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mix one part wood ashes with four parts of com- where at least two tons of good hay should be anmon salt, and pack the hams down in this mixture, nually cut to the acre; and then produce as much and let them lie three or four weeks, and then wash pasture beside, in one season, as it would prethem off and smoke them. In this case, as the so- viously to any improvement. Now, I wish to at. luble parts of wood ashes are principally potash tract particular attention to this fact, for it is indeed and sulphate of potash, the moisture of the meat a fact; though I know some old-fashioned farmers, shortly dissolves them both, and the sulphate of who, if they were to meet with this, their mouths potash will be taken up by the meat in the same and eyes would expand with astonishment, and manner as if in brine. And Mr. Lewis informs us horror would be depicted on every furrow of their that this mode of curing makes good sweet meat. visages. First of all, let me say, that it needs a due Saleratus, also, almost invariably contains a con- share of energy and perseverance, qualities I hold siderable proportion of sulphate of potash. Salera- essentially requisite to the accomplishment of any tus is made from the pearlash of commerce, merely undertaking ; but where a farmer especially is by impregnating it freely with carbonic acid, and bound to persevere, it really seems astonishing the pearlash of commerce almost invariably contains what one can accomplish. But, to my object. a considerable proportion of sulphate of potash, but am extravagantly fond of improving land; there is in various proportions, according to the quality of something peculiar about it that always interests the ashes from which it is made.

me; it really seems like a certain way of improv. In the year 1817, I had on hand 7 tons of pearlash, ing one's self; and who is there that cannot appreand perceiving that sulphate of potash abounded in ciate it? Certainly, waving fields of grain are far it, I separated the sulphate of potash from it by a more beautiful than acres of brush and stone. simple process, and obtained 520 pounds from the I have a small plot of ground that once seemed 7 tons of potash, or nearly 4 per cent. Saleratus, graced with almost innumerable obstacles to success. therefore, may be used instead of white ley in cur- Iul cultivation; bogs and bog holes; hedges and ing meat. But the surest and best way for those briars; low places and high places, existed in all who can obtain it, will be to use the pure sulphate their native majesty; and it really seemed irreof potash. The sulphate of potash is a strong salt, claimable. But I have not found it so. The first and yet is only a gentle purgative. An ounce is step was to drain it thoroughly. And here just rather a large dose, but would not injure any grown allow me very briefly to repeat my testimony in person. On the other hand, saltpetre, in large doses, favor of draining. Previous to draining, the ground irritates and inflames the bowels, and a dose of one was so peculiarly situated, every little shower the ounce produces death. It is a strong poison; and water would collect in little pools, causing, for the fortunate would be that person who could escape time being, a certain check to all our operations, death, even with the very best medical assistance, thereby losing much time. Now it bleeds at every after taking such a dose. For the truth of this, re- pore, and we no longer fear to have it rain. To all ference may be had to Beck's Medical Jurispru- our farmers I say, drain land that needs it, without dence, article, Nitrate of Potash. In small doses of delay. Standing water is death to all useful vegetaone or two grains it diminishes the heat of the body tion in this climate

. Praining does wonders. After extremely, and is used by physicians for that pur- a thorough and complete draining, I could scarcely pose in fevers. In healthy persons it produces an recognize the soil; the difference in the yield of unnatural coldness and dyspepsia. While spiritu- grass was perfectly astonishing. Everything that ous liquors were in common use, it may have been could grow seemed to enjoy and take advantage of useful in lessening the unnatural heat occasioned by its new liberties. If any anti-book-farmer wishes them. But now that the cause of temperance so to mark the contrast between improved and unimgenerally prevails, there seems to be no good rea- proved land, I invite him to come over and see it; son for continuing the use of this poisonous ingre- for just alongside of mine is a piece of ground still dient as a condiment for curing meat. And if its in its original neglected and forlorn state, yielding properties and effects are generally well known, its but an indifferent supply of pasture. Says one, use for this purpose will be abandoned.

why does not your next neighbor follow your exHENRY J. CANFIELD. ample? I answer, he is one of the easy, old-fashCanfield, Ohio, Nov. 10th, 1845.

ioned kind, but often tells me he feels encouraged

now, and thinks some day or other he will under. IMPROVING LAND.

take it. HAVING succeeded beyond my most flattering. My next step in order was to cut and burn the expectations, through the aid of the Agriculturist bogs, and apply the ashes to a crop of corn, which and kindred journals, in subduing a piece of ground proved more pleasant and profitable than crops of that was deemed almost unconquerable, I wish to bogs. I have just now completed plowing for give your readers a few very plain facts, which the season, having the ground as rough as possible, will show that sustaining agricultural journals is a in view of the action of the frost, which, by spring, profitable investment. I commenced tilling the soil will prove an admirable pulverizer. One more fact on my own hook, quite young, and practically I wish plainly understood. I plow my land very knew but little about it; and though I have had my deep, much deeper than many of my neighbors, and own ignorance and the prejudice of others to con- have never failed from this cause in getting a remutend against, yet I have already hinted, and in the nerating crop. At the solicitation of a friend, I at sequel will attempt to show, that I have accom-tended the late plowing match of the American Ir.plished something. I happen to know some farms stitute, at Harlem, and however nicely done other where some of the best meadow land is a scar on wise, I soon observed that, for some soils, I should the place; bogs, briars, and wet places abound, I wish it deeper. My average depth for plowing is

22

CUTTING ROOTS.-AGRICULTURE IN ALABAMA. twelve inches; but the heavier the soil and the of cattle ought to eat at a meal. Common turnips more retentive the subsoil, the deeper would I plow. and potatoes are so small they may require a ma. I particularize on this fact, because I have years of chine, and perhaps when these are much fed, it will my own experience to support me, and because I be economy to purchase one. Jas. WINTHROP. have old-established farmers all around me who are Harlem, Dec. 13, 1845. very much prejudiced against deep plowing. Its advantages, in a few words, are a deep soil for AGRICULTURE IN ALABAMA. roots to penetrate for nourishment, and that the sur.

As the year 1845 is now coming to a close, I feel plus water may pass through more rapidly. But a it due to the different Agricultural Works, which I very safe criterion is a comparison between an or, take, that I give through their columns, some acdinary farm and one where deep plowing and good count of the operations on my farm. I say some cultivation is constantly practised; then mark the account, for it is impossible for me to give in one difference in the yield, aside from the general ap- sheet anything like a full account, as I find myseli pearance of the farm. I always want those who at this time, at page 188 of what I term my farming are opposed to deep plowing, to account for the memorandum book, or diary kept of all the operations enormous yield of vegetables and growth of trees done on my farm. Although I have kept a similar in a garden where the soil has been trenched and book for near twenty years, I have never attempted manured to the depth of eighteen inches or two feet. to give at the close of the year my system of farm. As to the depth, I would never plow in any soil ing; but believing that if the cultivators of the soil were it possible, less than twelve inches, and in throughout the United States, would thus compare some soils much deeper. It is true, I often expose notes once a year, it would have the effect of greatly a poor subsoil in my practice, but to this I apply a encouraging each other in improving their system. double portion of manure. As I am of the opinion I speak from experience, having been stimulated to that manure for land is like oats for a horse, it is renewed exertion often by reading from the pages the best medicine you can give, and as the oats are of the different papers and periodicals devoted to applied inwardly, so I plow in my manure; and as agriculture, the many accounts of the success of the it seems to me the surest way of securing its bene- farmer. Now, I cannot give my brother farmers a fits, or of “ fixing the ammonia,” as the fashion- very flattering account; having settled a new country, ables will have it. I have seen farmers scatter loads every furrow I have plowed has been among trees and loads of coarse yard manure upon the surface and stumps. I will now, howev give it as it is. of the ground, which practice I consider wasteful in

It is my custom to commence each year on the the extreme, as almost every particle of any use is 1st of January. The profits of the farm vary greatly lost, as it is the roots we wish to supply with with the seasons, as every farmer knows. We warmth and food, and not the air. I believe, how- cleared in 1844, upwards of 16 per cent. on the capever, we have yet much to learn in the application ital invested in agriculture. In 1845, as will be of manures. Now, as to the economy of my prac, scen, there will be a considerable falling off from tice, I will add that I am perfectly satisfied, and the previous year. This is attributed to two will give one proof in dollars and cents ; as Eng. causes: first, I planted much less cotton; secondly, lish writers say that is the universal way of defin- I suffered greatly from the severe drought that has ing American problems. My crop of hay this dry cut short my cotton crop one-third. geason I calculated paid the interest of $5 per acre, The first item of capital employed in agriculture while along side of it, is land that scarcely yields is my farm, 1st of January, 1845, at $8,550. There enough to pay for fencing.

is in cultivation on this farm of poor pine land, or One more word as to manure. I am no chemist sandy soil, 267 acres. or scientific farmer, yet I believe in manure, and The present year, the following is the arrangemake it my constant practice to apply to the land ment of the land : every substance in the shape of manure, except

In Corr.,

. 120 acres. such decidedly acid substances as new tan, pomace, “ Cotton,

80 and the like. The higher portion of my ground I have converted into a nursery, and have now upon 1 Sweet Potatoes, - it a most beautiful, healthy, and thrifty growth of Upland Rice, fruit trees; and as I have now come to the tree part,

u Garden,.. my favorite hobby, I may at some future time, if

267 agreeable, give you a few practical hints on the successful cultivation of fruit trees. As I have The following notes of the time of planting the been myself remarkably successful, I could wish crop and the seasons, I copy from my book. At that others might enjoy as much. W. D. page 44, I find we commenced planting corn on the Morristown, Morris Co., N. J., Nov. 27, 1845. 26th of February. The land planted in corn quite

broken. Planted in drills on the horizontal system; CUTTING Roots.-Happening in your store the the rows six feet wide, the corn two feet apart in other day, in your absence, I was shown quite a the rows : peas planted in the middle of the rows. variety of machines for cutting roots. I have no At page 64, I find it turned quite cold, the corn doubt they will do their work well and cut with planted on the 26th February, bitten down. On great rapidity; yet after all I question whether they page 75, I find we commenced planting cotton on are a labor-saving machine to the small farmer. I the 31st of March. The land planted in cotton is can, in fifteen minutes, cut up on the frozen ground, level ; about half of it manured with compost or on my barn floor, with a strong hay knife or manure, prepared by hauling into a lot where my sharp spade, as many ruta-bagas or beets as ten head cattle are penned, equal parts of the penned straw

6 Oats,

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CARROTS VERSUS OATS, SHIPPING SHEEP.

23

and the blue marl, that abounds in this region. In he watered with liquid manure through the sumputting in this manure, we have a deep shovel fur- mer, and, in the fall, he took away the dirt from the row. We scatter the manure in the furrow, and carrots. “ And faith, Misther,” added he,“ sure it then throw up a bed on the manure, planting on the had grown to the bottom of the hole, twelve feet top of the bed. At page 100, I find the greatest long, and as big as your thigh.” want of rain, on the 26th of April. I find at page Your readers may believe as much of Patrick's 125, that on the 2d of June, lice were preying on story as they choose ; yet, this is certain, that I have our cotton; that on account of the dry and cold spring occasionally grown the Belgian white field carrots the prospect was quite gloomy, I was absent from three feet long and 4 inches diameter at the top, in home from the 4th of June to the 16th of Septem- a rich, deep, alluvial loam.

S. ber, during which time but little rain fell. At page 148, I find that we finished hauling in my corn on

SHIPPING SHEEP. the 27th of September, making 1300 bushels. We Having had occasion the past month to ship four tinished, the first week in October, picking out the beautiful Merino sheep from the Hon. Wm. Jarvis, cotton, making 35 bales; and as I make a most of Vermont, to E. R. Brown, Esq., of Gallatin, splendid article,

Miss., the directions received from Mr. Jarvis for ( value it at $40 per bale,....

$1400.00 doing this were so judicious that we copy them into At page 187, I find that we have been 44 days

our paper as an excellent guide for all engaged in hauling marl, at $2 per day,.......

88.00

such business. He says: At page 187, I find that we have been 24 days hauling straw, at $3 per day,..

72.00

Will you allow me to suggest, that I think they There will be 36 more days employed in haul

would go best in a pen of about 6 feet long and 4 ing marl and straw, at $2.50 per day,... 75.00 to 4 1-2 feet wide, and about three feet high; to be Other improvements on the farm,.

100.00 boarded tight on the back, and both ends and top,

with the exception of a door in the latter to put the

$1735.00 sheep in and give them drink. In front there might The expenses of the year

I set down at $450. be slats up and down about an inch and a half wide

ALEXANDER MCDONALD. and 3 inches separation, one from the other, the Eufaula, Ala, Nov. 25, 1845.

slats to be a little rounded in the separation; the

bottom to be slatted with slats of 4 or 5 inches CARROTS VERSUS OATS.

wide, and about half an inch separation from slat It has been stated in the New York Farmers' to slat, to let the urine and dung through; but the Club, that a bushel of carrots cut fine by a root cut- separation must not be wide enough to let their ter is fully equivalent to a bushel of oats for horse feet through. There ought to be nailed across the feed in winter. If so, of how much importance is bottom, three cleats, one at each end and one at the the cultivation of this crop to the farmer, who works centre, to keep the pen from the deck, so that a horse teams, or keeps brood mares and raises colts ? bucket of salt water might be occasionally thrown Of the comparative value of these two crops, I can- under to keep the sheep clean and without wetting not speak advisedly in mild weather, and the horse them, as being kept dry is essential to their health. moderately worked; but in cold weather, and the In front a board of about a foot wide may be nailed horse hard worked, roots of any kind are poor feed. at the bottom of the slats, but to slope out about 9 Under these circumstances, a horse must have grain inches at the top, and secured at each end to make in our climate. I would leave it to the intelligent a manger to put the hay in: the bottom of this farmers to make experiments, taking into account manger ought to be about a foot from the bottom of the cost of each. This much we can do.

the pen. A small trough ought to be made at the I have raised upwards of 800 bushels of carrots end under the door to feed grain in; a salt water to the acre, but never raised over 56 bushels of bucket, that is, a bucket bigger at the bottom than oats ; the whole of the work of cultivation of the at the top, ought to be lashed in the corner of the carrots was done with harrow and cultivator, except pen under the door, and may be kept half full of the pulling up a few weeds with the fingers, where water all the time to let them drink when they will the two implements would not reach without injury -taking care to throw out the water when it gets to the carrots; making the labor of cultivating but fouled by their dung. This shaped bucket is much little more than that of corn, except the harvesting: better than a common pail, as the water will not I always have found them an excellent feed for all slop half so much out of it in the rolling of the sea. kinds of stock, but especially for milch cows. For They will require about 2 lbs. (we prefer 4 lbs. carrots as well as all other root crops, plow deep. as considerable is wasted on board ship] of good Put in the subsoil plow, after the common plow, as hay each per day, and a pint of good oats. It deep as it will go, and manure highly, and I will would be well to agree with some of the attendants, warrant a good crop, let the season be wet or dry. or a faithful sailor, to see that they are fed with hay

I once had an Irish gardener famous for large night and morning, and oats at noon ; and for his stories. He said while in the employ of a noble. attention to give him half a dollar or a dollar a head man who was very fond of trying experiments, he over and above the freight, if they all arrive safe. dug a hole in the ground as big and as deep as a Weathersfield, Vt., Nov. 17, 1845. WM. JARVIS. barrel ; set a pole into the hole twelve feet long; then built a pyramid of earth round it, to the top; To the above we will add, we have found by mixed the whole well with compost; pulled out the actual experiment, that large sheep like the Cots. pole and filled up the hole with a rich loam, mixed wolds, &c., will eat from 3 1-2 to 4 lbs. of hay per with chemicals; planted his carrot seed, and when day on board ship; and allowing for waste, 5 lbs. per It had come up, pulled out all but one stand. This day, per head, should be laid in for the whole voyage

24

LIME IN VIRGINIA.-CATTLE HANDLER.-OVERSEERS FOR FARMS.

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1.11

5.70

11.65

LIME IN VIRGINIA.

CATTLE HANDLER. UNDER this head we noticed an article from Mr. I HAVE been saved much trouble by the use of A. Nicol, of Virginia, on page 342 of your last vol. the accompanying little instrument for the manage. ume, and should have replied to it sooner, could we ment of unruly cattle. have got the various analyses of our lime to do so This is simply a light bar of iron, A, about eight effectually: We now subjoin such as have been inches in length, with a ring handle of sufficient made by Dr. Chilton, of New York, from average size to admit a man's hand, which turns on a (not picked) specimens of the different strata of our swivel, B, at one end, and at the other end, a pair quarries. Dr. Chilton is of opinion that the sam- of calliper-shaped legs, one of which is stationary, ple which Mr. Nicol speaks of being analyzed by the other opens with a joint, similar to the joint of Mr. Stuart, happened, unfortunately for us, to be a pair of common tongs. The fixed leg is inserted an inferior specimen, or perhaps it had lain some into one nostril of the animal, and the moveable time subject to air-slaking before being analyzed. one is bent into the other, where it is kept in place by By exposure to the air, burnt lime absorbs water a slide, which passes over a flat spring, at C. With and carbonic acid in the process of air-slaking; this instrument a man can, with one hand, manage therefore, an analysis of such exposed sample will the most unruly animal, for the purpose of adminisyield less lime per cent. than a sample fresh from tering medicines, or performing any other operation, the kiln. This is an important consideration. We now subjoin the different analyses :

No.1. No, 2. Lime

58.49

59.48 Silica.

9.21
8.41

B
Alumina

5.36

4.23 Magnesia...

11.81

10.34 Oxide of Iron..

92 Carbonic acid, Water and loss. 14.21 16.43

CATTLE HANDLER_FIG. 3. 100 parts. 100 parts.

It can be made by any ingenious blacksmith White Specimen:

Dark Specimen. (mine was made by William H. Rose, of Flushing), Lime

52.22

73.68 though care must be taken that the ends of the legs Silica.

8.15

be blunt, and so contrived, as not to meet (a space Magnesia

1.78 of of an inch between them, is sufficient), other. Alumina

13.98

3.70 wise they would pinch the septum, or partition of Oxide of Iron......

88

the nostrils, and give unnecessary pain to the aniCarbonic Acid and Water. 14.00 14.26

mal, and render him more restless.

WILLIAM H. SCHER VERHORN. 100 parts. 100 parts.

Rose Hil, Flushing, L. I. The white specimen was analyzed Sept. 13, 1839 ; the dark specimen, Dec. 5, 1845. No. i and 2, Dec. OVERSEERS FOR FARMS AND PLANTATIONS.-We 18, 1845. Mr. Nicol gave Dr. Beck's analysis, are almost daily beset with applications for proshowing 92.75 per cent. of carbonate of lime, perly educated managers for farms and plantations, we therefore need not repeat it here. Dr. B. in different parts of the country-we mean for such was one of our State Geological Surveyors, and persons as are up to the improvements of the age, analyzed the specimen from our quarry during his and have the capacity to carry them properly into survey in 1839, in order to give it in his official re- effect. If farmers' sons would qualify themselves port to the State ; he would of course under such for such stations as these, instead of going to shopcircumstances endeavor to be as correct as possible. keeping, or running after some beggarly profession, We have numerous letters which we could produce both themselves and the country would be great acknowledging the superior merits of our lime, gainers thereby. The following is a specimen but after the above we think it unnecessary to say of applications for overseers from the south, more. We are much obliged to Mr. Nicol for the which we received the other day. We know not handsome manner in which he acknowledges the where to find suitable persons to fill these stations; beneficial effects of our lime on Virginia soil, and we mean such as are qualified by education, experihope it may induce others to try it.

ence, and skill. CALVIN TOMKINS & Co. “Could you recommend any one to me as a Peekskill, N, Y., Dec. 20, 1845.

manager on my plantation? He will have up

wards of 100 of my people in charge, including old To this communication of Messrs. Tomkins & and young. He must not only be well informed, Co., it may be proper for us to add, that they have but practically acquainted with the improved mode left the original analyses made by Dr. Chilton, in of agriculture in relation to raising the best crops our hands for inspection by any one wishing to see of corn, wheat, grass, &c.; the management of horses, them; also commendatory letters of their lime, from catfle, sheep, and hogs; be able to keep plantation those who have long used it. Dr. Chilton is con- accounts, &c., &c. "To a person qualified in all sidered one of the best analytical chemists in this respects to manage my plantation, I shall be willing city, and probably has not his superior in the to pay $500 per annum, provide him with a comUnited States. We have every confidence in his fortable house to live in, provisions, and two seranalyses being strictly correct, he being in daily vants to do his cooking and house service ; a horse practice of analyzing.

to ride, and besides some other little privileges.”

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BEING about to erect a domicil for the accommo This poultry house will accommodate 100 fowls dation of my golden top-knots, I have looked in stormy weather. It is built on the side of a through the American Poulterer's Companion in bank fronting the south. The posts of the centre vain for a plan, that, in all particulars, suited my building are 8 feet; those of the wings or stormtaste and ideas of what would be most agreeable to houses, 6 feet front, and 41 feet rear; the depth, 12 them; for I conceive taste and utility are not in- feet, and the fronts of centre and wings 12 feet compatible even in a hen-house. I have, therefore, each, being just the length of the boards: the made a plan to suit myself, which I enclose for whole is well thatched. The roof of the nest your criticism, and if approved, it is at your service. ( house extends over the passage to the front, so that

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the droppings fall into the boxes placed outside of If not built against a bank, I would have a cellar it for that purpose.

The slat window in the gable under one of the wings, for the laying hens in the is the ventilator. One, or both of the wings may winter; and instead of contiguous boxes, as is the be omitted, depending upon the wants or taste of usual practice, I am satisfied single boxes distributed the builder. Cost about $25, if built of rough about the house is altogether preferable. I prefer boards.

single nests to clusters. a, a, Storm-houses, or promenades; b, laying

WILLIAM LEAVENWORTH. house; e, c, boxes to catch the droppings off the Long Branch, N.J., roof of the laying house ; d, passage ways.

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