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346

ADVANTAGES OF COOKING FOOD FOR ANIMALS. -ETC.

On my

lives in the wood three years or more before it 4th. Cast-iron Hard-mill, suitable for grinding attains its full growth. The moths, which come all kinds of grain. Price $7. forth about the middle of July, have thick and Mott's Boiler, Fig. 82. This consists of a comrobust bodies, broad, and thickly veined wings, two mon box-stove, with a boiler set over it with two distinct feelers, and antennæ, that are furnished on bottoms, which prevent the meal burning in the the under side, in both sexes, with a double set of process of boiling: It will be seen from the cut short teeth, rather longer in the male than in the that this boiler is fomed in the simplest possible female. The larva of this insect is said also to manner, and may le attended by a child. The prey upon the wood of the black oak (Quercus dimensions vary fron 15 to 60 gallons; the price tinctoria). The other insects that attack the com- from $12 to $40. mon locust-tree, is a species of Apion, which inhabits the pods and devours the seeds; and the EXPERIMENTS WITH GUANO. Eudamus tityrus, which feeds upon its foliage, as I HAVE used Ichaloe guano, Shakspeare's cargo, well as upon that of the Robinia viscosa.-Browne's on my meadow lands, and also on the following Trees of America.

crops, wheat, rye, pats, barley, potatoes, Indian

corn, rutabaga, comnon turnips, and sugar beets, ADVANTAGES OF COOKING FOOD FOR all of which have done well, except the corn and ANIMALS.

rye. Corn planted in drills, a superabundance of It is a matter of great importance that many i stalk, corn light; this I attribute wholly to plant. kinds of food intended for domestic animals should ing too close. Rye not well filled, but abundance be cooked. For example, that of working horses of straw. Wheat, barley, and oats, not yet threshshould be so prepared, or of such a nature, as toled, except a few bushels of the former, which have allow them to satisfy their hunger quickly, thats been sold at $1.374 per bushel, for seed wheat,

and more hours may be allotted for rest during the time more wanted for the same purpose ; the yield will given them from labor. Not being ruminating ani- probably be over 30 bushels to the acre. mals, their oats and corn should be boiled or meadow lands I used 200 lbs.guano and 200 lbs. of crushed, in order to avoid loss or waste by swallow- gypsum, which increased the quantity of hay per ing it raw or whole. Equal advantages may be de-acre 2,360 lbs., viz. : where no guano was used, cut rived by cooking grain and roots which are to be 1,800 lbs., and where it was used, cut 4,160 lbs. I fed to cattle, swine, and sheep. To those who should recommend 300 lbs. guano and 300 lbs. have not already the conveniences for crushing and gypsum, as a top-dressing, to be applied immediboiling the food for their animals, we take pleasure ately after the frost leaves the ground, and just in recommending the following implements for previous to a rain. On my wheat and rye I used these purposes :

700 lbs. guano to the acre, 300 lbs. before sowing, 200 lbs. after it was up two inches, and 200 lbs. in the spring, with an equal quantity of gypsum each time. On other crops used 400 lbs. All my meadow lands which have been top-dressed appear like new meadows. The field where I took off my wheat and rye, the grass is very thick, and 18 inches high.

For oats or barley I consider 224 lbs. to the acre 60 quite sufficient.

E. K. COLLINS.

Mamaroneck, Oct. 20, 1846.
GAL

PlowING IN GREEN CROPS.—Spending a short time in New York a few days since, I was invited by Mr. J. W. Satterth wait to look at a field recently sown with wheat, in which he had turned under a very heavy crop of green corn that had been sown broadcast with the Eagle plow, No. 25. The ope. ration was performed first by rolling the corn flai on the surface of the ground, and then completely covering it with the plow, after which the whea:

was sown and harrowed in the usual way. Mr. S. Mott's Bo!LER.-Fig. 82.

has promised to let me know the result, when the 1st. Sinclair's Corn and Cob Crusher, a cut and wheat is harvested, which, if favorable, shall be description of which appeared in our fourth volume, sent to you for publication. A TRAVELLER page 92. Price $30.

2d. Pitt's Corn and Cob Crusher, which is a new WESTPHALIA PLAN OF SMOKING HAMS. -A room invention, admirably adapted for grinding corn in a garret; fire in the cellar; smoke gathered in a alone, or with the cob. Price of this complete, $45. tunnel and led to the smoke-rooms by a small pipe ;

3d. The Hand or Horse-power Mill, made of by the time it gets there all the heaviest part of the burr-stone, suitable for flouring wheat and grinding pyroligneous acid has condensed, and the smcke has all sorts of threshed or shelled grain. The prices of become cool. Nothing touches the ham but a pure, these vary according to the diameter of the mill- light cool smoke, which passes off by a number of stores, say from $30 to $125.

1 small apertures, about as fast as it is applied.

REVIEW OF THE AUGUST NO. OF THE AGRICULTURIST.

347

REVIEW OF THE AUGUST NO. OF THE About Fruit Trees Running out.-The reason AGRICULTURIST.

why many persons are led to the belief that grafts The most reasonable way for you and the read- decay with the original stock, is, because so ers of the Agriculturist to account for my not re- many grafts are taken from decaying trees, and viewing your three preceding Nos. is, to believe carry with them the disease of the parent stock. It your Reviewer to be like a skilful physician, who is also a fact that seedlings are more hardy and awaits the operation of an experimental dose of long-lived than grafts; but this furnishes no proof medicine, before repeating it. But some, who

that varieties do run out in consequence of being

presume to know “ who the author of Junius is,” will only propagated by grafting. Still, I am a great tell you, that I have been absent “in the Mexican friend to seedlings, and would recommend every war;" others, that I have had the “ copper fever," farmer to continue every year to “ know the tree and hence have been on a trip

to Lake Superior. by its fruit,” and if not good, cut down the top, and But, I say, that I shall say nothing, except in the insert some choice grafts. We have certainly de. way of some few short comments upon your parted too far from seedling fruit trees, in some August No.

places; while, in others, there seems to be no taste Do not mix your Potatoes - Let me advise culti- for any other kind except those that come

“ natevators not to grow but one kind, except perhaps a ral," and of a size described by friend Greeley, as few very early ones in the garden. I cannot see “ five to the pint." the advantage of growing all sorts, since no sort are

Culture of the Grape.-Whatever comes from the exempt from the wide-spread disease. I have just pen of Nicholas Longworth is sure to be read with received a letter from Indiana, which says the rot interest, and these extracts are particularly so. has already appeared among them, and in places His experiments appear conclusive to me against never before affected.

the importation of grape vines. I have no doubt Drying Pears.-By the French method this is too that the cultivation of native varieties can be made slow an operation for Yankee go-aheadativeness. more profitable upon hundreds of thousands of If dried in a well constructed drying kiln, at an ex- acres of our native soil, than any other crop. pense so small that it can hardly be counted, they It is useless to cry out against cultivating grapes are far superior to dried apples for every-day use. for wine, on account of our temperance principles. They need not be peeled, and, if small, only cut As well might we cry out against growing corn, in halves.

because a few wicked men make stinking whiskey Drying Cabbage Leaves, noticed in the Farmers' of it, which certainly produces more drunkenness Club of this city, makes my Dutch blood boil, as an than all the grape culture in the world. Someinnovation upon the rights and privileges of sour-thing more from Mr. Longworth will add value to krout. I would sooner die of scurvy than live your pages. upon dried cabbage leaves. Pray what is the ad

Dairy Cows.-“ Almost ashamed to mention the vantage of “ dried cabbage leaves" over that of subject,” are you, because you have so often ensour-krout? I am sure the latter can be taken to deavored to persuade us of the truth, which we sea, and will keep better than the former. If one

heed not? I think I have read of one before who of my old shipmates is still living, he could give denied the truth; but when the cock crowed it you the history of some choice jars of it which waked him up to a sense of his duty. Let me went round the world with him.

crow and wake you up, not to be ashamed to conInsects, &c.—The same letter above spoken of, tinue to urge upon the notice of all your readers tells me of a new enemy of the wheat crop in the the great importance of improving the quality of west, that is very destructive, called the “chinch- their milch cows. I think the article describing Mr. bug.” My correspondent says that the fall wheat is Baker's cows jumps at conclusions rather 100 eaten up in places by them in the fall; spring much. Because a cow gives 21 : pounds of milk at wheat and oats sadly injured, and sometimes de one milking, it is not certain that she will give 42} stroyed just before getting ripe. Will the Prairie Ibs. each day; nor because Mr. Baker had made Farmer give us more information upon this part of 7 or 8,000 lbs. of cheese, is it at all certain that he the grain grower?

will make 12 or 13,000 lbs. more. If Mr. Baker, Self-Acting Machine for Raising Water.—Is this at the close of the season, will give us an exact an improvement upon Montgolfier's water-ram ? table of the amount of cheese made-number of It does appear to me that if I had a fall of seven cows--how long milked--ages-breed—how kept, feet, affording eight gallons a minute, I could con- &c., &c., it will be very interesting and useful to struct a much more effective and cheaper machine your readers. than the one described. Then, where is the im Glass Milk Pans. These may be most excellent, provement or advantage of this? There is a water- and “with careful usage last a thousand years ;" ram in operation near West Chester, Penn., which but, with common usage, such as they would did not cost more than two days' work of a common surely meet with upon almost every farm, they will carpenter, or handy man with tools, and it does a be found to cost more than they coine to. Better better business than the one described by you.

let them be,” and use really good tin ones. Flax Machine.-The best kind is a good thresh

Disease of Fowls.—This is an article well worth ing machine to take off the seed, without trying to the cost of the volume to every person that even save the lint. The present price of fax will not keeps a hen. If any of your readers have passed it warrant much attention to its culture, as cotton has over without notice, I beg them to refer back to it, taken its place in a great measure; but the seed and learn the true cause of much of the disease always commands a remunerating price.

of fowls.

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348

REVIEW OF THE AUGUST NO. OF THE AGRICULTURIST.

You say

Sheep Husbandry.- Now, whoever knows Jacob fire-place and great stone oven ; the old settle and N. Blakeslee as well as I do, will bear witness, that long oak table; the great pewter platter and ditto he need not squirm because John Brown treads on plates; and ditto, too, the old cider mug, while just some folks' toes. No one will accuse friend Jacob by the back-door hung with puffing up a spurious article, because we know that he has a good flock, and his practice

“ The old oaken bucket, the moss-covered bucket that shows that he knows how to improve thein. But

hung in the well." he is quite mistaken in supposing that three-fourths All of which comforts and conveniences of a of the lambs will partake of the quality of the farm-house kitchen have given way to the little 7 fleece of the buck in all cases. In my opinion the by 9 room and despisable cook-stove; the cut glass quality of the fleece of the lamb will depend much and china dishes upon a costly mahogany table; upon the vigor of the buck at the period of coition. and other et ceteras of modern life; none of which If the buck is in low condition, or old, or sickly, show the beauty of proprietyin a farm-house. or lacking vigor from any cause, which is often the In fact there is the greatest departure from propriety case from over-working, the fleeces of the progeny in a very large portion of all modern building, and will deteriorate from their sire. I am a strong ad- even in Mr. Downing's figures (59 and 61) in this vocate of cross-breeding; yet I must own that I article, it is not fully visible to my eye. Fig. 61, have seen some good flocks that never had enjoyed in particular, lacks elevation from the ground, and that advantage; and I very much doubt whether both are represented too low in the stories, while the mere relationship between the male and female the windows have too much of a prison-like apis so deleterious, as the breeding together male and pearance. If some person, who is fully capable, female too nearly allied in form, and of a weak would publish a small work of designs, plans, deconstitution.

scription, and expense of farm buildings, it would Gardening, No. 6.—Mr. Talbot says that “cot- become as popular as “ Cottage Residences.” I tages and palaces are as much natural objects as don't believe, however, that the talented author of the nests of birds,” which is a new idea, and at first that work is the man for the author of the “ New seemed an absurd one; but, upon reflection, I am Farm-house Companion.” Several designs already constrained to coincide with him in opinion. I published might be embodied. Who shall do it? have heard arguments against improvements in the About Manures.-I beg your pardon, Judge art and science of agriculture, as “ contrary to na- Beatty, but you have got the cart before the horse ture.” Now, in fact, this cannot be, for man, in a in the very first sentence of your valuable article ; healthy state of body and mind, is an improving and if said cart were loaded with stone at the creek animal; and it is just as much instinct for him to in front of your house, you never could back up build beautiful houses, as it is for birds to build the hill.

“ there is nothing so importan* beautiful nests. But there is a difference in men as in the art of agriculture as the restoration and prewell as in birds, and there are some turkey buzzards servation of the fertility of the soil.Now what I in both classes. The closing line of this article object to is, that you should give the word " restorupon gardening, is a text upon which I could write ation” the precedence, when, in fact, if the word a long sermon. Reader, 1 pray you look to it, on “ preservation” had been kept in view, such a soil

as that of “ Prospect Hill” would never need the On the same page is another article from Mr. restorative power of manure. And so it is with all Longworth, upon his favorite theory-practice, the new soil of the wide west. No thought of prerather--a practice, however much it may be scouteil serving its natural fertility by a rational system of by theorists, that has furnished the city of Cincin- culture is ever exercised, until at length it falls into nati with a greater abundance of delicious straw- the hands of some one who perceives the necessity berries than any other city in the world. And this of resorting to a foreign author, and perhaps imis owing to the influence of one active mind, and ported manures, to learn how to restore that which goes to show what influence for good, one good never should have been lost. This is too much man, and particularly with the aid of a good paper, like our city system of licensing dens of dissipacan effect in agricultural improvement.

tion, vice, and misery, to preserve the morals of our The recipe to “ make water cool,” would be youth in, and then restoring them at Blackwell's more useful if equally applicable to make the wea- Ísland, Sing Sing, or Auburn. Our whole govern. ther cool. We would wrap the whole city in mental land system is conducted upon the same coarse cotton if it would carry off the heat from principle. It holds out inducements for “ squatters" the inside.

to spread over the domain, and skim a little here Hints on the Construction of Farm-Houses.—This and there, and then press forward towards the bor. is one of the most sensible articles of its popular and ders of civilisation, leaving behind them their broad prolific author. “ It seems to us worthy of the at- tracks of deteriorated soil for some aster comer to tention of every one who would render our country restore to its pristine value, by a system of artificial life expressive of its true usefulness and beauty.” manuring, that makes such communications as this I think, too, that a farm-house should be “unmis- of your worthy old friend highly valuable. takeably a farm-house,” not only in its exterior, but Butter-making:—A few short answers to a few in its internal arrangement, which I consider of far plain short questions. more consequence than outward appearance; and 1st, 2d, 31, and 4th. If you have any other than the point upon which modern houses show the man, or rather woman power, to drive the churn, greatest lack of common sense in the builder. I let the milk sour till just beginning to grow thick, am wedded to the old-fashioned New England and then churn. farm-house kitchen, and can never forget the big 5th.—Sometimes. But don't use too much.

page 247.

A READY RULE FOR

FARMERS.

349

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6th.--Yes, most decidedly, and better.

is a lady, and single withal, Solus is bound to quit 7th.—65 degrees.

his bachelor's life, and go where he can get his 8th.-Not at all important

stockings knit at home. If he don't I am sure 1 To make Bacon. -All right, except the direction shall

. I agree with (Miss, of course) E. L. that to "smoke continually in damp weather,” and that knitting for farmers' boys would be far better than is all wrong. At such times the hams will be cov. idleness; but I must say, that I do not believe she ered with drops of moisture, which, if smoked in, will live to see such a specimen of universal induswill give the meat an acrid taste. In packing try in America. While it is the fashion for far. away, first put the ham in a cheap cotton bag, and mers' girls to murder music, and daub paper with then charcoal is better than ashes.

many colors (calling them pictures), and spin ten New York State Ag. Show. I have but one com- times as much street yarn as they knit stocking ment to make. “ The arrangements made by the yarn, and while the store" gives credit, and sells citizens of Auburn are ample and satisfactory: “ so cheap,” she must never expect to see the boys There is room, and a hearty welcome for all._A patiently devoting their time to “ knitting work.” similar announcement was made last year. The Boys' Department.-Good Tools.-Most heartily result proved that strangers, froin different portions and carnestly do I join in the appeal of “ Lert” for of our country, walked the streets of Utica in a good tools for the boys. But while I see men themcold frosty night, for want of shelter, while others selves so destitute of judgment, as to continually paid the most exorbitant tavern bills (increased 100 use the very poorest possible kind of tools, How can per cent. for the occasion), while the fare could not I hope to see the boys provided with such as they well be worse. I hope the Auburn welcome will ought to use? Why, Mr. Editor, I have seen men be less frosty—that is all.

doing an extensive haying this very month, that Pennock’s Grain Planter.— I have seen it work, don't own a rake nor pitchfork (except a forked and it is what it is recommended to be, except that stick) in the world. One of my near neighbors has it will not work so well on hilly and rough land, borrowed and kept all this summer, for the use of as smooth.” But it would work well on the west- one of his boys, an old hoe of mine, so poor that I ern prairie land; and in connection with a harvest- won't use it myself. How can we ever reach such ing machine, which cuts, threshes, winnows, and farmers, or effect a reform for the benefit of the bags the wheat, what an immense business could boys, while men pursue a course towards them. be done. The letter heretofore alluded to, from selves so erroneous ? However, let us Indiana, informs me that “Mr. Davis, of Au Sable despair, while we have such good tools as our good Grove, near Oswego, Illinois,” had such a machine pens and types; but keep steadily at work, and be in operation upon his farm this season. Will you, assured that if we cannot induce the present genemy dear Major, give us a detailed account of size, ration of men to furnish good tools for their boys, cost, motive power, amount of wheat harvested per we may so enlighten the minds of the boys to the day, and if it really works satisfactorily. Don't wrong practised towards themselves, that, when hesitate ; the request comes from an Auld Lang they become men, they will be sure to furnish their Syne friend, and the information is much needed, boys with “ Good tools We have theory enough of such machines; we And here I must close my review of the present want the practice.

month, without being able after jumping over seveManagement of Bees. — The remarks of Mr. ral articles, to reach the “ Editor's Table.” It is Miner upon this subject seem well calculated to do my object to write with a free pen, but not a cavil. good. Since I saw Bevan on the Honey Bee” ling or caustic one. I wish my comments to be recommended by some correspondent of this paper, useful, and to induce further communications, and I have bought one, and I much like the hive de- not deter any one through fear of criticism. scribed by him. As you appear to be a practical not a critic—a fault finder. I seek information, man, neighbor Miner, will you tell us if you have and am willing to impart what I possess. If I differ any objection to his hives. But if it is required by in opinion with those I comment upon, I pray them nature that bees should have a hive no deeper than to reply in the same courteous and pleasant mood wide, How does it happen that they flourish so that I now feel towards them. well in a hollow tree? I once saw while on a May it be for mutual good that I should conjourney to what was known twenty years ago only tinue a

REVIEWER. " the West,” a hollow beech tree completely filled twenty feet, while the cavity was not over A READY RULE FOR FARMERS.-We have been eight inches diameter. There was evidently no frequently asked to explain the difference between “ sparseness of working bees” in this natural hive. the price of wheat per quarter and per barrel The When “ doctors disagree" so much as they do simple rule is this. Multiply the price per quarter about the right way to manage bees, it is very diffi- by 7, and divide by 12; the result will give the cult for us ignorant mortals to tell which is the amount per barrel. Thus 56s. per quarter multiright way. î fully agree with you in opinion that plied by 7 and divided by 12, gives 32s. 8d. per many of the patent hives are only pateni novelties. barrel. —Quebec Gazette. Hives, with drawers, like those of Mr. Weeks' patent (from which yours seem to be copied), are very To PREVENT THE RAVAGES OF THE CLOTHES convenient when it is desired to sell the honey in Moty.—You have nothing to do but to place shallow the comb, as the drawers are of a convenient size boxes in your drawers, with a little spirit of turpenfor retailing

tine in them; and as the turpentine evaporates and Ladies' Department.-- Knitting.–This is a very penetrates the cloth, the larvæ will protrude, and pleasant and well-written article; and if the authorl be found dead on the surface.

I am

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350

PROPOSED SAFETY LAMP.-THE COTTON CROP.

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PROPOSED SAFETY LAMP.

It will be perceived the increase at this port was Will you permit me the use of your columns, 87,000 bales, or about one-twelfth of a full crop, whilst I suggest to some of your manufacturers the and the decrease at Mobile, Savannah, Charleston, policy of manufacturing a lamp suitable to the Florida, Virginia, and North Carolina, was 446,429

bales, or about five-sixteenths of a full crop. wants of a cotton planter. I have never seen one,

From reliable sources of information, we estimate though probably there may be such now in existAny one can satisfy himself of the perfect

a full average product. protection from fire, whilst closed, of a lamp made Louisiana to be

365,000 bales. of wire with fine meshes. I believe it was Sir H. Mississippi,

-470,000 Davy who invented the safety lamp for fire damp Tennessee,

65,000 of coal mines, having first proved to his own mind North Alabama,

120,000 that flame could not ignite without the meshes of a Arkansas,

20,000 wire. I have tried the same experiment with cot. ton, and have no fear of throwing a lantern well

Total, 1,040,000 bales, secured into a pile of cotton with a lighted candle which is about the amount received at this port contained therein.

during a good crop year. I would advise the lamp to be made very strong, We estimate then, in view of the lateness of the and the bottom heavy, so as not to be easily upset ; crop, destruction by worms and caterpillars, and the the wire should be brass or copper, or of some above and other data, the production of the United mixed metal that will not rust, and the door be States, in round numbers, as follows:fastened by some strong mode.

I presume a lan-
Production of Louisiana.

200,000 bales, Стор tern about 6 inches square and 10 high could be

" Mississippi..

340,000 made froin $1 to $2, thus costing no more than the

4 Tennessee.

50,000

North Alabama........ 90,000 glass ones; and by being made strong, would be

12,000 more safe, less liable to be broken, and would last much longer. M. W. P. Receipts of New Orleans..

692,000 bales, - Mobile.....

380,000 Edwards Depôt, Miss., October, 1846.

190,000 4 Charleston.............. 290,000 Florida..

150,000 THE COTTON CROP.

4 Va, and N. Carolina...... From the tenor of our correspondence, and in

20,000 formation obtained from merchants here, who are in

Total of United States, 1,742,000 ba.es. daily intercourse with every section of the cottongrowing region, we judge many planters are likely The supply of cotton for 1846 and '47 may be to fall into, if numbers do not already labor under fairly stated thus :error, with regard to the probable extent of the in Stock on hand....

700,000 bales. coming crop; and as ignorance on the subject will

Crop of the United States.....

1,742.000

Egypl, Brazil, India, &c........ 450,000 cause disappointment and dissatisfaction with any sale the merchant may be able to effect, and as it is

Total supply, 2,092,000 important that those who produce should be cor The consumption in Great Britain for six months rectly informed, we present you with such statistics in 1845, when prices were very low, was 830,266 and estimates, as will, in our judgment, lead to a bales. For the same period in 1846, when prices more correct opinion than many now entertain. were much higher than in 1845, the consumption We will not enter into any reasoning, or submit was 775,509 bales, showing a reduction in conany detailed evidence to substantiate our estimates. sumption of 54,757 bales, as the result between The details of our estimate will doubtless not accord periods of high and low prices. The consumption with the opinion of some, but the aggregate will, of the United States during the past year was we are confident, approximate to the true result. 422,597 bales.

The following comparative table kept by the We may then fairly state the consumption for New Orleans Price Current, exhibits the receipts of 1846 and 47, thus :cotton at all the ports during the past season, end

Great Britain....

1,550,000 bales. ing 31st of August. We give this for the purpose

France, Spain, Continent of Europe, and } 800,000 of showing the extent of the late and preceding North and South America, and West Indies 500,000 crop, and the relative increase and decrease at the Jifferent ports.

Total Consumption, 2,850,000 bales.

Supply as above, 2,892,000
Receipts in Receipis in

Excess of supply,

42,000 bales. 1845 and '46. 1844 and '45.

Our opinion regarding prices is, that they cannot New Orleans,.. 1,011,393 954,285 87,103

be forced so high as many anticipate, and as the 421,966 517,196

95,930 Savannah, 189,076 305,016

115,940

nature of the case would seem to warrant, from one Charleston, 251,405 426,361

174,956 cause alone, not enumerating others, and that isFlorida,

139,755 187,769 Virginia,

48,004 cotton is shipped, as a general thing, too much en. 15,700 25,200 North Carolina,

12,416

12,299

cumbered with bills and cash advances, which Other Ports,..... 21,732

tends to force it on the market, and sold at any 2,090,614

446,420 price buyers may choose to offer, by which means 2,090,644

the planter loses his legitimate control. 337,599

We quote cotton to-day as follows, and that the demand is brisk, and factors ready sellers,

China..

6

Ports.

Increase ( Decrea se.

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