irish tobacco. substituted. Oh, we forget, we believe they did

After the author had finished his experiments, it sometimes drown and burn witches as well as was gratifying to him to be informed that some hang them.

manufacturers estimate one pound of Virginian to. Setting out Fruit Trees. It is a great error that bacco equivalent in value to about two pounds of trees will not grow in any soil where they can

Irish.- Proceedings of the British Association. spread their roots, provided the ground be first deeply plowed and well pulverized, or holes be dug To PREVENT THE SMOKING OF A LAMP.-Soak in it sufficiently large for the roots to spread, and the wick in strong vinegar, and dry it well before then the proper elements be added, if deficient in you use it; it will then burn sweet and pleasant.

TREATMENT OF MULES.-GARDENING.NO. 9.

339

TREATMENT OF MULES.

them. Pour off the liquid in which they have been Gaston," on page 187 of the Agriculturist, boiled, and dash in cold water in its stead. Let the gives his sad experience with stock, and makes a potatoes remain two minutes; pour off the cold most lamentable face of it, in being " the most un

water; place them over a slow fire, with the pot-lid fortunate people in the world.” He gives you, I partially removed, and let them steam until nearly know, a faithful account of the how, that work- dry. Then peel, and place them on the table in an horses are generally treated—but I, for one, enter open dish. my caveat against the treatment, and say, no man has any right to accuse our Maker of partiality,

GARDENING.-No. 9. who will treat stock in this manner. I here give

Of the Agency of the Atmosphere in Vegetation. you a true and plain statement how I do, and defy The atmosphere is composed principally of water, a man to visit the Hall and find anything to the carbonic acid gas, oxygen, and azote. The contrary.

quantity of water that exists in the air, as vapor, My team turns out about 4 o'clock, these days, varies with the temperature; the hotter the weather say, about daylight; at 11 o'clock the horn sounds, the greater the quantity. At 50° of Fahrenheit which calls them from the field; the mules are all one-fiftieth of volume, or about one-seventy-fifth of turned into a lot, where my cows "are fed and weight of the air, is vapor; while at 100°, the milked, having in it a trough 50 feet long, under a vapor is one-fourteenth in volume, or one-twentyroof, in which salt lies the year round, with ashes first in weight. It is a beautiful feature in the ecooccasionally mixed therewith. Here the mules nomy of nature, that aqueous vapor is most abun. walk about, wallow, and rest until cool ; when dant in the atmosphere when it is most needed for they are turned into a horse lot adjoining, and the purposes of life; for, in very intense heats, driven in one corner to water; they, of their own when the soil is dry, the life of plants seems to be accord, return to the stable, where food is present, preserved by the moisture in the air, which is abeach one to his stall, there tied, curried, and rubbed sorbed by the leaves. --my manger is never empty. At 2 o'clock, P.M., The quantity of carbonic acid gas in the air the horn again sounds, when the hands turn out, hav- is very small; probably, where there is a free circu. ing watered again, and work until dark, when they lation, not to exceed the one-fiftieth part. The return to the lot, and undergo similar treatment. principal consumption of the carbonic acid in the

I use no racks, I use no long provender; and atmosphere seems to be in affording nourishment about half the time I use cob and corn meal ; pro- to plants; and some of them appear to be supplied vender and the latter is thoroughly sprinkled, so as with carbon chiefly from this source. The action to be danıp, with a weak brine. I feed about one of the atmosphere on plants differs at different week with the meal above mentioned and cut periods of their growth, and varies with the differstuff-being fodder, millet, hay, and shucks- ent stages of the development and decay of their another week on corn and cut stuff

. My troft- organs. If a healthy sced be moistened, and ex(Webster says trough)—is 2 feet wide at bottom, 1 posed to the air at a temperature not below 45°, it foot deep, 2; wide at top, and 5 feet long, with a soon germinates, and shoots forth a plume which partition of about 20 inches for corn; it is cleaned rises upwards, and a radicle, which descends. out of everything, once a week, and when wet stutt Seeds are incapable of germinating, except when has been used is well cleaned out with a cloth wet oxygen is present. From this it is evident that, in in brine.

all cases of semination, the seeds should be sown This is my mode—and I was born and raised in so as to be fully exposed to the influence of the this glorious South, and here mean to live and die air; and one cause of the unproductiveness of cold --and, by the by, except one mule, I have not had clayey adhesive soils is, that the seed is coated a case of colic, since the Sheriff, et id omne genus, with matter impermeable to air. Any seed not drove me out of fine doings in 1839, to attend to fully supplied with air, always produces a weak this small business. I say now to friends, North, and diseased plant. South, East, and West, I do not in truth consider Dew is the moisture insensibly deposited from there is anything in this, but system, and believe it the atmosphere, on the surface of the earth. This was my profession that gave me this, which leads moisture is precipitated by the cold of the body on me to say, as I do believe, that the doctors of. Ame- which it appears, and will be more or less abunrica are bound to be as useful men to this country, dant, not in proportion to the coldness of that body, in giving more system to the science and art of but in proportion to the existing state of the air in agriculture as any other class. I am proud of my regard to moisture. profession, and proud of my country, and say that

Rain is considered to be the result of the elecmay stimulate my brother chips to greater exer- trical action of the clouds upon each other. The tion, and that my brethren of this clime may profit quantity of rain varies with the latitude. The thereby, as well as by my feeble

pen.

warmer the air, the greater is the quantity of vapor

M. W. PHILIPS. precipitated; hence the reason why rains are heaEdwards Depôt, Miss., June 15th, 1846. vier in summer than in winter, and in warm coun

tries than in cold.

There are

some countries Irish Mode of Boiling POTATOES.-Wash the where it scarcely ever rains. For example, in potatoes clean without breaking or cutting the South America, the clouds seem to be checked in skins. Drop them into a pot of boiling water, their progress from the Atlantic, by the Andes; and adding a little salt, and let them remain until sufii- while the sides of the mountains are deluged with ciently soft for a fork to be easily thrust through frequent showers, the plains of Peru and Chili,

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HOW TO INCREASE THE FRUITFULNESS OF ORCHARDS.

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west of them, are entirely destitute of rain. Such in some of the viscera, and their fibrous matter countries are watered entirely by mountain streams, contains all the essential elements of vegetable and by the dews, which are very heavy. The substances. average quantity, in different latitudes, as stated by Bones are also much used. These are ground Humboldt, is as follows :

in a mill and applied to the land in the form of Mean Temp.

powder or dust. Under the Equator, 81.5 96 inches.

Sea-weed is much used on the sea-coast as a maNorth Latitude, 79.25

It is very transient in its effects; but is 68. 274

nevertheless of much value in situations where it 609 381

can be obtained. The most common method of Water is absolutely necessary to the economy of using it, is to convey it directly to the land, and vegetation in its elastic and fluid state, and also in apply it fresh as a top-dressing to the growing its solid form. Snow and ice are bad conductors of crops. If not applied in its recent state, it should heat; and when the ground is covered with snow,

be formed into a compost with dung, or with a or the surface of the soil or of water is frozen, the mixture of that and earth.

Peat is a substance which may be used as a ma. roots or bulbs of the plants beneath are protected by the congealed water from the influence of the atmo remain for years exposed to water and air without

nure; but unless freed of its acid principle it may sphere, the temperature of which, in northern winters, is usually very much below the freezing afford no nourishment to plants. It should, there.

undergoing decomposition, in which state it can point; and this water becomes the first nourish- fore, be made to undergo decomposition before it is ment of the plant in early spring.

Of Manures. Every species of matter capable applied to the soil. This may be done by long exof promoting the growth of vegetables, may be con- and completely slacked line, which decomposes the

posure to the air, or by mixing it with newly-made sidered as a manure. Decaying animal and vege- woody fibres, and forms a kind of compost which table substances constitute by far the most import-is of some value. ant class of manures, or vegetable food. Vegetable substances used as manures, one of the most power

Amongst excrementitious solid and animal substances deposited in the soil

, are ful is the dung of birds that feed on animal food, consumed during the process of vegetation ; and they can only nourish the plant by affording solid particularly that of sea-birds. This guano which is matters capable of being dissolved in water, or has attracied much attention in this country for a

used to a great extent in South America, and which gaseous substances capable of being absorbed by few years past, is the manure that fertilizes the the fluids in the leaves of vegetables. The great sterile plains of Peru. It exists abundantly in the object, therefore, in the application of manure, small islands in the South Sea, and appears as a should be to make it afford as much soluble matter as possible to the roots of the plants, and that in a

fine brown powder. slow and gradual manner, so that it may be entirely is a strong fertilizer. If applied to corn when

Liquid manure, being the drainings of the stables, consumed in forming its sap and organized parts. extractive fluids, are substances that in their un- and throws a surprising degree of vigor into the Mucilaginous, gelatinous, saccharine, oily, and sprouting or just before a rain, it has an effect

which no other manure has. It destroys insects, changed states contain almost all the principles

crops. necessary for the life of plants; but there are few cases where they can be applied as manures in their

The dung of horses, oxen, and cows, is found pure forms. All green succulent plants contain to contain matter soluble in water, and that it gives saccharine, or mucilaginous matter, with woody table substances, absorbing oxygen, and producing

in fermentation nearly the same products as vege. fibre, and readily ferment. They cannot, there carbonic acid gas. This should always be made to fore, if intended for manure, be used too soon after ferment in the soil, or should be formed into a com. their death. Hence the advantage of plowing in green crops, whether natural or sown for the

post by the addition of one-half leafy mould. pur

L' T. TALBOT. pose; they must not, however, be turned in too deep, otherwise fermentation will be prevented by compression and exclusion of air. "Green crops How TO INCREASE THE FRUITFULNESS OF ORshould be dug in, if it be possible, when in flower, CHARDS.—Alkaline, or ammoniacal preparations, or at the time the flower begins to appear; for it is have been applied to young trees, as well as to old at this period that they contain the largest quantity ones, for the purpose of stimulating their growth, of easily soluble matter, and that their leaves are and accelerating their fruitfulness, such as whitemost active in forming nutritive matter. Yeast is washing their trunks and branches, rubbing them one of the most powerful and durable of all ma- with soap-suds, and spreading round their roots nures. Unfortunately the article is too expensive lime, gypsum, charcoal, soot, ashes, &c.; and to be much used for this purpose, but it will well • human urine,” says Columella, pay for a trial on fine plants.

have let grow old for six months, is well fitted for Fish forms a powerful manure, in whatever state the shoots of young trees. If you apply it to vines, it is applied; but it cannot be used too fresh, or to young apple-trees, there is nothing that though the quantity should be limited The skin contributes more to make them bear an abundance of the fish is principally gelatine, which, from its of fruit; nor does this only produce a greater inslight state of cohesion, is readily soluble in water ; crease, but it also improves both the taste and flavor they contain also fat or oil, either under the skin or of the wine and of the apples.”

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