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from investigating the subject for himself. My op- of excellence by any sheep I have as yet seen. I portunities may have been too limited for an im- refer to the flock of V. Gisbert, who resides in the partial judgment; and a more thorough and exten- Department of Oise and Seine, par Maule, some sive search by a more experienced person, might thirty miles from Paris. This flock was commenced find something worthy of being brought to this by the father of M. Gilbert, about 40 years ago, and country, to improve our fine flocks. I heard of a few has been improved by judicious selections and ocisolated individual sheep in other provinces, as be- casional drafts from the Rambouillets and other ing very large, strong and fine. But if these could flocks of equal celebrity: The great points of exbe had at all, it would be at very high prices. I cellence, so peculiar to his flock, consist in their had quite forgotten to observe, that the price of unsurpassed beauty and symmetry of form, with wool, of the better grades, ranged this year, from 80 large size, and wonderful production of wool. I to 100 rials per arroba, or about 20 cents per lb., in saw bucks here which produced the past year its unwashed state.

18 lbs. of wool, and of a very fair quality. Their I cannot omit in my notes on the Spanish sheep, age was two years old past. I selected, with the some allusion to the dogs which I saw in charge intention of importation, a yearling buck, which I of them. These noble animals are a very necessa- considered the finest specimen of the sheep kind I ry appendage in this country, for the protection of have ever seen. This animal had taken the first the flocks against the ravages of wolves, which in- premium the past year at the great Sheep Fair of fest in large numbers almost every portion of Spain. France, at St. Germaine. He was of large size, They resemble the mastiff more than any other and unequalled in form, being then seventeen race of dogs with which I am familiar, exceeding months old, and weighing 215 French pounds the huge and far-famed St. Bernard in size, and (about 230 lbs. English). His fleece weighed 16 blending unusual ferocity, with all the docility and lbs. in the grease, and was of a quality that I feel sagacity which characterizes that breed. The price assured, would command in this country 40 cents of these dogs varies from $30 to $50. They are per lb. at this present moment, or perhaps more, clean mostly a brown or tawny color; have fine muz-washed. The price of this animal may be regarded zles, large heads and jowls ; ear standing erect from as exorbitantly high-$400; but when it is consid. the head nearly its whole length, but dropping over ered that he was much the best animal produced by at the end; full in the throat and neck; stout and this gentleman during the last ten years, and doubimuscular in the whole body; about two feet six less possessing qualities so much superior to most to two feet nine inches high; hair long and wavy, of his race in France, the terms cannot be regarded and the legs and tail feathered. They are the as unreasonable. Unforeseen circumstances causing largest dogs I have ever seen. One is more than a my return in July instead of September, as I had match for any wolf—those of Spain being large, anticipated, alone prevented my bringing so valuasavage, and courageous—and two will kill one ble an acquisition with me for the improvement of directly. They would prove of great value for our race of Merinos in this country; and to my certain portions of America, and should be imported great regret, no pecuniary consideration could infor the purpose of guarding our flocks.

duce M. Gilbert to part with the animal before the As regards the sheep of France, which came close of the tupping season, which in his flocks is next in order under my observation, I feel enabled during the month of August. The annual sale of to speak with more confidence, having more time the produce of this flock takes place during the at my disposal when I visited them, and an oppor- month of May, and the price they then bring varies tunity of subjecting them to a more minute examin- according to their excellence, from 250 to 1000 ation. The Rambouillets I take up first as in the order francs; the ewes are very beautiful, and command visited. They struck me as being infinitely supe- about 100 francs each. The risk, and various rior to any I had seen in Spain. They are of great items of expense in importing these fine animals size, and are very fine and even in their fleeces. into the United States is considerable, much more A prominent defect in the flock, is rather too than one unacquainted with the business can forin great a length of leg. This, however, can be easily any idea.

T. H. N. remedied by directing attention to this point of their New York, Dec. 17, 1845. breeding. Their bucks shear on an average from 12 to 18 lbs. per head, and occasionally go as high We are under great obligations to our correspon, as 17 or 18 lbs. ; the ewes average from 8 to 10 dent for the above interesting article on French and lbs. The wool, though unwashed, is quite neat Spanish Sheep, and will add, that his account of and free from tag-locks. The history and manage them is corroborated by several gentlemen from ment of this flock is so well known, and the fine these countries with whom we have recently conspecimens from it recently brought into this coun- versed. Two of our friends, after viewing the try, have rendered their superior qualities so familiar, French and Saxon Sheep, are now in Spain looking as to supersede the necessity of any further notice over the flocks there. They are excellent judges of them. A public sale takes place every year in of sheep and wool, and will undoubtedly import a May. They are in great demand at present and few choice animals the present year. On their rebring high prices.

turn to the United States we shall be furnished with I will now direct your attention to another flock full particulars of what they may have seen while derived directly from the Rambouillets, which, not abroad. We are persuaded that all we want now, only in the opinion of intell French agricul- is a slig dash of the best foreign blood among our turists, ranks at least as high as these; but in my noble native flocks, to make them equal to anything own humble opinion, is unsurpassed in most points in the world as individuals, and far superior as a mass.

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Mr. Norton's Letters.-No. 15. half an hour or an hour, once a week, this length Agricultural School of Templemoyle, Ireland.

of time being that recommended by the Education

Committee of the Agricultural Chemical Association. After my visit to Islay, described in my last letter, I made, in company with Prof. Johnston, a short Mr. Davidson, Rector of the Normal School, Edin

As a preliminary step they were examined by excursion to Ireland. The immediate object of our

burgh, on the usual branches of education in the going thither at this time, was to be present at an examination of the Templemoyle Agricultural parish, schools, to show that these had not been School, near Londonderry. *This school has now that in these branches they seemed equal to the

neglected. In conclusion, Mr. Davidson declared been established a number of years, and is in a children of other schools. Prof. Johnston then most flourishing condition. This success, however, commenced the part allotted to him, and purposely would never have been achieved, had it not been striking away from the beaten track of the Catefor the indefatigable exertions, and liberal contribu. chism, made his questions unlike in form to any tions, of many gentlemen interested in the cause chief among whom must be ranked Sir Robert Fer: they had before heard. The readiness and the tho. guson. Living only a few miles from the school, they showel, astonished every one present. Some

rough acquaintance with first principles which he has enthusiastically endeavored to forward its prizes had been offered by the Agricultural Cominterests, and now has the pleasure of seeing it in a mittee to the boys who acquitted themselves best, condition to fulfil his expectations.

and the eagerness which they all manifested, was Templemoyle is about nine miles from Londonderry, situated on a beautiful green hill, with a highly excited each for his own boys, and I felt

most amusing. The different masters also became most lovely prospect from its front. The buildings myself, when the competition waxed keen, becomare plain, substantial, and convenient; the dormito- ing almost as much interested as if I were one of ries for the boys scrupulously clean, and everything the parties concerned. Some eight or ten of the in the highest order. There is the commencement boys were so equally matched that it was almost of a good agricultural museum, containing seeds, impossible to decide which was best, and premiums roots, tools, models, &c.

were accordingly given to each of them. I never The farm attached to the institution is worked

saw anything more entirely and triumphantly satisentirely by the boys, and is in beautiful order ; we saw, I think, but a single weed. The land was could have remained unconvinced that young boys

factory than this examination. No person present originally light and thin in some places, but mostly could not only remember, but understand, the prin a poor thin clay. By thorough draining, deep ciples of scientific agriculture, as laid down in plowing, liberal manuring, and judicious cropping, Prol. Johnston's Catechism. One

of the boys who it has now been brought into capital condition for took a premium was a little fellow of eleven years, the most part ; all of the crops were good except and the pertinency of his answers frequently elicited the grass in the pasture field. The boys are maintained for the very low sum at this time; but this instruction has as yet been

bursts of applause. Eight schools were represented of £10, or about $50, per annum, including tuition; introduced into but a small portion of the parish of course they live in the most economical manner. schools of Scotland. What has been done there

Examinations first took place in Geography, and in Ireland is most encouraging, it shows that Arithmetic, Reading, and all the ordinary branches. the movement is on safe ground. They were then brought out upon the green in front of the house, in order that all of the great crowd, of completeness of our instruction, we shall be able to

I trust that in America, by the universality and spectators might have an opportunity to hear the show the old country an example in this respect. Agricultural examination. They were first required

Durham, Nov. 12, 1845. John P. NORTON. to answer a long list of written questions; this they did very well, but it was not perfectly satisfactory, A SUPERIOR YOKE OF WORKING OXEN.—When I as they might be supposed to be beforehand pre- was present at the Cayuga County Cattle Show last pared upon them. Prot. Johnston then took up the October, I saw a very superior yoke of working examination, and subjected them to a very severe cattle. The owner informed me that he had put in cross-questioning, which they bore admirably. 50 acres of spring and fall crops of grain with them Their answers showed that they had not merely the past season ; some of the land for which had learned a certain number of answers by rote; but been ploughed three times, and that this yoke of that they had thought, and had in some degree ap- cattle had done the whole, besides hauling his hay plied the principles taught them, to the circum- and grain from the field to the barn during harvest stances in practical experience which each day time. Will not this demonstrate that ox-labor is presented. The result was very satisfactory to all cheaper than that of the horse ?

N. friends of the institution; and, I believe, satisfied every one present that the boys were prepared for CURIOSITY-GRAFTING.—In the spring of 1844, future usefulness.

I put two grafts of an early apple, into an old bearSince the Templemoyle examination, I have at- ing tree. In July or August (the exact time not retended the Annual Show of the Highland Society membered) following, I cut off one of the sprouts, at Dumfries, and while there, I saw an examination and put two buds in other limbs. This summer the of about 25 boys, in Agricultural Chemistry, who had buds bore apples; one of them had four apples on been brought together for the purpose from various it

, which came to maturity; the grafts also bore parts of Scotland. I was at a preliminary and a apples. The fruit partook of the nature of the public examination. These boys, in their different tree in which it was grafted to some extent. schools, had attended to Agricultural Chemistry for Jersey Shore, Pa. ROBERT HAMILTON.



AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY AND GEO Q. What is nitrate of soda?

A. Nitrate of soda is a white salt-like (saline) Q. Why do old dairy pastures especially require substance, which is found in the earth in some bones ?

parts of Peru, and is often applied with great adA. Because milk and cheese contain bone-earth, vantage as a top-dressing to grass lands and to and if these be carried away and sold off the farm, young grain. the land is robbed by degrees of this bone-earth, Q. What does nitrate of soda consist of ? more than of any other substance. Only those A. It consists of nitric acid and soda. grasses can then grow which require little bone 54 lbs. of nitric acid, and 31 lbs. of soda, form 85 lbs. earth.

of nitrate of soda. Every ten gallons of milk contain about half a Q. What is nitric acid ?

pound of bone-earth. A cow, therefore, which Ă. Nitric acid is a very sour corrosive liquid, gives twenty quarts a day, takes about two pounds called also aqua-fortis. It consists of the two gases, of bone-earth from the soil every week. To re nitrogen and oxygen.. turn these two pounds to the soil three pounds of bone-dust are required.

14 lbs. of nitrogen and 40 lbs. of oxygen, form 54 lbs.

of nitric acid.-Prof. Johnston. Q. Is hair much used as a manure ?

A. No, hair is generally too expensive to be DISEASES OF ANIMALS.No. 1. used as a manure. But, in China, where the

I HAVE recently seen in your journal some nopeople's heads are all shaved, the shavings are tice and review of Mr. Morrel's work on Sheep collected for manure, and the sweepings of our husbandry; and as I intend from time to time to tair-cutters' rooms might be also employed with make a few communications on the various disprofit.

eascs of sheep and other animals, it has brought to Q. In what form is wool used as a manure?

my mind one very singular, and perhaps to others, X. In the form of woollen rags. Mixed with unobserved disease, which I will give some history earth, woollen rags make an excellent compost. of, by way of introduction to my future numbers.

Q. What kinds of animal dung are most com On riding out to my farm one pleasant morning, monly employed as manures ?

some time in January last, my tenant informed me A. Night-soil, horse dung, cow dung, sheep's that one of my ewes, which came in the night predung, pigs' dung, and birds' dung.

vious with a pair of twin lambs, had just died. She Q. Which of these is the most valuable ? being a fine young ewe of an uncommon breed for

X. In general, night-soil and birds' dung are the thrist and quality, I felt on that account a particular most valuable; next, horse dung; after that, pigs' interest in ascertaining the cause of her death. iung, and lastly, cow dung.

My tenant told me that for a few days, just preQ. Why is night-soil so valuable ?

vious to her yeaning, she had been duls, would not A. Because men generally live upon a mixture eat with the flock, and would stand out in the field. of animal and vegetable food, which renders the I went out to the field where was the body, found it lung richer.

still quite warm, examined its external appearance Q. Why is the solid part of horse dung richer or very critically, could not discover any marks of botter than cow dung?

violence or injury, and consequently proceeded to A. Because the horse voids little urine compared have a personal examination, which is always with the cow.

my practice when any of my stock dies from disQ. What is the principal objection to using pigs ease, or any unknown cause, which I hope will Jung?

give additional worth to the cases I shall report, as Å. The disagreeable smell and taste it is said to every examination has been made by myself. give to the crops raised from it.

On first exposing the abdominal viscera and the Q. What is the best way of using pigs' dung? contents of the thorax, every part appeared to be in

A. The best way is to make it into a compost, or so healthy a condition, I imagined I should be to mix it with the dung of other animals.

baffled to account for the cause of its death; but on Q. Why is cow dung colder and less liable to opening the womb, I readily discovered extensive ferment than most other kinds of dung.

disease; the whole internal surface was studded A. Because the large quantity of urine voided with a kind of tumor, called in human medicine the by the cow, carries off a great proportion of that cauliflower excrescence. This is a tumor which which would otherwise cause it to ferment. resembles the cauliflower in appearance, and which

Q. How would you collect the liquid manure has been sometimes noticed in the human subject, of your farm-yard ?

as a disease of females, a drawing of which, to4. I would make a large tank or cistern in or gether with hydatids, another tumorous disease, close by my farm-yard, in which I would collect it. may be seen in Dr. Dewees' excellent work on the

Q. How would you use this liquid manure? Diseases of Females. These tumors in the ewe

A. I would pump it back occasionally upon my spoken of, were of a flesh color; the texture apdung heaps, so as to promote their fermentation; or peared to be extremely delicate, and a fluid of a I would pour it upon my compost heaps.

bloody watery nature seemed to be discharging from Q. Does birds’ dung form a very valuable the hurt or wound, occasioned, in all probability, manure ?

from parturition. 4. Yes, pigeons' dung especially, is a very rich This case is interesting in many respects; for manure; and the dung of sea-fowl has lately been such tumors or diseases are very seldom met with introduced into this country, with great advantage, in the human female, and for the few cases which under the name of guano

are on record, no adequate cause could be assigned



Again, as the ewe was but little more than a year stock of others, becomes a regular business, and is old, came in with her first lambs, had not appeared prosecuted with an energy worthy of a better cause. to be diseased until within a few days of yeaning, I have been sickened and pained at the exhibition all taken into consideration will serve, I hope, to cause of utter selfishness and want of heart, which I have additional attention to be paid to the diseases of ani- often seen manifested, so unworthy of a highmals, and search for causes of death in every animal minded farmer. We want nothing of this cliqueism that dies in any mysterious or uncertain manner. and partyism in American husbandry. We want

There are so many diseases in animals that assi- honorable competition, not this mean and miserable milate to those of the human species, and the treat- spirit. And for, one, I think it high time that it ment of such appears so weli adapted to each was rebuked. I blame the agricultural press, when other, that medical men generally are turning their it lends itself even unwittingly, or otherwise, to attention to animal medicine and to agriculture, as promote the views of such a class of men. It sciences intimately connected with their own pro- ought to know better. And I blame more than all session. In fact, the nature and diseases of ani- a venal agricultural press, that will be flattered, or mals, especially those of sheep, have been too long cajoled, or bribed, or bought up, to serve the inteneglected, and the remedies that are generally pre- rests of any clique or party in husbandry or the mescribed, are by those who know not the why nor the chanic arts. We have a great country, and we wherefore—who are entirely unacquainted with the should have hearts large as our country. We need true nature of anatomy, physiology and pathology honorable competition, and we should do all in our of animal medicine, and, under such circumstances, power to encourage it. Let us feel that we can are as much liable to do injury as good. Humanity, talk with each as friends, not as foes, through your therefore, justly prompts a more crecial attention to columns, and those of every similar paper in the animals—to ameliorate their diseases and suffer- land. Let us be improvers, not calumniators. ings, and render more scientific and systematic at What say you, Mr. Editor? Am I right or am I tention to their history. We may justly consider, wrong? Is there no venality and corruption of the that a malpractice in regard to brutes, that shall oc- public press in your department, to be feared ? I casion an undue suffering and sacrifice of life, is bring no accusations against you. I believe you attended with a degree of moral responsibility at have endeavored to breast this influence with be. least proportionate to human life itself. The way, coming energy. Let our iarmers be a noble band then, must be opened by medical men; they alone, of brothers, each doing well himself, and rejoicing at present, as a general thing, can give system, in the prosperity of others—too high-minded not to order, and science to the study, and I am harpy to despise the spirit of which I have spoken, and too see that animal medicine and agriculture are no honest not to bestow upon it a justly merited frown longer beneath their notice, and begin to assume a and rebuke. I hope I shall despise myself when I standing and attention that they so justly deserve. become so selfish and so mean that I cannot rejoice I shall devote some of my future numbers for espe- in the improvements of others, and when I cannot cial consideration of medical men to the subject of admit the merit of anything which they possess, husbandry.

ANDREW STONE, M.D. which has merit in itself. I will give my approbaLake Court House, Ind., Nov. 22, 1845. tion to whatever is meritorious, let it be where it

may, and however it may interfere with my indi. CLIQUES AS OPPOSED TO HONORABLE

vidual interests. If another man has what is really COMPETITION.

better than anything I possess, let my tongue be I HAVE looked with sadness and sorrow upon the palsied when it refuses to say it. AGRICOLA. tendency of partyism as it shows itself in various departments of husbandry in this country. As a FINE CHINA CLAY IN GEORGIA. people, we are such worshippers of Mammon, we Some timo in the early part of last summer, a Mr. are in such haste to be rich, that many, very many, Hardy, from Georgia, left at our office, 27 Cliff attach a fictitious fancy-value to everything they street, a small sample of white clay, which he sup. possess; and in their minds, there is a correspond-posed might be fuller’s-earth. I tested it for that ing disposition to depreciate everything of equal earth, but found it totally different. On presenting value belonging to another. A stock-breeder, for the sample before the Brooklyn Natural History example, may have a very valuable breed of horses Society, it was referred to Mr. J. T. Bailey, a gencattle, sheep, or swine. In his estimation, it is the tleman well acquainted with the various materials best the whole country affords. He wishes all used in the china manufactory of England, who others to have the same good opinion of his ani- immediately pronounced it to be a fine quality mals as himself. His expectations are raised of china clay, bought by their potters at $15 per ton; realizing large profits from sales of his unrivalled at least double the price of fuller's-earth. The followstock. The public must be dragooned into a kind ing is the report made by Mr. Bailey to the Institute: of mania, to possess what he possesses, and every The specimen of clay, brought by Mr, Harly, one who buys becomes at once a partner in the from Georgia, I immediately saw was good china


press is laid under contribution in a clay, not inferior to the Devonshire clay used in thousand forms, to puff his wares. Some favorite making the best china ware in the Staffordshire agricultural paper is made the constant medium of potteries. I divided it into two pieces, and subcommunication with the common minds; and the mitted it to a strong heat, sufficient to calcine or system of subsidizing editors to insert sham or co-bake it into (what the potters term) the biscuit vert advertizing, is prosecuted with all the ingenuity state, as it appears in the unglazed piece, which is of which the man is capable. The business of the state in which the pattern is always put upon writing up his own stock, and writing down the china. I then took the other piece (which was in


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the biscuit state) and dipped in into potter's glaze, By this analysis we see that out of these ingreand submitted it to a sufficient heat to vitrify it, as dients, which are contained in grain, are formed a it appears in the piece that is glazed. I was under variety of compounds, either in the grains themthe necessity of using the common yellow glaze selves, or in the course of the processes of digesemployed by the manufacturers of stone ware here, tion and secretion, and among the rest are three but if I had used the fine white china glaze, it kinds of alkaline salts, viz. : chloride of sodium, or would have been a beautiful white instead of yel common salt, and the sulphates of potash and soda low. I consider the discovery of this china clay to in nearly equal proportions; and they are carried be very important, for it has hitherto been thought off in urine, in order to give place to an additional that a fine description of china could not be made supply which is continually furnished in food. in the United States for want of proper clay; but These three kinds of salts, then, are natural to the this proves that clay sufficiently good can be found, animal system of man, and are necessary to it, and if potteries were established for making it into are the only kinds of salts which can with certain china-ware."

propriety be used for curing meat. Other salts, The Georgia papers are requested to copy the such as alum, or borax, may preserve meat, but above, that it may be brought to the notice of Mr. they would be injurious in the system, not being Hardy, who did not leave his address when at the natural to it. office of

WM. PARTRIDGE. The purgative and antiseptic properties of these New York, Dec. 8, 1845.

three kinds of salt, common salt, and the sulphates CURING MEAT.

of potash and soda, are somewhat similar; but the FARMERS have a mutual interest in the commu-municates its antiseptic properties to the sulphate

sulphuric acid is remarkably antiseptic, and it comnication of everything which is beneficial in rela- of potash and soda in a high degree. A much tion to their common concerns in Agriculture, and less quantity of sulphate of potash will cure and domestic economy.

With this view, I would thank you to insert in the Agriculturist the follow- sulphate of soda I have not tried in curing, meat,

save meat than of common salt or saltpetre. The ing observations, relative to condiments for curing and therefore cannot say what flavor it would commeat. Having for 35 years avoided as far as pos: municate to meat. But the pure sulphate of potash sible the use of meat which had been cured with I have used in curing hams and shoulders of pork, saltpetre, on account of its injurious effects, I shall and dried beef, and barreled beef pickled; and it endeavor to show why that article should be dis- communicates to meat an admirable flavor, entirely used, and what may be used in place of it; being superior to that which it has when cured by saltat the same time fully aware of the influence of prejudice and habit in the perpetuation of injurious meat as is generally used of saltpetre, or about one

petre. I used nearly the same quantity in curing customs.

ounce to 25 lbs. of meat. I have known the sulIt is contended by some persons that man was not intended to be a carnivorous animal, and that phate of potash applied to the curing of meat in meat should not be used for diet ; but all admit that thing about the curing of meat, for at least 40

manner, ever since I can remember anyhe is, and ought to be, a granivorous animal, and

years. The sulphate of potash abounds in wood that such grains as wheat, rye, oats, barley, &c.; ashes, and is known to potash-makers by the name are healthy articles of food, which were designed of nitre. The manner in which I have known it for his use. In these articles are contained the used was as follows:-Put one peck of wood ashes following ingredients, viz. : potash, soda, lime, into 20 gallons of water, stir it up thoroughly, then magnesia, alumina, silica, iron, sulphuric acid, let them stand and settle. After the water is setphosphoric acid, and chlorine or muriatic acid, tled, and is clear, pour off the clear white ley which &c. These articles are supposed to be united to is thus made, into another cask, and dissolve in it gether in grain according to their affinity. And it half a bushel of common salt, stirring it well. Let is not doubted that they were placed in grain for this settle, then pour off the clear brine, and put it the purposes of digestion, nutrition, and secretion.

upon as many hams and shoulders as it will cover, Those parts of them which actually enter into and and let them lie in it three weeks; then hang and are used in the system, are principally carried off smoke them. If they have been anointed with through the kidneys in the urine ; as may be seen sugar or molasses, and lain a few days before the by the analysis of urine, by Berzelius, which is as brine is put upon them, their flavor will be imfollows, viz. :

proved by it. Meat has a stronger affinity for Urea


ihe sulphate of potash than it has for common salt, Free lactic acid, lactate of ammonia and ani.

and therefore the common salt which is present in mal matter not separable from them.

17.14 Uric acid..


the brine will in no wise lessen the effect of the Mucus of the bladder.

0.32 suiphate oi potash. Sulphate of potash.

By reference to the Cultivator, vol. 8, page 114, Sulphate of soda..

3.16 it will be seen that Mr. John Lewis, of LlangolChloride of sodium, or common salt. 4.45 lan, Kentucky, has for 35 years used another mode Phosphate of soda..

2.44 of applying the sulphate of potash which is conPhosphate of ammonia.

1.05 tained in wood ashes, to the curing of hams and Muriate of ammonia..

1.50 shoulders; which I doubt not is equally effectual Phosphates of magnesia and lime.


with the modes which I have suggested, but not Siliceous earth..

0.02 Water

933.00 quite so convenient as to mix the pure sulphate of

potash, with brine of common salt. But I doubt 1000.00 not it is equally effectual His mode of curing is to


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