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AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST.

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Agriculture is the most healthful, the most useful, and the most noble employment of man.-WASHINGTON, VOL. V. NEW YORK, DECEMBER, 1846. NO. XII. A. B. ALLEN, Editor.

Saxton & Miles, Publishers, 205 Broadway. TO OUR SUBSCRIBERS.

put on the wrapper, we cannot turn to the account The first number of our sixth volume will be to stop it. We hope this also will be particularly promptly issued on the 1st of January next, and we borne in mind by subscribers. hope it will be agreeable to all to renew their sub All those who do not promptly return the next scriptions. At the low price at which the Agricul number sent them, unmutilated and not written upon, turist is published, a large subscription list, promptly will be considered as subscribers for the whole paid in, can alone support it. We earnestly entreat volume. our friends, therefore, to exert themselves in favor It is needless to dwell on the importance of of this journal. If they will do their part, we pro- liberally sustaining agricultural publications. Their mise most faithfully to perform ours, by making the cheapness and utility strongly commend them to next volume, equal at least, to any of its predecessors. the community. We care not what a man's occuWe intend to give a handsome new vignette for pation may be, all are interested either directly or one thing, and have other improvements in store, of indirectly in the improvement of agriculture. Ther which the public will be advised when they see let the periodicals on this subject meet with the them.

generous support of every good citizen. As to the terms, it will be recollected that they are in advance, and it is to be hoped that all city To PREPARE CORN FOR SHIPPING TO EUROPE.-subscribers will immediately call at the publishers' See that it be perfectly sound and dry. If it could office and make payment. Those at a distance will be kiln-dried it would be still better. Transport it oblige us by remitting their subscriptions, in current to the ship in a clear dry, day, and place it in funds, directly to the publishers, by mail, and they moderate-sized bins in the hold of the vessel. will take the responsibility of the money coming These should be well sealed, and made watersafe to hand. Post-Office orders we do not want at proof; and great care should be taken to have them all—it is more trouble to get the funds in this way dry at the time the corn is put in. Thus prepared than they are worth, when obtained. We truly and loaded, it will arrive sound in Europe, and hope that our subscribers will bear this particularly bring a good price. If carelessly shipped, the grain in mind.

will surely mould on the voyage, and arrive unfit Any one wishing to discontinue the paper, will for use ; for musty corn cannot be sweetened again please to get his postmaster to inform us of the fact by any method with which we are acquainted. by an open letter, requesting him to endorse on it The varieties of corn which will best bear trans“Post-OFFICE BUSINESS." By doing this the letter portation by sea, are those containing a large portion comes free. If unwilling to take this trouble to of oil, such as the Golden Sioux, the King Philip oblige us, then return the first number sent you, in or Northern Eight-rowed Yellow, the Dutton, the a strong wrapper, with your name and post-office Browne, the Rhode Island White- Flint, &c.; but legibly written on the wrapper-and not on the the flour made from those varieties is not so palaAgriculturist-together with the word—“ refused.” table to those unaccustomed to its use, as that made All subscribers' names are entered on the books from the soft farinaceous varieties of the South under post-office heads, and unless the post-office beland West, which are improved by kiln-drying.'

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LETTERS FROM THE SOUTH.-30. 1.

of his countrymen," sought in the pursuits of a LETTERS FROM THE SOUTH.-No. 1.

diligent and enlightened agriculture, his highest After leaving Baltimore, there is soon visible a individual enjoyinent, and the best welfare of his striking deficiency in the cultivation, in comparison country. It may be doubted, however, whether with that of the north ; though this difference is Washington, so extensively engaged in public less apparent in Maryland than farther south, as the affairs during a great part of his life, made his agrimanufacturing spirit already developed in that culture so productive as has been frequently claimed. State is manifest in new and thriving villages occa, His home estate partakes of that barrenness of soil sionally springing up. The increased demand and which characterizes a great part of Eastern Virvalue of agricultural products, necessarily induces ginnia ; and the want of good markets, and the in. attention to the cultivation of the soil; and more Zifferent cultivation which characterized the land is inclosed, old fences are repaired or removed, operations of good farmers in his day, could not, and new fields are taken in, and all is better culti- without the greatest economy, have resulted in the vated. The farmer soon finds from his increasing accumulation of a large estate, even on a virgin receipts that his prosperity is identified with that soil.

The most rigid and enlightened system of the mechanic and manufacturer; and that if he which the intelligence of his time enabled him to has to pay a trifle more, which he seldom does, or adopt, while it might have failed to secure great even 50 per cent., which has never been the case, wealth, is still an illustrious example to the present for the few domestic manufactured articles which and future generation of farmers ; and the considerhe consumes, he is yet vastly better off for sustain-able wealth he secured from the partiality of his ing the useful arts of his own country in preference early friend, Lord Fairfax, and his judicious selecto buying abroad, at even lower rates, for which his tions of choice lands at nominal prices, while en. means of payment would be soon exhausted from gaged in the laborious duties of a stripling surhis inability to secure any fairly remunerating veyor, enabled him in after life to refuse all commarket for his products.

pensation for his seven years' service as CommanThe neighborhood of Washington, proverbially der-in-Chief during our Revolution, and afterwards sterile, has latterly felt the influence of a domestic maintain that munificent liberality, which, though market for its productions, and many emigrants conspicuous above most others, was among the least from New York and New Jersey have sold their of his resplendent virtues. farms at $40 to $60 per acre, and purchased here For a short distance on the banks of the Potomac of a quality originally as gooå, at from $5 to $10; where the railroad commences, the soil yields a and by the use of proper fertilizers, lime, gypsum, natural growth of a variety of trees and shrubs ; manures, and a rotation of crops, they are fast bring and many a large clustering vine gave evidence ing them into a productive state, while receiving an of its capacity to rear the grape to advantage, adequate return for their cultivation. It needs But on emerging from the bank, we soon entered strong inducements, however, to lead the best class upon a soil, which, whether of the lightest sand, of northern farmers to abandon their social privi, an indifferent gravel, or even when inclining to clay, leges at home, in which they have been born and with but slight exceptions, gave support to a natural nurtured, and in which they feel that they have growth of uninterrupted stunted pine and oak; and inherited a right in fee simple, for the privations with little variation, this dwarf pine and oak folto which they are subject here. The only way in lowed us from Acquia Creek to Wilmington. The which these disabilities can at present be measura- bottoms of the Rappahanock, the James, and the bly remedied, is by emigrating in masses, bringing Appomatox rivers, and for some little distance on their schools, society, and mechanics with them, either side, were an exception. The two former as many of the best early emigrants in northern especially, below Fredericksburg and Richmond, Ohio, and other western settlements, bave done. give wide bottoms and soine uplands of great ferExtensive changes of opinion, as to the future tility; and the inexhaustible beds of mars in their social and industrial relations of the inhabitants of vicinity, owing, particularly to the unwearied the Southern Middle States, which are evidently efforts of that able friend of agriculture, Edmund in progress, and which, if not arrested by any un- Ruffin, one of Virginia's best and most useful sons, toward event, will, ere long, produce such modifi. have of late years been instrumental in resuscitating cations in the present system of labor, as will many of the worn-out lands, and almost invariably secure future emigration, and greatly increased increasing fertility wherever it has been applied. prosperity and augmented value to their land.

Farming, intelligently pursued under this system, As our boat approached Mount Vernon, the is generally profitable. Wheat, corn, tobacco, bell gave token, as if by instinct, that the soil potatoes, and the grasses, are raised in profusion, which occupied the happiest hours of one of earth's and with decided advantage. But in general, the greatest sons, now holds his remains in her bosom. country has a barren aspect, indicating too plainly That inbred nobility of soul which led him to the to admit of dispute, that a soil, originally lean, has achievement of deeds in his social, military, and been exhausted by a careless system of husbandry, çivil career, which will commend his name to hal- which has taken everything off without giving back lowed remembrance while civilized man inherits anything in return. "If I am asked what is the this globe, equally taught him to regard the culti- remedy, the certain means of restoration and imvation of the earth as the noblest and most useful provement for that broad belt of indifferent land that, occupation of man. And as long as the farmers with few exceptions, lines the seaboard from Maine of the United States continue to read the history to Florida inclusive, I would say, use lime, marl of their country, they will learn that Washington, (another form of lime), and gypsum, wherever they “ first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts prove useful, and can be procured at such prices as

PRESENT CROP OF CORN IN THE UNITED

STATES.

363

will justify their use; where wood is abundant as faggots, piled in heaps, and covered like charcoal it is generally south of the Chesapeake; use char-pits, where a smouldering fire expels the resinous coal ashes; husband and apply all the animal and matter, which is secured in trenches, and barreled vegetable manures which can be procured; pursue in its liquid state as tar. Resin and pitch are other a judicious system of rotation of crops, taking care forms of the same crude material. One worthy to give back to the soil a part of the vegetable citizen observed to me, people might laugh at matter by turning in a growth of clover, grain, North Carolina for its pine, but the inhabitants did peas, &c.; and finally, introduce stock which shall mighty well by it. consume a part of the products on the soil, and The section of the state farther westward, and return in their manure an equivalent for what they near the base of the mountains, is much more ferhave exhausted. Sheep, of which there are com- tile, and produces abundantly of wheat, corn, and paratively few south of Delaware, would soon pro- in many instances of cotton, flax, &c. The lands duce a marked and rapid improvement in the soil, still further back are of a highly productive soil, while they yielded an ample return for the attention on which is growiť almost every variety of probestowed on them. The adoption of this system duct suited to the climate, and the river banks, near would result in slowly, but certainly restoring the the coast, afford some of the best rice lands in the land; while such as were more favorably situated, United States. The legislative policy of the citiwhere peat, muck, and sea-weed can be obtained zens of this State has been cautious, and generally and profusely applied, would rapidly come up to judicious, and probably no one in the Union is in a the most satisfactory standard of fertility. Where safer condition. the growth of clover or the cow-pea can be secured, Wilmington has increased rapidly of late, since the success is certain with proper management. These construction of the railroad, and now contains some will secure the means of augmenting fertility to 8,000 people, with most of the important buildings any required extent, by occasionally turning in a new and well constructed. It enjoys a profitable crop, and making their consumption contribute to trade from the regions drained by the Cape Fear the same object, by applying the manure from the and its branches, and its traffic and manufactures animals, fed upon them. We know nothing beyond of turpentine are productive. Both Richmond this; nor has science, or the most successful and Petersburg are thriving from their considerable practice, so far as our knowledge extends, discov- introduction of cotton, iron, and woollen manufacered anything further. There is no royal road to tures of late. The former has about 25,000, and farming, more than to education; and its pursuits the latter near 20,000 inhabitants. R. L ALLEN must be sought by the intelligent and diligent ap Charleston, S. C., Nov. 11th, 1846. plication of nature's slow, but certain ineans, or success is unattainable.

So far as my route enables me to determine the PRESENT CROP OF CORN IN THE UNITED STATES. staples of the eastern part of North Carolina, they We see that the Louisville Journal estimates this at are exclusively turpentine, and its products. For a 500,000,000 bushels. We should be pleased to distance of considerably over one hundred miles, learn upon what data this estimate is founded. The there is but one interminable plain of pine and oak, census for 1840 sets it down at 387,380,185 and mostly of the former. There are two species busnels; but we place no dependence whatever on here, the long and short leaf. The former, when the careless returns of this census. For example, but a few feet in height, has a very graceful it sets down the potato crop at 113,183,619 bushels, appearance with its long, spreading, grass-like, not one-third of that of corn. We are of the opitufts of luxuriant leaves, and when grown, giving nion, that in the Northern States more potatoes are a palmetto aspect to its branches. Both are rich in raised than corn ; at the South and West, not near turpentine, while they yield freely. The system so many; still we doubt whether the crop of corn adopted here, is to bare a part of the trunk of its is double that of the potato. Admitting our present bark, and fresh or external wood, say one-third to census to be 20,000,000, in round numbers, hali its circumference, and two or three feet in 500,000,000 would be 25 bushels of corn to each height, cutting a basin at the bottom to catch the man, woman, and child, in the United States. We turpentine. This is done in the spring, and the doubt whether there are 3,000,000 of farmers deposit removed from time to time as it exudes among our people. The above estimate would and is accumulated through the season. Another make the average among these 166 bushels eachyear requires a fresh cut, which is made higher up entirely too much in our humble judgment. on another side of the tree, and a thrifty growth The census for 1845 of the State of New York, will bear from five to eight years' tapping. As may sets down the potato crop at 23,653,418 bushels ; be supposed, an extensive forest is required to the corn crop at 14,722,114-a little over one-half afford adequate employment to many laborers ; yet it of that of potatoes. Admitting the population is found highly remunerating under favorable cir- to be 2,604,495, this would be 5.000 bushels of cumstances. A single hand will frequently earn corn for each man, woman, and child. Suppose $500 or $600 in a season, and sometimes $120 in a the corn crop of this State to be an average of single month is realized by an active person. that of the Union, the population of which is esti, Much of this crude material is manufactured into mated to be 20,000,000, the whole crop then would spirits of turpentine in the woods where produced, be only 113,000,000. In a note, page 375 of this and barreled for market, many of the furnaces number of our paper, taking the late V. S. census for employed for this purpose meeting the eye as we guide, we estimate the corn crop at 400,000,000 passed. In other localities, the pine is split into Without doubt this must be too high.

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Mr. Norton's Letters.

whole county ; that is, he has a right to everything

that is under the surface. He may sink a shaft for As I find mysel: once more upon this side of the coal or lead in the middle of any gentleman's garAtlantic, I shall take pleasure in renewing, accord- den, on merely paying him for the extent of suriace ing to your request, an occasional, if not a regular occupied by the mouth of the shaft, and the build. correspondence. My time in Holland during the ings which it may be necessary to erect about it. coming year, will be almost entirely engrossed in Chirk Castle, Mr. Biddulph's residence, is a the pursuit of my chemical studies, but opportuni- building of immense extent, and great antiquity. ties will undoubtedly present themselves for the The rooms are very superb, and the repairs and communication of anything interesting to your improvements now going on, must cost from readers, that may fall within the range of my ob- £60,000 to £70,000, or about $300,000. Many servation either in the laboratory or on the farm. hundred acres are devoteil to a deer park, where

Before our ship had reached the docks at Liver- there is a herd of 600 deer. Some of the stags are pool, I received an invitation from a Scotch friend, of great size, with noble branching antlers. Mr. Girdwood, to visit him at his new home in My stay in Wales was too short to admit of North Wales, about 40 miles from Liverpool. As those particular inquiries into their agriculture and it was a part of the country which I had never systems of cropping, which I could have desired. visited, I determined to spare a day in compliance It was easy to see, however, that they were far with his request. From Chester to Chirk, the from perfection, and that deeply-rooted prejudices place of Mr. Girdwood's residence, a distance of 22 were abundant. There is much more hope of our miles, I rode on the top of a coach, and thus had country than of such districts as these, where their an opportunity of enjoying some of the most beau- practices, founded on the habits of many hundred tiful scenery that I have ever observed in England. years, have become almost sacred. The face of the country is agreeably undulating, I had no idea until I landed in this country, of the with high bare mountains rising in the background. extent to which the potato disease has prevailed. The hedges are very luxuriant, and a sufficiency of In many districts, the destruction seems to be noble trees are scattered about to give a finish 10 almost entire. The factor of Islay, one of the the view. The number of gentlemen's seats is very Western Hebrides, told me a few days since, that great, this being a favorite region. The Marquis there were not enough potatoes for seed left in the of Westminster has a magnificent place, with a island; he had seen none upon his own table for straight avenue of three miles in length, lined with some time. Many of the crops were not lifted at trees, running up to the house from the high road. all, but the starving poor were allowed to pick over

I was particularly struck by the fine appearance the fields and save what they could. The popula. of the grass along my whole route ; it was close, tion of the island is about 17,000, and of these a thick, and beautifully green. It is no doubt better very large proportion depend almost entirely upon than usual this year, as the summer has been a potatoes for their food. The factor said they mus! warm and dry one, so that the undrained fields starve without assistance from government. The have enjoyed the most favorable conditions. Now price of potatoes here in Edinburgh is 25 cents per that the rains have commenced, a great breadth of peck. In Ireland, as you have doubtless heard, the the country shows the want of drainage, a branch destitution is becoming frightful. A general moveof farming in which this section is particularly de- ment of the whole disposable military force thither, ficient. I saw some of the finest fields of turnips has taken place within a few days, as in some counimaginable, one of about 40 acres would yield at ties the people are proceeding to violence. In other least 25 tons to the acre. This must not be consi- places there have been gatherings of men who dered as a fair specimen of Welsh agriculture, have marched peaceably to their landlords and which is notoriously inferior.

asked what they should do to avoid starvation. On Mr. Girdwood has recently become the agent of assurances of relief the poor creatures have quietly an immense property, more than 20 miles in extent, dispersed. and will no doubt gradually introduce most of the

The demand for our bread-stuffs must be enor. features of that improved system of agriculture mous during this winter, particularly for Indian which he has so successfully practised on his own corn. Weare highly favored with an abundant crop, farm in the Lothians of Scotland. He has taken and it is to be hoped that by the energetic measures one very large and neglected farm under his own which the British government are now adopting, supervision, and will proceed to drain, subsoil, and a sufficient supply will be procured from us and otherwise improve it, so as to form an example for others, to avert the unspeakable horrors of famine. the rest of the property. Improved implements are

Edinburgh, Oct. 16, 1846. John P. NORTON. much required. There are immense coal mines on the estate, one of the beds being 18 feet in thick Above, we have the gratification of laying before

The lime quarries are also worked to a very our readers the first of a second series of letters from great extent, 120,000 tons were raised and burned Europe, by our excellent friend, Mr. Norton. Suflast year. This is in great part used for agricultu- ficient funds having been recently donated to Yalo ral purposes, and is transported on the Ellesmere College, to establish a professorship of Agriculture canal, which passes within a short distance of the in that venerable institution, Mr. N. was appointed quarries. A railway now building from Chester, will to it, and sailed from this port on the 16th of last still farther increase the advantages of the property. September, with a view of passing another year in

Mr. Biddulph, the owner of this wide domain, Europe, in order to better fit himself for assuming has also what are called manorial rights over the the duties of his station.

ness.

PIGSTIES.-SHOW OF THE BERKSITRE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY.

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PIGSTIES.

SHOW OF THE BERKSHIRE AGRICULTU. There is perhaps nothing that more strikingly

RAL SOCIETY. marks the thrifty farmer than the judicious arrange The thirty-sixth anniversary of this Institution ment and good condition of his farm-buildings. was celebrated by the farmers, mechanics, mer

Having had occasion lately to erect some pig. chants, lawyers, physicians, clergy, and ladies of sties, and being dissatisfied with the old arrange- Berkshire, and a large assemblage of visitors from ment, I set about devising a more convenient one." abroad, at Pittsfield, on the 7th and 8th of October, My plan, on trial, is found to answer an excellent with all the usual demonstrations of joy and kind purpose.

I send you a copy, with a description, friendly feeling which a feast of the in-gathering of hoping that it may prove of some service to my the harvest can be supposed by the most poetic fellow farmers; or at least excite their attention to feelings to inspire. this important, but much-neglected branch of farm At an early hour on the morning of the 8th, the economy.

wave of concourse commenced rolling on our hillThe cut represents one of a series of pens sides, and through our valleys, bearing in its that of course may be extended to any number. course the patriarch of hoary years, together with

his sons rejoicing in robust manhood, and his daughters smiling with matronly grace, bearing “ their little ones like flocks;" and attended by their oxen given to strength, their generous kine, and bleating flocks; and a wave accu.

mulating new strength in every motion, so that B

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long ere high noon had marked the zenith of a a []

the day, our metropolitan village exhibited a floating mass of living things, borne together

by a mighty impulse of kindred thought and 5 d feeling, from the most distant corners and ob

scure recesses of our territory.

The exbibition of neat stock was said by A

competent judges to have been in every respect a an

superior to that of any previous occasion. In PLAN OF A PIGSTY.-Fig. 83.

the beauty and strength of horses, Berkshire Description.-Pen 12 by 18 feet. Letters a, posts of has not in former days been celebrated; but it was cedar or white oak, 8 feet long, set in the ground remarked by many that the show of these animals 3 feet, and 6 feet apart each way.

On the inner gave assurance that the enterprise of her farmers side of the first three tiers of posts, short posts are

was waking up in this particular, a fact which is of inserted, on which are laid stout oak sleepers to itself evidence, that these hills will, ere long, fursupport a floor of 2-inch plank, which must have a nish ranges of as beautiful stock of this species as sufficient slope back and towards the passage way,

ever luxuriated on the plains of Arabia. A, to carry off water freely; the last plank being character of former years. Among the noble ani

The sheep and swine more than sustained the raised a little at the lower edge so as to form a gutter through the passage, A, carrying all the slops mals that graced the pens were the Durham heifers, into the manure-yard, B, in the rear.

recently, introduced from the land of peers and The space between the second and third rows

nobles, by the Hon. Edward A. Newton, of Pittsfield. of posts to be covered with a roof resting on

Notwithstanding their late arrival from over old the top of them over the sleeping apartment, c, ocean, they appeared perfectly “ at home,” among and the passage way, and enclosed all around the new scenes of their surroundings, and highly excepting the doors to the sleeping apartment; lican institutions.

pleased with the becoming simplicity of our repuband at each end of the passage, which should

The reputed eagerness with each be 2 feet wide by 3 high. This leaves a

which Yankees gaze at strangers, and the guessing floored apartment, D, in front (which should be to and wondering always attendant when he sees å the south), of 6 by 12 feet, in which is placed a

new object, caused no dismay to them. Should trough, b, with a spout, d, from the outside, for they ever pant for usages in society which acknowfeeding. A ledge should be raised in front of the ledge sovereign power, other than the power of the sleeping apartment, to keep the wet from running people, they would undoubtedly yield as willing in, and the front posts under the roof must be 2 feet and as great a tribute to the queen of the milk pail, higher than the rest, to give it sufficient slope.

as they would to the reigning sovereign of the

British isles. The manure-yard, B, 6 by 12 feet (which, by this arrangement, is effectually hid from view),

From the show of animals, we passed to the should be paved with large stones, to prevent the spacious Town Hall, the grand repository of beauhogs from rooting too deep. The whole to be en- tiful specimens of handiwork and shrewd ingeclosed with good boards about 4 feet high, leaving mittens, boots, shoes, gentlemen's and ladies' hats ;

nuity-carpets, rugs, blankets, quilts, stockings, a gate, c, to the manure-yard.

J. M C. Perth Amboy, Oct. 19, 1846.

indeed, everything calculated to protect the outer

man from the invasion of the stern old king of the SUPERIOR WHITEWASH.—Potter's clay mixed north (whose approaches are already heralded by the with prepared whitewash in the proportion of a advance guard of chilling winds and nipping frosts), pound of clay to a quart of liquid, is excellent. were there seen, got up in styles of admiration and

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