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Horticulture in Hollaud.
lakes, canals, &c. The approach to the Hague is
delightful, and the chief beauty lies in the THERE are few pleasures more truly enjoyed by noble trees which border the roads in various the traveller than a visit to places long familiar to directions for several miles, and unite in a mass of him from his earliest childhood; when scenes de- forest north of the town. Hague is decidedly the scribed in books of study, or the recreative reading finest city in Holland; is the seat of Government, of maturer years, come visibly before him with a and possesses a beautiful mall, with some good public pleasing reality, and bring thronging upon the buildings. It is a favorite summer resort of the mind many delightful associations of his early wealthier classes, and its principal hotel embowyears. It was with feelings somewhat akin to ered in the thick forest, is at that season crowded these, that I found myself on board a comfortable to excess. From the Hague, the locomotive carried steam-boat, and with only a few miles between us us with rapid strides to Amsterdam, that amphibious and Flushing, winding along the devious and lazy city of land and river. course of a Dutch river, on my way to the land of Nowhere is the industry of man more perceptible cleanliness and thrift, of canals and dykes, and of than in this singular city, built as it is in the midst bulbs and beautiful flowers-the paradise of good of a level marsh, and" in danger of being overhousewives and florists.
whelmed by the waters which encompass it on Passing by Dort, and through a flat and meadow- every side. The streets are very narrow, and the like country, we reached Rotterdam in the evening, canals emita most offensive smell. In the vicinity, and were comfortably established in a good hotel. are some small houses, with neat gardens, to which Before seven in the morning, maid-servants, mops, the merchants sometimes escape from the noisome and force pumps were in efficient action against the city. All the water drank in the city is brought windows; and wo to the luckless spider or fly that from a distance in boats, and is pumped into the was caught unprepared. Looking-glasses were houses or cellars. Even this, however, it is diffi. hanging at nearly every window, so ingeniously cult for a foreigner to drink, without vomiting, and arranged, that every passer-by was visible to the I was obliged to take Seltzer water. There is a occupant of the house, who could be screened good botanic garden at Amsterdam, with a fine colfrom view.
lection of plants from the Capes. The windows Rotterdam is a stirring place, with fine docks and full of hyacinths and tulips, evinced the native fondconsiderable shipping; and much of its prosperity ness for flowers. is owing to the Dutch possessions in the East Returning to Rotterdam by railroad, we passed a Indies. There are no nurseries of any note in the few hours very pleasantly at Haarlem and Leyden. vicinity, and the common character of the flowers Haarlem has long been celebrated for its cultivation exposed for sale, evinced that it was not here that of flowers, and more particularly of bulbous and Holland could sustain her reputation in horticul- tuberous rooted plants. The cultivation of these ture. There are a few small summer-houses in and the numerous gardens, I have described more the suburbs, and some fruit trees trained as espa- particularly in Hovey's Magazine, and their repeliers, or en pyramide.
tition here would occupy too much space. No traThese summer-houses are on the exterior of the veller who feels the least interest in horticulture town, and afford a good view of the green, level should visit Europe without seeing the “ bloemismeadows which surround them. The gardens at- tries” of Haarlem. The many acres covered with tached are frequently kept in nice order. The the rich and gorgeous bloom of the hyacinth, the walks are laid with pounded bricks or shells, and tulip, and the crocus, in varieties whose beauty is edged sometimes with box or showy plants, and scarcely known here, would leave upon his hortisometimes with low lattice work or boards, painted cultural sense an impression not easily effaced. green. Neatness is their characteristic, and not a Haarlem, too, is well worth visiting, independently weed is seen. Mulberries and grape-vines are of its gardens. Its quiet character, and neat, clean, sometimes trained against the walls, and yield large streets, impress the traveller agreeably. profits to their owners. The fruit of one peculiarly Leyden is a short railroad ride from Haarlem, fine mulberry tree, covering a whole house, has, in and is one of the prettiest towns in Holland. It is some years, been sold for nearly $200.
remarkably quiet, with the exception of an occaRotterdam possesses in the Boomptie, one of the sional group of noisy students belonging to the finest quays in Europe, inasmuch as it is lined with University, which once stood among the first in noble elms and limes, of more than a century's Europe. The Rhine passes through the city by standing. During the summer, the Boomptie forms various channels, and is crossed by nearly 150 fine a favorite promenade for the inhabitants ; the trees bridges, many of them built of stone. Some of the affording shade, while the river generally ensures a houses are of a superior character; and many of the circulation of fresh and cool air. Here are the streets bordered with majestic trees, form noble principal hotels, the windows looking out upon the avenues. Outside of the town is a pretty Maese, a majestic river at this place, with vessels of park, planted with trees and shrubs, and used as a every description frequently passing.
promenade. The grand attraction of Leyden is the Taking a diligence for the Hague, we rode plea- Botanic Garden, celebrated by its connection with santly along the banks of the canal, now covered Clusius and Boerhave. The inscription, in honor with burden and packet boats. Small gardens, and of the former distinguished botanist, was rather some very pretty country seats, were scattered amusing. along the road. There was no want of water here, “ Non potuit plures hic quærere Clusius herbas, and it was frequently used in the way of miniature Ergo novas campis quærit in Elysiis."
AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATION. --A PRODUCTIVE FARM.-CATTLE YARD.
No more new plants the earth to Clusius yields, evinced, what industry, perseverance, and high
He therefore seeks them in the Elysian fields. cultivation will do; for although her soil cannot The garden is subdivided by hedges in the formal compete with the German States, in the production style, is most excellently arranged, and contains of grain, yet the meadows of Holland and her many fine and rare trees and plants. A Fraxinus dairies may well compete with the far-famed Devon. ornus, or flowering ash, is shown, which is said shire cream, or our own Orange county butter. to have been grafted by Boerhave himself. It is
S. B. PARSONS. grafted about a foot from the ground, upon a com Flushing, Long Island, Dec. 16, 1845. mon ash stock, and the stem nearly twelve feet high is covered with numerous knobs, which pro AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATION.—This duce a singular effect. In one of the houses was Association held its regular meeting on Wednesday, the “ Palm of Clusius," a Chamærops humilis, 20 the 3d of December last. The President being ab. feet high, and about 240 years old, with about fifty sent, the chair was taken by Doct. Alexander H other varieties. We were also shown a fine gingko Stevens, one of the Vice-Presidents. The night tree, about 35 feet high. It yields its flowers every being very stormy, there was but a thin attendance season, early in the summer.
The minutes of the last meeting were read and apI have seen no garden so well arranged as this. proved. Dr. Field stated that he received last Great care is taken to bring together as much as spring a specimen of spring wheat, of a superior possible, and classify in subdivisions all those variety, from Mr. Hays, of Montreal, with the unplants which belong to the same natural family. derstanding that it should be sown, and the result One house is appropriated to aloes, of which there communicated to the Association. The wheat was is a large collection; one of the American species sown in drills, nine inches apart. It came to mais 100 years old. The Cape plants are kept in a turity in good season, produced a fine berry and separate house, and number many fine varieties; strong straw. It would be sown again next year, the Chorizyma with its small orange and scarlet when it was hoped that there would be a sufficient flower, and the Photea argentea, with its silvery produce for distribution among the members of the foliage. A fine specimen was shown of the Pan- society. danus utilis from Mauritius, and the Pinus lan
Mr. A. Stevens, in pursuance of an invitation at ceolata, a beautiful new pine from New Holland. the November meeting, exhibited some casts and Th was a collection of orchideous plants-100 pictures of cattle, and made some remarks in rela, species of cactus, 70 kinds of figs, and a salicetum, tion to them, and stock in general. Some informal containing 70 species of willows. The plants used conversation then followed among the members, in medicine are grouped by themselves, and all the when the meeting was adjourned. herbaceous plants are arranged according to Lin
Farther improvements are making in the A PRODUCTIVE Farm.—The New England ground, and the Leyden Botanic Garden will soon Farmer, in giving a brief extract from the account have, if such is not already the case, few rivals in which has been going the rounds of the papers, of Europe. We certainly saw nothing of the kind on Mr. Gowan's farm, near Philadelphia, says, there the Continent, which pleased us equally well, and must be some "guessing in stating these quantities no garden there, excepting perhaps that of Padua, of products as common yields." Perhaps there could compare with it for excellence of arrange- might have been; but I must be allowed to know ment.
something about Mr. Gowan's farming operations, In the vicinity of Leyden are many villas; but having spent several days at his hospitable manno pleasure grounds worthy the attention of a sion, and had an opportunity of looking over his visitor. They are all in the same taste; both farm book. I have no doubt of the accuracy of his house and garden are hidden by rows and small accounts. I saw the milk measured from day to groves of trees, or by tall evergreen helges. The day, from one of his Durham cows, which was 31 meadows in Holland exhibit luxuriant vegetation. Ito 311 quarts per day. I wish every farmer in the and it is from these old pastures that Dutch butter United States could see Mr. G.'s crops when they has derived its celebrity for richness of flavor. are gathered; they would think if there was any These are seldom pastured by cattle, and the soiling “guessing” in the matter, it was rather under than system is generally practised. Land of indifferent
over their actual value.
SAMUEL ALLEN. quality is rented in Holland at 15 guilders, or $6 New York, Dec. 17, 1845. per acre, and the best at $60 the acre, besides the heavy taxes for the support of the dykes, &c. CATTLE YARDS.-Keep the bottom of these as Holland was well characterized by Sir William dry and comfortable for the stock as possible, so Temple, when he said :-“ It is like the sea in a that when it thaws or rains, the animals will not calm, and looks as if, after a long contention be- be obliged to stand in the mud. Cattle yards should tween land and water which it should belong to, it always be well littered. Litter adds largely to the had at length been divided between them.” The manure heap, and not less to the comfort of the greater part is in meadow, and some good wheat is stock. Don't complain that you have no litter'; occasionally producerl. The soil, however, could look about you and you will find it. scarcely be deemed rich. In some places it is scarcely better than sand, tinged with alluvial de WHEN NOT TO TAKE UP A TREE.—An experienced posit. In other places, muddy deposits have form- transplanter of trees says, it is a maxim with him ed over the sand, making a clayey soil of no very never to take up a tree while the sap circulates, as cxcellent charact'r. Here is seen strikingly it will be more or less detrimental to it:
DAVISON'S INVENTION FOR CURING PROVISIONS.
DAVISON'S INVENTION FOR CURING PRO. is allowed to remain on the meat for some hours, VISIONS.
say four to eight. After the blood, air, and gases Chance, a few days since, took me to the pack- are expelled, and the meat has remained in the ing house of Mr. Davison, in Leroy street in this brine for six or eight hours, it is cured. The whole city, and I there saw the apparatus invented by him process will require about twelve hours. for the salting of meats. This invention is so im The principle on which the method acts is that portant to the agricultural world, that I am induced of a pressure upon the meat in a vacuum. In its to call attention to it.
ordinary condition the meat is filled with blood, Mr. Davison, prior to his present occupation, was air, and gases; when immersed in brine, in the long connected with the manufacture of salt; and ordinary process, these, by their resisting power, having resided at one period in South America (a prevent the brine from entering the meat; the country with greater capacities for the production blood has an aftinity with the brine, and leaves the of the hog and the ox ihan any other), he had his meat to unite with it. The pressure of the water attention very naturally turned to the subject of and its specific gravity being greater than that of the preservation of meats. The invention now put the air and gases, the air and gases rise to the surinto perfect operation by him is the result of his face and escape, and the brine takes their place. observations in his earlier pursuit, and much To do this, however, takes time, and about six thought and investigation. Endowed by nature weeks are found necessary to accomplish it. When, with an inventive genius, and having had the bene- however, the meat is in a vacuum, the blood, air, fit of a good education, together with the scientific and gases escape at once; being escaped, the brine advice of Dr. Lardner, whom he consulted upon his exerts its pressure, and the meat is charged at once. arrival in this country, in reference to this subject, This pressure in the ordinary method of curing is he perfected the invention by reducing it to reality nothing more than that which arises from the and successful operation.
weight and pressure of the quantity of brine necesThe whole apparatus is perfectly simple. It con- sary to cover the meat. In the cylinder, the meat, sists of a large cylinder made air tight. It has a when the blood, air, and gases have been separated mouth-piece through which the meat is put into the from it in the vacuum, can be subjected to an illiinicylinder. On this mouth-piece is fitted a lid, with table amount of pressure. To do this, nothing its surface so adapted to the mouth-piece that no air more is necessary than the elevation of the vat. can pass. Strong screws bind it close to the mouth- Connected as is the vat by a pipe to the cylinder, piece. On the lid are two air vents with screws to the pressure is in proportion to the elevation of the open and close them. This cylinder, mouth-piece, vat. By means of the vacuum the meat is freed from and lid, are made of the best of iron, with a thick- all the means of resistance to the entrance of the ness proportional to their size.
brine; and the pressure of the brine may be carried There is also a large vat to hold brine. This is to any extent that the meat will bear without colmade of wood, and is elevated above the cylinder, lapsing. When in vacuum it is swollen, its fibre disand connected with it by a pipe. Through the pipe tended and pores open, and it readily admits the brine the brine passes from the vat to the cylinder. There even at the simple pressure of the mere quantity of is a lifting pump attached to the cylinder. By it brine which the cylinder will hold. In this matter, the brine is pumped from the cylinder into the vat
. experience has taught that the pressure of a single The meat, being first cut, is placed in the cylin- atmosphere is the most effective; a greater one tends der and the brine admitted. When the cylinder is to close the pores of the vacated meat, and a triple filled with the brine, the lid is closed down on the atmospheric pressure completely closes them, to the mouth-piece and screwed fast. The pump is then exclusion of the brine. The whole secret of the put into action and the brine carried back to the vat. action of this method is, that the vacuum fits the When the brine is all removed from the cylinder, meat at once to admit the brine; and the pressure, the meat is in a vacuum; this is obvious, for the if not too great, at once forces the brine into the vabrine had of course expelled the air; the cylinder cated pores, and this done, the meat is cured. By and closed lid, being air-tight, did not permit the air the use of the vacuum, the natural process is shortto return when the brine was withdrawn. The ened from weeks to hours, and the meat is cured meat, being in a vacuum, parts with all the blood, at least as perfectly; indeed far more perfectly. air, and gases which may be contained within it Such is Mr. Davison's process. He has patented these escape into the vacuum of the cylinder. it, and deserves, for his ingenuity scientifically apThe brine is now again introduced, and when the plied, to reap a rich harvest. Rich as it may be, it meat is covered, the air-vents in the lid are opened, will be but the faint shadow of the one to be reaped and the brine drives out all the air and gases which by this great meat-raising, curing, and eating counhad escaped from the meat. When the cylinder is try. full of brine, the air-vents are closed, and the brine The advantage of a rapid curing of meat in a peris pumped into the vat, and the meats are again in fect manner, is obvious to every one. But there are
Again blood, air, and gases escape into numerous advantages beside. Let me enumerate the vacuum. The brine is again introduced, and them. the meat covered; the air-vents are then opened All meats salted and cured in the ordinary method, and the air and gases escape from the cylinder, and require two packings to pass inspection, and for fam. the cylinder is filled with brine. The brine is with. ily use. When the ineat is cured, which will be at the drawn and returned again and again until the ope- end of six weeks or two months, the brine is bloody ration is completed. The interval of withdrawing and foul. In the large packing and inspection estaba and returning is short at first; but when the blood, lishments, the meat is re-packed, and the first brine is air, and gases are expelled from the meat, the brinel thrown away. With the vacuum process, the mcat
DAVISON'S INVENTION FOR CURING PROVISIONS.
when cured, at the end of twelve hours, is free expense subsequent to the first packing. To this from blood, and ready to receive its final packing, is to be added, that the meat is better on account of fit to pass inspection, or keeping for family use. In the retention of its natural juices in a greater degree. the
process of curing, pork increases in weight, ten Here all comparison between the two methods ends. to eleven per cent. In the ordinary process, two The advantages of the vacuum process, beside, are months are necessary to gain this; and of course, all its own. the interest, storing, and insurance, for that period Hitherto, when meat got skippered or tainted it are lost to somebody; in the vacuum process the was lost:--now it can be saved. If skippered, when meat is cured in twelve hours and the ten per cent placed in a vacuum in the cylinder, the skippers gain is obtained at once, and theie is no loss of time, come to the surface of the meat, and perish for interest, storage, or insurance. In the ordinary want of air. The meat is then taken from the method, the packer cannot sell profitably until after cylinder, the skippers removed, and the meat retwo packings and two months of time; in the turned to the cylinder and again charged with vacuum process he may sell in one day, reaping pickle, and is again perfect. the gain of the increase.
If meat be tainted, it is placed in the cylinder and The longer the meat is in curing, the more the natu- charged with a weak solution of lime; taken out, ral jnices are extracted by the brine. Hence, when dried, and returned to the cylinder, and again chargthe meat is cured equally well as to its being saved, ed with pickle: and then it is difficult to distinguish its quality will be better in the short process, for its it from sound meat. juices are not lost in the brine.
Hams and bacon, old, blackened and spoiled in These advantages apply to all seasons of the appearance, will not take in pickle by immersion: year, and by the vacuum process there is a great subjected to the vacuum process they may, and in a gain, even in the winter, when meat can be cured by few hours, be restored to fresh appearance, and after the ordinary process. But there is yet another ad- smoking, be equal to new ones. vantage, and it is this :
Meat just killed and warm may be put, in midMeat, by the vacuum process, may be cured in summer, into the cylinder, and cured in twelve hours summer as well and as perfectly and safely as in perfectly. By steeping it cannot be cured at all in winter; once in the cylinder, it is safe. The cylin- warm weather; in vacuum it may be at all seasons. der will make it so‘at once, under any circum Beef cured in the vacuum is done and packed in stances; but, if necessary, the cylinder may be en- a day, and has gained its full increase. "Cured by closed in a wooden box (a non-conductor), and the steeping, it at once loses five per cent, and takes space between case and cylinder filled with pow. months to regain its loss and add the usual gain dered charcoal. This at once makes a refrigerator, arising from packing. and with the brine, a temperature approaching freez In hot climates, meat cannot be cured by steeping ing point may be maintained during the whole time at any season ; by the vacuum it can in any climate of curing.
at all seasons. In the West, less capital for the purchase of meat As in ordinary packing, sugar, spices, or acid, will be necessary if the vacuum process be adopted, may be added to the brine; but in the vacuum profor time, interest, storage and insurance will be cess they will be more perfectly taken up, and the saved. But to the West it will give yet another meat more highly flavored. advantage; it will enable them to commence pack The vacuum process is applicable to all kinds of ing earlier. Not unusual is it for them at Cincinnati meats; and all kinds of fluids may be infused into and St. Louis, to be closed up in December with ice, meats by it. A variety of antiseptics beside salt and a stop put to shipment. If packing can com- will preserve if they can be injected into meat; but mence in October, the loss of cold weather before the meat could take them by steeping, it in feeding and the staying power of ice will be would be spoiled in any weather but the coldest, obviated. A hog or a beeve is fatted more easily and in the coldest would be stale first. By the in warm than in cold weather. But neither can be vacuum these may be injected at once, and the killed and cured in warm weather by the ordinary meat flavored by these peculiar preservative fluids. process; by the vacuum process they may. To To the West, it offers great facilities and econopack in the ordinary way you must feed longer, and mies, as the West is now the great meat grower that even with a scarcity of food, to get to the cold and packer. weather, that you may safely cure; and by no means But this invention is truly a great boon to the can you meet a present demand or a rising market. people of the South. They now bring their pork By the vacuum process, you obviate long feeding, and beef from the west. Hereafter, they may cure warm weather (and that may occur even at mid- it for themselves. Now, they cannot, with a cerwinter to spoil meat cured in the ordinary mode), tainty of keeping, even in winter. With Mr. Davi. and you may meet a present demand or a rising mar- son's process they may cure at all seasons. Hereket, without loss of interest, storage, or insurance. after, they may cure with safety and economy. It may be objected that there is an expense in the They may thus become, not only their own pork vacuum process not incurred in the ordinary one. and beef growers, but they may add pork and beef In the ordinary process you cure and wait two to their exports. Indeed, in time, it may fairly be months, and then repack for inspection or to keep predicted that the region of country on the gulf of for family use. In the vacuum process you cure Mexico will be the only country that can export and pack, and are done; and the two packings of pork and beef profitably. Her climate will grow the ordinary mode are more expensive than the it without expense, for her pastures are ever green; curing and packing of the vacuum process. Hence and her fields may ever be filled with pork-fattenthere is economy in capital and outlay, in time and ling esculents. In no region does a good hog do
better than in a warm one. In the cotton and serve the public vastly more than ourselves. For sugar region every planter may himself make all prices see advertisement his bacon, for he is now able to cure it. To families of farmers, living in the country, it
TWO ITEMS ABOUT HAY. offers the means of having fresh meat during the The extraordinary drought of the past season, in summer without waste, for what cannot be eaten most parts of our country, has compelled many fresh can be packed, and will be the best pickled farmers to resort to some unusual expedients to promeat, as it will be recently cured.
cure a supply of provender. One of these I wish to There is yet another view in which this invention bring to notice, as it may be of some use among will wonderfully serve farmers and planters. By it the various “substitutes for a short crop of hay," they can impregnate wood with salt, and the wood offered in the public prints. will be indestructible; or may turn it to stone In the northern States, few sections, probably, measurably, and it shall yet be flexible, and can suffered more severely than the northwestern part never rot and only be lost by wear. By it shingles of New Jersey, comprising the county of Sussex for houses, and posts for fences, may be made inde- and the adjoining portion of Warren. Much stock structible. To do this it is only necessary to im- has been sold, and for the remainder, the prospect pregnate them with brine thoroughly. But it may is, that they will have to “pick clean and close,” be carried still further, and the wood turned wholly for seldom do we find a more complete failure in to stone; and thus—the wood is first charged with the hay crop. Some never mowed their meadows salt, then with sulphate of iron, and dried, then at all, and those who did, got but a slim return. A charged with a solution of muriate of lime; this friend of mine, in journeying through Sussex latter coming in contact with the sulphate of iron, county, came across one farmer, whose grass crop decomposes the wood and forms an insoluble presented about the same hopeless appearance as compound—sulphate of lime or gypsum. The the rest, at the usual time of mowing. And what wood then becomes stone, and yet retains toughness. did he do? give it up in despair, and turn his cattle
The chief merit of this apparatus is its extreme in to pasture according to the fashion ? Not he! simplicity and the economy with which it operates. He said he always made it his business to save The solution of salt, or brine, which is used in fodder. It was a prominent feature in his system most cases, both for curing meat and wood, is not of farming: Save it in the summer time-save costly. No more of it is expended than the meat it in the winter time—and save it at all times. If or wood takes up; the balance is returned to the the “ early rain" had failed, he had faith that the cistern and serves for another, or other operations. - latter one would come. So he waited, and come If a little sweetening matter or spices be added, it did, and with a heavy crop of hay, of two tons the cost is not greatly increased, and for the other to the acre, cut and housed in the month of Novemoperations contemplated upon wood the same ap
her. “ In the month of November !” no doubt plies, for most of the required solutions are made some will exclaim with surprise. Exactly so, from the cheapest ingredients. The apparatus, con- friend reader, although perhaps had you passed the structed of metal, will last for centuries. If it should field when the mowing was going on, you would get out of order, the rudest mechanic in the country have been inclined to ask, with a smile, “ Mister, can put it to rights. A boy of fourteen years of what time this year did you commence, age can work it as well as a man. In fine, although have got no further along than this, in your operamany of the principles involved are not new ones, tions ?” yet it so happens that no other apparatus hereto But enough of this. Let us learn something by fore invented rendered them of public utility, on the way; and be you our teacher, Mr. Editor. I account of great expense, while by this one, they would ask, could such a result as this be depended can be made practically, cheaply useful.
on generally, under the like circumstances, or only Such are the benefits which will arise to the ag. on some certain soils or situations ? What would ricultural world from this invention. Of its power be its effect on the crop of next year? It would to serve commerce in ship-building, in the construc- probably be a little later ; would it be just as good ? tion of railroads, bridges, &c., it is not here neces- Would it leave the roots more open to the killing sary to speak.
action of the frosts, and cause the grass to die out All that has been stated, is the result of actual and thus make it necessary to see the land over experiment, and may be daily witnessed at Mr. again? Would the soil deteriorate under such Davison's packing establishment in Leroy street treatment, or the reverse ? near West, and the truth of these representations I would also take this opportunity of calling attested. A view of the apparatus will surprise and tention to another item in the treatment of grass gratify far more than the statements here made. lands, given on page 151 of Mr. Ellsworth's agriNew York, Dec. 16, 1845.
A, S. cultural report for 1844. It is a novel and curious We commend the above article on curing meat doctrine, and I should like to know the principles to the attention of our readers. By Mr. Stevens' on which it is grounded. It reads as follows: “I request we examined the machine in question, and will take an old piece of herdsgrass, that at present found it more than he represents it. We think the yields less than half a ton of hay per acre, and at invention invaluable. Having received occasional the end of five years, without breaking up, fresh letters of inquiry in reference to it, we have been seeding, or manuring, in any way whatever, I will induceà, since Mr. S.'s article was written, to make raise the crop to two and a half tons per acre; an arrangement with the patentees to sell machines and this I will do by merely permitting the crop to and rights to the States, or if desired, to smaller stand until the seed will just vegetate before cul. territories. In doing this we are persuaded we shall I ting.” And the writer goes on to state, that he act.