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city. In the numerous stables now erecuing by In our former numbers, we have treated of the the rich in the court end of the town, kindness to arrangement of stables as regards the stalls, their the brute should dictate a proper arrangement for division, size, &c.; and their proper lighting and the health and comfort of the horse. When, how ventilation. In this we shall treat of the methods ever, from circumstances, there is not room enough of fastening the horse in the stable. It is very im- to accommodate with boxes all the horses, stalls portant that a horse, and especially one not worked and halters must be resorted to. If the stall be any or but little, and one worked very much, narrow and deep, it may be made into a box and the should be so fastened as to permit full repose. A disadvantage of the halter be avoided; in other horse moderately worked, is not fatigued by idle-respects it is no better than an open stall; but even ness (the most trying fatigue), nor by over-work. this, by obviating the necessity for the use of the halHe rests with less difficulty than the over or under- ter, is something important, as all accidents from worked one, and of course to him the method of halter casting are obviated and prevented. fastening is of less consequence. A proper method In boxes, whether so wide as to allow the horse is always necessary, and should always be secured. to turn, or so narrow as to prevent it, the bottom of Where there is room, and the circumstances will the manger must be up quite high, or the manger permit (and every good farmer and every gentleman must descend quite to the floor; and indeed in will find the first, and compel the last), the stalls all stalls, to forestall accidents, this should be should be made very wide, and turned into close done. If it be not high or quite down to the floor, stalls or boxes, and the horse should not be tied at the horse may get his head or feet under or over, all. In a box the horse will rest better, if wearied, and severely injure or permanently cripple himself. and get less wearied, if idle, than in open stalls As most stalls are both narrow and shallow, there fastened by the head. It gives a choice of position, is no turning them into boxes. In these the horse and this is important to a wearied animal ; and it must be fastened by the halter. In such, halters affords occupation and motion to an idle one. All become a matter of great importance, and their horses will, if they have room, lie flat down on the method of attachment also. floor, with all their limbs extended. In narrow Halters are made most commonly of leather, but stalls, with heads tied, they cannot, and are com- frequently also of rope, or the head-stall of leather, pelled to lie with head held, as when standing, or and the rung, or stale, or tying part, of rope. In all almost resting with the muzzle on the floor, and cases the head-stall should be made of leather; our with their legs contracted and under them. Perfect preference is for, and we always recommend that rest cannot thus be obtained. A box of requisite the horse should be fastened by a rope as a rung, capacity secures to the horse such method of lying or by a chain attached to the leather head-stall. A as he prefers and his wearied condition teaches him chain or a rope will last longer than a leather rung, is necessary, and with less intermission in his labor, independent of breaking. The rope and chain are gives him better rest, fuller recovery in less time, less liable to break, and never rot. The leather than in a narrow stable and tied. Humanity and rung must be oiled, and even then will rot, crack, interest demand that the stalls should be made so and break when the horse does not try to break it. large, that they may not abridge the comfort and when new, a vicious horse will break it, and by capacity of the horse to do his servant-work to the accident a quiet one may do the same. A chain fulness of his powers, as the Creator designed. In or rope will not break, and a vicious or an idle horse the construction of stalls by the farmer, this point will sooner chew the leather than the rope. The should be kept steadily in view. He can have rope is cheaper, and will in the end wear out; but room, and economy will be best consulted by giv- it will last much longer than leather. A chain is

ng to all his animals, loose boxes. If his barn be permanent, and is only objectionable on account of larger by reason of the boxes, his horses and cattle its noise; from this leather and rope are free. A will be better, by reason of increased comfort and chain and leather are more easily and neatly atfacility for rest; and to do his work, less in number tached to the head-stall, and on that account are will be required.

preferable to a rope; but the rope may be neatly Gentlemen building stables for horses in towns, platted or braided into the ring of the head-stall should also take space and make boxes. The addi- Economy and security considered, the rope is to be tional expenditure, represented by the rent of the preferred, as it costs less to buy, and the groom ground, will be returned by the economy in the life may repair it, which he cannot with leather, and and power of the horse. Less horses in number especially with a chain. Then let the head-stall will do his work, and the good ones so difficult to be of leather, with the stale of rope. be got will last longer; so that there will be a The halter should have a throat latch to secure saving in expenditure for horses, to sink the in- it well on the head; it should not be buckled on creased expenditure in stables, to perfectly accom- too tightly, as it is painful, and from pressure on modate the lesser number. Then not only will the poll may lead to irritation, and eventually to economy be consulted, but what is of more conse- poll-evil. It can be secure, and yet be comfortably quence to the gentleman, his convenience and loose. power to use his horses also. Narrow stables and The fastenings for halters to attach them to the halters may unfit a horse temporarily to labor, and manger are usually holes in the manger, or rings there is waste in keeping him till he recovers, not fixed over the manger into the wall at the head of merely in feed, but in the veterinary surgeon's bill, the horse. Either method is good, and there is no and finally in the cost of a new purchase, to supply preference except as regards looks. A ring is more his place if ruined. Gentlemen rarely ever think sightly. The one will be more secure than the of boxes, and we do not know o anv in this other according to the manner in which they may

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be put up. The manger should be strong and firm,

MIXED FOOD FOR STOCK. and the ring well fastened.

WHEREVER the science of feeding is correctly The horse should never be tied to the ring or to understood, a mixture of food is given to domestic the manger by the halter-stale. A weight with a animals. There is thrift, health, and comfort to hole in it, or a ring fastened to it, should be in the stock in this practice, and economy and general every manger. The halter-stale should be passed advantage to the owner. Good hay is undoubtedly through the hole in the manger, or the ring on it, or one of the best and most economical kinds of food at the head of the stall in the wall, and fastened to in this country, as it contains the different elements the weight. The halter-stale should be so long as of nutrition in nearly the proportions required ; and to allow the weight to rest on the manger bottom, when land is cheap and labor comparatively dear, when the horse's head is to the manger, and and especially where the soil is adapted to it, grass the weight is only to be raised when he turns to lis, perhaps, the most economical food for general look or step back. A halter-stale fastened to a use. But there are many exceptions to this rule. weight will rarely ever be broken; and accidents Working horses and oxen require something in adfrom halter casting will be equally rare. Some dition to hay-something containing more nourishhorses are fond of standing back in the stalls; this ment in a smaller compass, and admitting of more the weight will prevent; some must be tied short, rapid digestion. When this is the case, the most and the weight makes a short tie; some need a long economical food consists of cut hay, straw, or chaff, halter-stale and a long tie; this the weight will per- and meal, or roots cut and mixed with the hay or mit. It will be short when needed and long when straw; and this is given much more economically, needed, and cannot be got under foot, as the weight when wet up for a day or two beforehand, and aldescends when the horse slackens the pull; when lowed partially to ferment. Straw and grain, he needs more length he gets it, by pulling the hal-especially if the latter be ground, are entirely adeter and raising the weight. Care should be taken quate to answer all the requirements of working to prevent the

weight pulling on the head when the animals. Grain alone is not sufficient for this. It horse lies down, as he may not rest well if he has is too much condensed, and other coarser food is to support a weight.

requisite to distend the stomach, and preserve its Sometimes even with weights, horses will get healthy action. Straw is found to answer an exhalter cast. To obviate this, a contrivance of cellent purpose for this object, and it, moreover,

which we give a cut, contains the phosphates in large proportions, which
has been adopted. An are essential to supply the osseous materials for the
iron ring is attached to a wasting of the bones.
bolt; this bolt slides

There is great saving in the cutting of the hay, into a socket of iron, or straw, in two ways. The animals do not waste and is kept in place by it by dragging it out of their mangers, and trama spring. This socket pling it under their feet, and time and labor are saved is fastened to the manger them in masticating it. They obtain their supply or the head of the stall of food readily, and then lie down to digest it in the wall, having its Fermentation also developes the nutritive matter open end down. If the and leaves much less work for the stomach to perring be pulled upwards form, and this, by saving muscular exertion, leaves or backwards in the more strength with the animal to be expended on stall, the ring and bolt his ordinary work. The same principle holds with remain fast; but if pull- milk cows, sheep, swine and even poultry. If the

ed downward, the bolt is food be given to them in a form more easily adoptFIG 1.

drawn and the horse seted to assimilation in the animal system, the greater free. This socket should be set into the wall, and product of milk, wool, flesh, &c., they can yield the halter-stale passed through a ring or hole in the from the same quantity:. Cutting, bruising, grindfront edge of the manger. if the horse get haltering, fermenting, and cooking the food, all tend much caught or cast, the bolt will come away and the leg to fit it for easy and rapid digestion, and whenever be free, and yet the horse will be held by the ring it can be thus prepared without too much expendion the manger; with this fixture the horse cannot ture of labor, it should be done. get cast or thrown down, though he may get a leg By adopting a mixed food, much of the coarser over the halter-stale. Some security against halter products of the farm can be worked up, which are casting should be adopted in all stables, and more now suffered to be added to the manure heap. Inespecially with valuable horses. For the want of deed, scarcely any of the vegetable productions of something of the kind, occasionally a fine horse is the farm need be suffered to run to waste, till they lamed, or ruined, or even killed.

have first contributed all the nutriment they contain Few persons keeping horses are aware of the to the support of animal life. It is true, by mixing cruelty they constantly practise, and we are sure them with manure, they afford whatever value they that the benevolent and just will remedy all the have to the next crop when incorporated with the evils which may be pointed out. A little expendi- soil. But what can be more absurd, than again ture, beyond that made for the ordinary arrange- to undergo the labor of raising for the use of the ments, will repay itself over and over, during the stock, what you have already secured ? Straw and lives of the horses used, in increased power to hay are frequently useful for retaining the valuable labor, and in the greater length of life. Thus both portions of the manure, which, from the defective economy and humanity will

be consulted. system of saving it, would otherwise be wasted; Lu our next we shall treat of stable floors. and when this is the case, they are valuable for

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13 enriching the soil far beyond the materials they for the cause alone; he should be a practical farmer possess in themselves for this purpose. But this and stock-breeder ; possess a good knowledge of waste need not occur, even without the use of these chemistry, geology, mineralogy, and botany, and as valuable materials. The loss which is now sus much general knowledge as possible. He should tained from the leaky floors of stables, may be have a really address, pleasing manners, and above avoided by making them tight, and using conduc- all, no other interest whatever to serve than that of tors, which will lead the liquid manure into reser- the Society, and the general advancement of agrivoirs, which may either consist of turf, peat, or culture. What invaluable reports would not such earth, which will absorb and retain it; or tanks a man make; and what a mass of practical, benewhere the manure may be mixed with ashes, plas- ficial information would he not be able to diffuse ter, or peat, where it will ferment for future use. among the farmers ! The comfort of the cattle may be equally secured as A great reform is demanded in the Transactions. with straw beds, by so arranging the floors as to the reports of committees we would not only not have them at all times perfectly dry, and the shelter publish, as desired by some of our correspondents, but made sufficiently warm. If the above arrange- we would not have them made at all, except as the ments are all carefully carried out, and roots and mere reasons, verbally expressed, in the briefest grain are provided in sufficient quantity to make up possible manner, of their decisions upon the differthe requisite nutriment essential to the stock, in a ent subjects brought before them. We do not know properly condensed form, and easy, of digestion, why the assembly, on the day of the show, should large quantities of animal products from the farm, be bored with long dissertations on crops, stock. may be greatly augmented, much to the profit and breeding, agricultural implements, &c. Such things satisfaction of the farmer.

as these should be discussed in the periodicals, or in

prize essays, but not on the festive and busy days THE STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. of the Society's cattle show.

There are many reforms which we should be glad Much more attention should be paid to the matto see introduced into this Society, and which we ter of appointing judges, and those persons selected have repeatedly spoken of without much effect. who have really some knowledge of the subjects of One of the most important of these, in our judgment, which they are to be the umpire. The most unjust, is, to elect one or two competent and liberally paid disheartening, and mortifying decisions are annusalary officers for its general management. The ally made for want of proper attention to this subPresidency is considered an honorary station, and ject. We think the judges ought to be furnished there will always be found a sufficient number of with free quarters at the expense of the Society durgentlemen in the State well qualified to fill it, and ing the three days of its meeting. Another very willing to assume the light duties of the office with-important regulation demanded is, that the show. out compensation. The offices of Corresponding yard be closed the first day against visitors, and thus and Recording Secretary we would abolish, and allow the judges a better opportunity to fulfil their elect in their place, simply a Secretary of the Society. duties. It is utterly impossible for them, surroundThis officer should be the principal manager of the ed as they are with such crowds, to properly exam. Society's concerns under the direction of the Presi- ine the objects submitted to their decisions. dent, Vice Presidents, and Executive Committee. The plowing matches, and especially the trial of His salary should be a liberal one-not less than the draught of plows, as they have ever been con$1,000 or $1,200 per annum; and he should have ducted, we consider as so much time and money such assistants under him, at moderate salaries, as thrown away. The dynamometer is a rank humhe should find absolutely necessary to attend to the bug, and no true test of the draught of an imple. affairs of the Society. In addition to his taking a ment; for it is scarcely less varying when the plow general supervision of the Society, it should be his is moving, than a weather-cock in a gale of wind. duty to make monthly excursions into different parts A windlass and weights are the true tests. Besides of the State, and deliver lectures to the farmers this, different plows are wanted for different purpointing out marl beds and the proper use of them; poses, and one for a sandy soil must be constructed the benefits of lime and plaster; draining swamps in a very different shape from that for a deep loam, and low places; the use of muck and the best method or a stiff clay. They require as much classification of mixing composts ; best kinds of seeds ; best rota- as the various breeds of stock—and something so tion of crops for different localities; the improve of many other implements. ment of stock; the culture of fruits; improvements Advantage has been taken of the meetings of the in buildings; improved agricultural implements ; Society, by the keepers of taverns, to charge out. the formation of Farmers' Clubs; interest the people rageous high prices for the entertainment of their in the State Society; get them to become members ; guests

. They will crowd three or four beds into each solicit awnations, &c.

low, narrow room, and two or three persons into A Secretary properly qualified for his station, and each of these ; provide the most indifferent fare at pursuing this course, would undoubtedly add $3,000 table, and service in the house, and then charge 50 or $4,000 a year to the receipts of the Society, and to 100 per cent, more than on an ordinary occasion. thus pay his salary twice over. We will grant that the stable keepers, hucksters, and even book it would require a person of many and peculiar blacks and barbers, follow the example--all seem. qualifications to fill the office; but we believe such ing to unite in gouging the honest farmer, or casual can be found, and if not, it is high time some de visitant, to the utmost they dare. An arrangement serving man was educated for the station. His should be made with the hotels, &c., beforehand, heart should be devoted to the cause of agriculture, Ifor the accomodation of a certain number of




guests, and above all, at the common charges. The per week. They sear the ends of the horns with a tavern-kecpers have some trouble doubtless; but red hot iron, a few days after the calf is dropped, is not their harvest a rich one, even at moderate which prevents their growing, and gives them the prices ? Various other reforms have suggested appearance of muleys. This is a good practice, as themselves to us, but as our space is limited, we it makes the cows more gentle, and they can never must defer speaking of them to a future day. hurt each other with their horns. They are excel

lent animals, and we wish other farmers would fol. FARMS OF THE MESSRS. HALLOCK. low their example, and breed for milking qualities. These farms are situated in Milton, Ulster county, The cows of the United States are greatly deficient almost immediately on the Hudson River. They in these qualities. With a little attention at first comprise about 400 acres in one body, and it is in selection, good animals may be as easily bred as rarely that we meet with land more unpromising, poor, ones: at first sight. It is exceedingly hilly, with narrow The sheep here are of the Cotswold blood prin

The Messrs. vales through which gurgle little streams. These cipally, and are a superior flock. yales were originally deep swamps overgrown with Hallock paid high prices for choice selections, to bushes and small trees, while the upland was stud- begin with, and have continued to breed with great ded with rocks and thickly overlaid with stones. They have frequently won premiums at the

One cannot but wonder how any person could be State Agricultural Society and other shows, with found with sufficient courage to undertake to clear their sheep, and none in the State bear a higher such land; and when this was done, a greater won- reputation. More than this it is unnecessary to say. der would still remain, and that is, how they were The country in Milton and around abounds in to get a living from its cultivation. However, noble scenery, and being very healthy and furnished courage and perseverance conquer everything, and with all the comforts of good living, it has become people find when they have picked off the stone quite a resort for our citizens to place their families and laid them up into walls, that the land brings for the summer. We are glad to see that the forth heavy burdens of the sweetest and most nu- custom of removing the women and children of tritious grass; and that it will, with good culture, the city to the country for a renovation of their produce 40 to 60 bushels of corn to the acre, 20 physical system during the hot weather is on the of wheat, and the same of rye; so that they begin increase. Few places, we can assure our readers, to see, even in this respect, that it is not so very are better suited for this purpose than the banks of bad, after all.

Fruit trees flourish remarkably the Hudson. well here, from which considerable quantities of

CAST OP A SHORT-HORN PRIZE HEIFER.—Hay. apples are either sold or fed to stock, besides not ing learned that this cast had been taken in London, unfrequently making 200 barrels of cider in a sea- Prince Albert intimated to Mr. Rotch of New York, son, worth $4 per barrel in this market for vinegar. who was the means of getting it up, that he would When the swamps are drained they are found full be pleased to see him in regard to it, at Buckingof rich muck, from one to two feet deep; under- ham Palace. He accordingly waited on the Prince neath this are beds of marl. The first of these sub- with a cast of the beautiful statue, which he prestances is particularly valuable. Mr. Edward sented to him. The Prince expressed himself highly Hallock made an experiment with it on corn last pleased with the

present, and intimated in his interyear, against barnyard manure, and the former beat view with Mr. R., that he should propose to the the latter at least one fourth. The valleys through. English Agricultural Society, that similar models of out this county abound with muck and marl; prize animals should be taken from year to year as and, strange to say, the Messrs. Hallock are the subjects of comparison, and with a view of imonly persons in their immediate neighborhood who

provement in stock breeding. Our only object in have made use of this rich vegetable treasure. mentioning this matter is, to show the attention There are many other things in the farm manage-paid to the improvement of animals in Great Britain, ment here we would like to speak of; but being and that it is there considered a refined and scientific much in common with farms heretofore described, business, not beneath the attention of the highest we leave them for the present.

minds of the empire. With too many of our own Stock. In addition to their fine fruit and good countrymen, we regret to say, stock breeding is crops, the Messrs. Hallock have an excellent stock thought a vulgar occupation, worthy only the merest of milking cows, and long-woolled sheep. The first are descended mainly from the Bullock breed clodhoppers' attention. We hope to live to see a of Durhams, so famous as milkers-a herd of which and are happy to say, that some of the most highly

change in public sentiment in regard to this thing, we met at Mr. Dunn's, near Albany, in 1839, and educated and refined gentlemen in this city were wrote some account of in that year for the Genesee subscribers for these casts, and express themselves Farmer. Great care is taken in breeding these ani- highly gratified on obtaining them. We spoke of mals both on the male and female side—the Messrs. this beautiful model in the November No. of our H. now using a bull descended from Dishley, im- last volume, and must refer our readers to that for ported by the late Mr. Brentnall of Orange county, a more full account of it. and from whom has descended most of the good grade milkers to be found in that region. These WHAT IS Good FARMING - The best and most gentlemen informed us that five out of six of their pithy definition we ever heard of good farming, was calves may be safely calculated upon as good milkers. given by Mr. Kane, at a late agricultural meeting in They usually give from 18 to 26 quarts per day on Dorsetshire, England: He said he fed his land good feed, in their best season, and some few, more before hungry, rested it before weary, and weeded it than this. One of them has made 17 lbs. of butter' before foul,



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superior flock are now to be found pure, owing to the carelessness of their breeding after changing masters, and as a natural consequence of the distracted state of this unhappy country, which in subjecting the agricultural interest to all the harassing vicissitudes of civil war, has necessarily prevented that attention which alone could secure and preserve the superiority, and purity of this race. To this cause also is doubtless to be assigned the deteriorated condition of those flocks of which I took a personal inspection. The flocks of the Duke del Infantada and Don Fajoiga, are among the largest in Spain, embracing upwards of 200,000 sheep. Those of the latter rank much higher in choice breeding in the estimation of Spaniards, than the former, though he very frankly

admitted that pure bred Paulars were not to be Fig. 2.

found in his flock, nor, in his opinion, did they exist We copy the above sketch of a potato washer at the present day in Spain. This assertion I took from the English Agricultural Gazette, which de- without any qualification, as coming from one who scribes it as simply a churn-like cylinder, with open

is entitled to every consideration, and in right not bars placed at such a distance as to prevent any of only of his being one of the most enterprising

agrithe potatoes from falling through, except very small culturists of the day, but of his prominent position ones. As it revolves, the lower part passes through as President of the corporation instituted for the a trough of water, and thus washes them. The cy: security and preservation of the sheep interest

. I linder may be easily unshipped from the frame any regret to add, that some of the Spanish breeders have time desired. We have seen something similar to latterly made the same mistake as too many of us this in our country, and it was found very conve- here at home, viz., in having sent to Saxony for nient, especially where large quantities of potatoes rams to cross upon their flocks, which has lessened were used. Potatoes, and indeed, all roots, before the size and injured the constitution of their flocks. being fed to stock, ought to be well washed. They now see their error, and are returning to the

strong, hardy, pure old race as fast as possible. Spanish and French Merinos.

The principal province for the pasturage of tran

shumantes, or wandering sheep, during the winter In compliance with your request, I give you a season, is, as you are well aware, Estramadura. short abstract of such observations on the present To this interesting portion of the country I directed condition of Merino sheep in France and Spain, as my steps, deviating from the ordinary track of my limited opportunities allowed me to gather, travellers, for the purpose of taking a personal in. during my excursion in these interesting countries spection of some of the most celebrated flocks. the past year. My travels extended over but a My interest was first excited by the reports which small portion of the sheep districts of the latter reached me, of the superior reputation of the flock country, owing to the many obstacles which con- of Don Jose Alvarez, near Frujillo, and accordingly curred to obstruct my progress. My opportunities I availed myself of the earliest opportunity to see of observation, therefore, were narrowed down to a them. This person was the administrator of the small compass, and I beg you will assign no more Prince of Peace, and had the exclusive manage. than their due weight to my superficial examina- ment of his flock. On the confiscation of his protions.

perty, a portion of the sheep fell into his (Alvarez's) On my arrival at Madrid, my first step was to hands. He represented them to me as being the ascertain through our minister, Mr. Irving, to whom only pure Paulars now to be found in Spain. I am much indebted for furthering my efforts in the These sheep were very uneven, and did not immost cordial manner-whether permission to ex. press me favorably, though possibly a good judge port sheep could be obtained. Upon investigation might by careful selection obtain some valuable it was ascertained that no impediment existed to animals here. The bucks were of fair size, and prevent their exportation, other than a duty of of good proportions; tolerably well woolled; about $5 per head. Learning this fact, I at once the quality of wool quite good, and would command proceeded to elicit such information from some of about 40 cents with us at present. I should think the leading proprietors, as would tend to give me a that selected bucks would yield 8 lbs. per head. general idea of the characteristics of their respect. The price asked for these sheep was $12 each. I ive flocks. Although experiencing great difficulty may as well mention here that the English importain acquiring any other satisfactory information, tion, in 1814, was made from this flock. After this tending to establish the superiority of any one I visited a number of other flocks, but they were so breed at the present time, still I found it to be the inferior to those last seen, that any further account prevailing impression that the best race of sheep of them is superfluous. were those belonging to the Geronimo Monks, In these flocks, or indeed any others it was my which, on the suppression of the monasteries, were good fortune to see, I could discover no points of scattered over the kingdom, and chiefly fell into superiority sufficiently marked to justify an impor. the hands of the more wealthy grandees. I was tation into the Uuited States. I am very far from told, however, that none of the descendants of this wishing, by these remarks, to discourage any one

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