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If the cups have sometimes overflowed I know usual labor. I would observe that this experiment not; yet I have often looked through the glasses of was made upon dry soil, and in a very dry season, the hives to see, but have never observed any syrup The process of decomposition underneath the sod on the floor boards. This fact leads me to con- concentrated the moisture, and the unbroken surclude that when, by a sudden elevation of tempera- face prevented evaporation. When I harvested ture, a quantity is forced out by the expansion of (which I think should be as late as possible and air within, the vessel being partially empty, the avoid the freezing), I found that the tops came bees from the same cause require a greater quantity from below the sod, but the potatoes were upon the of food, which compensates the supposed difficulty: surface, some of them out of the ground. I shall The former season I surrounded the feeders with try this mode again, and place the potatoes twelve saw dust as a bad conductor ; the latter they had inches apart in the rows. over them empty boxes only. The precaution is, I have escaped the rot, although all my neighhowever, to be recommended. Bevan recommends bors have suffered from it the two past years. I as the best spring food for bees and also the best cannot account for it, but reasoning from analogy substitute for honey in autumn, the following I have formed the following opinion: That if the compound: one pound of coarse brown sugar and disease is caused by an insect, the plant may be three-fourths of a pint of ale, boiled to the consist- too mature, or not sufficiently so when the insect ence of a syrup, to which should be added a tea- appears, to suffer from such attack. Therefore we spoonful of salt.

PHILETUS PHILLIPS. succeed best when we plant early, or late. This Middletown Point, N. J.

same theory would apply equally well to the sup

position that the disease is the effect of the damp, CULTURE OF POTATOES.

hot weather of August. In sowing wheat in the THE December No. of the Agriculturist contained spring, we know that we escape both the weevil a short article upon the Potato Rot, and an invita- and rust, either by late or early sowing, and I tion to its readers to contribute facts relating to the have noticed that the blast in the potato, and the cultivation of the potato.

rust on the wheat, come together. My farm is upon the banks of the Connecticut,

WM. BELLOWS. and the soil is of alluvial formation. Such soils Walpole, N. H., Jan. 13, 1846. are not favorable to the production of potatoes, as they are too close, and harden from the influence

CULTURE OF SUMACH. of the sun after rain. The porous, moist, upland, In September, 1843, I sent you an article on the is congenial to the potato. Upon our intervals cultivation of sumach, which appeared in your [meadows or bottoms skirting the river) we pre- number for October. I am pleased to inform you, pare the potato ground precisely as we do for corn, and the friends of American industry generally, by spreading upon the green sward coarse and un- that the quantity sent from the south for the past rotted manure from the barn yard, and turn under as year, 1845, mostly from Virginia, has been equal early as we can. After rolling and harrowing, we to about 10,000 bags, equivalent to 700 tons, being plant upon the surface in hills about three feet nearly one-twentieth of the consumption of the apart in the rows, and make the hill as large as we country.

We do not hoe more than once, except in I mentioned in my former essay, that the most wet seasons, when the weeds flourish.

astringent vegetables, or those containing the I planted one piece in the usual manner as early largest portion of gallic acid, are raised in warm as the middle of April, and on the last day of May climates. Now, although the sumach sent from I planted another piece upon the same swell of Virginia has been used in place of Sicilian, yet that land, turning under a good coat of grass to the which can be raised in South Carolina, Georgia, depth of five inches. I then sharpened a stake Alabama, and more particularly Florida, would be (not very sharp), which was about three inches in of decidedly better quality. I would, therefore, diameter, and put an inch pin through it about ten call the attention of enterprising citizens of those inches from the bottom, so that stepping upon the States to the article, and can promise them they pin I could easily perforate the sod." I then began can cultivate no product that will pay them better. making my holes between the two first furrows, I stated in my article 1843, " that I had been about eighteen inches apart, and continued to do informed sumach would not reproduce from the so in every fourth lap through the field. I then seed, it being a hybridous plant; but on consultput one medium sized potato in each hole, forcing ing a Mr Woodward, who sent the seed of our it down to the bottom of the sod, and covering it sumach to England, he says it will reproduce, as with my heel. After planting the whole field in much of the seed sent there produces bountifully.” this manner, I went over it with the roller, which He states that it should be gathered as soon as ripe, left the surface perfectly smooth. After the tops and planted soon after, so as not to become too old. were three or four inches high, I plastered them, This I consider an important fact, and one which and covered the plaster an inch or two with my our southern planters should embrace; for by hoe. Before the tops got to be too large, I went planting the seed, and mowing down the shoots between the rows with a cultivator, and pulled the three times annually, they might obtain from three weeds out between the hills. The result of the to five tons per acre, with much less expense and experiment was very gratifying. The crop from trouble than by gathering and bringing home the this piece was almost twice as large as from the natural growth scattered extensively over the counother. The potatoes were larger, and much finer try. The sumach is perennial, and when once for the table, and cost me not more than half the planted would last for ages, the crop when sown




annually increasing until the ground became full them with a valuable manure. Messrs. Stevens, of roots.

W. S. McCoun, and S. T. Jones, were appointed I refer those who may be desirous of cultivating as that committee. sumach, to my former article, for the time of cut Prepared Manures, and their effect upon Crops. ting, and the modes of preparing and packing the Mr. Pell rose and said: By analysis it is known that article for market.

WM. PARTRIDGE. all cereal grains, cruciferous and leguminous plants,

trees, and shrubs, require in the soil the same chemi. AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATION. cal substances, but in different quantities. These

Tue regular monthly meeting of this Associa-are eleven, viz: potash, soda, lime, magnesia, alu. tion was held at the Historical Society rooms, on mina, oxide of iron, oxide of manganese, silica, sul. the 7th of January. Hon. Luther Bradish, the phuric acid, phosphoric acid, and chlorine. If one be President, in the chair. The minutes of the last absent, the soil will not grow any cultivated plant. meeting were read and approved.

Hence analysis of soils is necessary for a proper and Dr. Gardener presented a copy of the first annual economical application of manure. In a barren soil report on the Geology of Vermont.

one necessary ingredient alone might be absent. If, Dr. Alexander H. Stevens stated that he had sown then, ten ingredients be added and the eleventh kept for experiment, the clover seed received from the back, the soil is still barren. Hence, the reason Society, under the name of Persian clover, at a why so much of New York will not grow wheat, former meeting. It proved to be luce ne. He fur- and yet will grow other grain : the requisite quantity ther remarked that he had previously grown lu- of some one or more chemical ingredients necessary cerne with much advantage, and considered it supe- for wheat is absent, but in sufficient quantity for rye, rior to any other green crop. A discussion arose, &c. When, at last, cultivated plants cease to grow, and many inquiries were made in relation to this the five-finger vine appears, as it requires stils less crop, from which it appeared that it possessed such of them. În such a stage it is not rare that an exadvantages over other crops, under favorable cir- pense of three dollars per acre will enable soil to cumstances, as to make it an object of importance produce thirty bushels of wheat. I produced 781 to cultivate it more generally than is done at present. bushels of wheat on a piece of worn out ground, by

Mr. Stevens described a successful mode of de- fifty cents worth of two ingredients. Like produstroying Canada thistles, where the roots had pen- ces like; and hence if straw of wheat be given to etrated beyond the reach of the plow. His plan the ground it will produce wheat: indeed, wheat was to cultivate the ground thoroughly, and seed may be grown on a pane of glass, if the seed be it down with red top grass seed, sown liberally, so covered with wheat straw in a decomposing state. that the sod should smother the young thistle, and Hence the farmer may sell the grain but not the thus prevent their growth. He also stated that he straw. The farmer who sells straw becomes poor; had sown some of the New Zealand spinach seed he who buys it, grows rich. distributed by the Society. He had succeeded in I apply straw to the cattleyard; it absorbs the liquid raising a few plants, and found it a valuable vege. excrement, and rots. What is long or partly unrotted table for the table. Several gentlemen, who had I apply to hoed crops; what is fine I mix with ille also received this seed, reported that they had not eleven requisites and apply as a top dressing. It may been able to raise a plant.

be advisable to apply the straw to the ground and Mr. Andrew H. Green, Cor. Sec'y, made his re- plow it in when unrotted. To grow grains give port. He read communications from Gov. Reed, of the soil straw of its kind; for potatoes, their vines ; Bermuda, and Dr. Philips, of Mississippi, accept- grapes, their vines; to apples their branches; and ing the appointment as councillors of the Associa- so of all. The droppings of cattle are the best ma

he also produced a translation of the pam- nure to grow grasses, as they feed on grass; those phlet of Baron Von Speck, on sheep, which had of horses fed on grain for the growth of cereals. been referred to him for translation. He had trans- Onions are grown year after year by only returning lated it himself, and wished the Association to con- the tops to the ground. In Virginia, had the refuse sider whether it was best to publish it. Messrs. of the tobacco plant been returned to the soil, she W. S. McCoun and A. B. Allen were appointed a would not now be barren. The bad farmer is incommittee to examine the translation.

jured by the vicinity of well manured land, as maMr. R. L. Pell read a valuable essay (see a con- nure has an affinity for oxygen, hydrogen, ammo. densed report of it below) upon the subject of prenia, &c., floating in the air, and attracts them to the pared manures, and their effects upon his crops for provident farmer's land. several successive years, after which he directed Formerly, I applied composts of various things, the attention of the Association to the importance and had wonderful results; Idared not omit any one, of introducing the Peruvian alpaca into this coun- as I knew not which had produced the result. try. He presented a specimen of their wool. It Now, science by analysis shows what is necessary. was moved that a committee of three be appointed by these composts, I grew a squash to weigh 201 to investigate the subject, and bring it beiore the lbs., the heaviest on record; and a cabbage to weigh Society at a future meeting. Messrs. R. L. Pell, 44 lbs. By it I grew wheat to weigh 64 lbs., rye J. S. Skinner, and Edward Clark were appointed. 60 lbs., oats 444 lbs. When Sprengel made known

A motion was made that a committee be appointed his analysis, showing that eleven substances are neto inquire into the subject of the waste manures of cessary to all good soils, I found that my compost by the city, as alluded to in Mr. Pell's essay, and to chance had them all, and twenty other enriching suggest such means as would enable the city to be ingredients. relieved of this nuisance, and at the same time Previous to 1840, my orchards bore only every benefit the agricultural community by furnishing other year. Since then I make them bear every




year: and this year, a bad one for fruit, found Lime has been used by me to great advantage. my manured trees full, and those not manured bar- I prefer oyster shell lime, as it contains no magneren. The drought of this year was fatal to fruit; sia, which most stone lime does. I think oyster yet my manured trees had abundant moisture and shell lime has a tendency to lessen in growth the were fruitful. I prefer the manure of decayed vege- stem and leaves, and increase the fruit and seeds. table matter to the excrement of cattle, as the mate- I put on barren or worn out land 300 bushels oysrial that makes and supports the animal has been ter shell time and it grew wheat to a weight of 64 lbs. extracted, and the excrement is not so rich on that per bushel ; with the wheat I sowed one bushel of cloaccount. If the vegetable matter be rotted and verseed and half a bushel of timothy seed per acre, its ammonia fixed by charcoal dust, all the chemical and the next year cut 24 tons, and the second year 3 substances are present. Thus rotted vegetable mat- tons of hay per acre. I have found it of great advanter is more beneficial than the dung of cattle, quan- tage in potato culture; the potatoes do not rot in the tity and quantity alike.

ground, while neighboring unlimed ones all do. A most valuable manure is the liquid remaining They are mealy and fine, and do not rot after gatherafter the boiling of bones. It is very offensive un- ing, and have been free of rot in dry, wet and average less disinfected. When hot it is not offensive, but seasons. I think it destroys the fungus or insect, if becomes so when cold. It is a jelly when cold. either be the cause of rot. By the application of charcoal dust to the hot liquid, Bone dust I have used and find it most valuable, the jelly when cold is not offensive. In this state and advise its use, especially on soils long cultivatit may be made into compost with other substances. ed, destitute of phosphate of lime ; it is the most In that condition it is a most valuable manure. At efficacious manure that can be used on an exhausted present large amounts of the liquid are thrown into soil, but will do better on dry calcareous soil than the rivers. I prevailed upon a grinder of bones to on such as contain alumina. It should be mixed save his liquid by charcoal, and he now sells what with earth to ferment before spreading. There formerly he hired carried away. I have used it with should be used from 12 to 20 bushels to the acre. great advantage, both on arable and meadow land. It seems best on turnips. In compost, it is valuable,

Charcoal is one of the most valuable manures. as it yields phosphates largely." It is said that in It is the most powerful absorbent known. It takes England, where on lands it had been applied 20 years from the atmosphere oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, before, its effect could be seen to a yard. I trust the exammonia, &c., and holds them while the weather is portation of bones from our country will soon cease. dry. During rain it absorbs 80 per cent of water, I have used guano successfully and unsuccessful. and releases the gases to descend to the earth to ly. Mixed with earth and applied to plants in close fertilize it. When the weather becomes dry it contact it was injurious; applied in weak solution parts with the water, and absorbs from the air the to grass land and green house plants its effect was gases again. This it continues almost perpetually, wonderful. My experience shows that its method as it is nearly indestructible. When applied to the of use will determine its value. In composts I have earth, the trees, plants, and grasses are found to found it very effective. nave it adhering to their roots ready to impart Night soil is one of the most valuable manures. gases and moisture as wanted. Trees packed in it In this country, as well as in England, great prejuhave remained green for 80 days, while others with- dice prevails against its use in agriculture or gardenout it have died in like circumstances. Hams and ing. For ages it has been used in Asia and partisalt meats are preserved perfectly when packed in it. cularly in China. In France, in Belgium, Bohemia, I preserved apples in perfect condition for one year Saxony, all the German confederacy, and Swein it. If spread over compost heaps, barn-yards, den_its destruction or waste is prohibited by law. stable-floors, in privies, it absorbs the ammonia, In England and America it is thrown into the rivers prevents offensive smells, fixes the volatile gases, to befoul them, and the fish which devour it are and thus makes a valuable compost.

eaten instead of vegetables grown by it. As manure, Ashes applied to sandy soils are valuable; and 6 loads of it have been found to produce 650 bush. on some soils leached are as good as unleached. I els per acre of potatoes, while, on the same ground, have known land too poor to grow 8 bushels of corn, 120 loads of horse manure yielded only 480 bushels. made to produce 45 bush. by ashes alone; and they In conclusion, I have to remark that the main are more valuable on a sandy soil than any other stay of the farmer is his barnyard manure. Yet this manure except marly clay. They enable the sandy varies in quality, according to the material of which soil to retain its moisture, a great point. They are it is made, and the manner of making. Thus the used to great advantage on Long Island and in New droppings of cattle fed on straw and turnips are far Jersey: They stimulate growth as does plaster. less valuable than those of cattle fed on hay and Sown broad cast on grass, the effect is perceptible oil cake; and it is economy to feed hay and oil at a great distance. The yield the first year on cake rather than straw and turnips. So in manuring; sandy soils in grass, will pay the expense of apply. that which is leached by rains and volatilized by the ing forty bushels to the acre. They give to the soil sun is less valuable than the unleached and unsun. silicate of potash, which is needed to form stems. ned. But this is too extensive a subject to take up,

Ashes have two actions on soils, viz., chemically and is so well understood by good farmers, that it is by alkali they neutralize acids; and mechanically unnecessary to say more on the subject. by rendering sandy soils more tenacious. Muck is Mr. Pell made some further remarks on methods made valuable by them, when mixed in compost; the of cultivation, which we will report in our next. acid of the muck is destroyed by the alkali, and fer After some business relating to the Society was mentation follows.

transacted, the meeting adjourned.




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ANNUAL MEETING OF NEW YORK STATE the annual address. The new officers were then AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY.

installed, and after the passage of some resolutions The Society met in the Capitol on the 21st of and some interesting discussion, the Society ad. January.

journed. The meeting was called to order by the President, On the 22d, the Executive Committee met, and B. P. Johnsoni, Esq.

adopted the recommendation of the nominating The Recording Secretary, L. Tucker, read the cominittee, and selected Auburn as the place of the list of members present.

Show for this year. Mr. Tucker resigned the The Treasurer, T. Hillhouse, read the report of duties of his office, and they were devolved on the the Committee appointed to examine the Treasurer's Corresponding Secretary. accounts. The accounts were reported satisfactory. The Treasurer then read his report. From this it

PERUVIAN GUANO. appears that the

I HAVE seen in the Baltimore American, National Recline on hea means 1,5, 19. dine} $6,322 27 Intelligencer, and other southern papers, an adver

balance on hand Jan. 1, 1845, were Disbursements..

tisement, offering for sale the cargo of Guano im...3,776 06

ported into New York in the Caroline Amelia,“ Invested on bond and mortgage. 2,000 00 5,776 06

Peruvian Guano, from the Chincha Islands ;” and
Balance on hand Jan. 1, 1846..... $546 21

that the farmers of the United States may not be

imposed upon in the purchase of this manure, I Mr. Geddes reported, that the Committee on beg leave to avail myself of your journal to enCorn had awarded the premium on corn to Geo. lighten them on this subject. Vail, of Troy, 91 bushels to the acre.

The Caroline Amelia was loaded under a license : C. N. Bement, chairman, reported the awards of from the Chilian Government, at a distance of premiums made by the Committee on root crops. nearly a thousand miles from the Chincha Islands,

Mr. Fuller, of Onondaga Co., moved that a com- and her cargo is of a quality far inferior to that mittee of three from each Senatorial District, be ap: obtained in Peru. Indeed, much of that sent to pointed to recommend suitable persons as officers of England from the same place has been found to be the Society for the year 1846, and to report to the entirely worthless, from exposure to the rain where Executive Committee a proper place at which the deposited ; and from being strongly impregnated with Annual Show of the Society should be held; the salt, from the beating of the surf against the low motion prevailed.

rocks where it is gathered. Another vessel, the Mr. Cheever, of Albany Co., moved that the Wodan, under the Danish flag, was also loaded at committee of nomination be chosen by the delegates the same place for the United States, and the same present from each Senatorial District, each delega- imposition may be attempted with her cargo. tion to select three of its members; the motion pre

The only genuine Peruvian Guano sent to this vailed. The delegations then retired, and on coming in Peruvian Guano Company, under authority of the

country, is shipped at the Chincha Islands, by the reported the committee.

Peruvian Government, and all to my consignment. L. F. Allen offered a resolution, proposing a com. It will be received by me at New York, or by Mr. mittee to investigate and report to the Society all SAM’L K. GEORGE, at Baltimore. Any other offerinformation that can be obtained in reference to the ed as Peruvian, is spurious, and our farmers must dairies of this State. The resolution was adopted, be cautious to ascertain the origin of what they and L. F. Allen, D. Lee, E. Comstock, Z. Pratt, and buy to avoid imposition. Wm. Walbridge, were appointed the committee. The Society adjourned to meet at 61 o'clock, in the United States are those of the Orpheus and

The only two cargoes of Peruvian Guano now P. M.

On convening at evening, Mr. Denniston, of the Coquimbo. The ships Regulus, Troy, and Missisnominating committee, reported the following here or at Baltimore, in the course of the spring.

sippi, are expected to arrive with further supplies, names, viz. :

Enclosed I send you the analysis of a sample of President, J. M. SHERWOOD; Vice Presidents, R. H. this Chilian Guano by Dr. Chilton of this city: LUDLOW, A. BOCKEE, E. P. PRENTICE, T. I. MARVIN,

Phosphate of Lime...


Carbonate of Lime.

8.12 F. ALLEN; Recording Secretary, Luther Tucker;

Silica Corresponding Secretary, Joer B. Nott; Treasurer,


, &c. } Stony matter... 16.22 T. Hillhouse ; Executive Committee, A. CONCKLIN, Chloride of Sodium.

5.36 Geo. Vair, AMI. DOUBLEDAY, A. Stevens, and

Sulphate of Soda

4.41 J. MILLER.

Sulphate of Ammonia, Mr. Hillhouse declined, and J. M. D. McIntire Phosphate of Ammonia,

Muriate of Ammonia,

4.16 was substituted, and the nominees were elected by

Urate of Ammonia,
the Society.
The committee recommended Auburn as the place

Undecomposed Organic Matter... 3.89
Water and loss.

for the next Show.
The Society then adjourned to the next day.

100. On the 22d, the Society met and heard reports from its officers and various committees, and ad.

EDWIN BARTLETT. journed to evening, when the President delivered New York, Jan'y 13, 1816.

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Ladies' Department.

12th.-Having secured my little prisoner, the

apple worr., which I captured on the 1st, in a INSECTS.No. 1.

box, and placed in a warm room beside one con SINCE some of the pages of your periodical have they have anticipated spring, and some have grati

taining several apples with worms in them, I find been devoted to the ladies, it has occurred to me, fied my curiosity by appearing in their spring dress. that extracts from an unpublished journal of an They are now beautiful little dark brown moths, Old Lady, which has lately fallen into my posses- and, as I suspected, all of the same family, deserving sion, might frequently afford useful hints to to be better known than I believe them to be farmers' wives, and occasionally throw light on among the farmers, though well known to the ensome of those subjects that are beginning to attract tomologists as the Carpocapsa pononana,

one of the the attention of practical farmers, as well as scien- family of the Tortrix. I will therefore refer to my tific men. The writer of this Journal appears to have spent a long life in the country, devoting them at length ; and that I may be better acquainted

previous observations on this family, and describe herself to homely pursuits and useful studies--and with them in future, I will sketch their portraits in taking for her motto—“Whatever is worth doing, their various disguises as they now lie before me. is worth doing well.” She pretends to little scientific information ; but appears devotedly fond of the contemplation of the operations of nature, as presented to her view—whether it be in the changing clouds and skies—the still forest—the useful field and garden-or in the homely kitchen and its fireside combinations. But, above all, the study of the insect world appears to have been her peculiar delight, and to this she seems to have devoted many of her leisure hours, carefully noting down any interesting fact that has fallen under her notice. To this portion of her journal I will now call the attention of my country-women, hoping that the observations of this good old lady may not only amuse and interest, but induce some to follow her example, and find in the book of nature their

APPLE MOTH.—FIG. 14. chief happiness.

1, Cocoon or silk covering, on the bark; 2, Feb. 1st.-A fine cold day—must go and see chrysalis ; 3, perfect moth, at rest; 4, moth on the what my friends the woodpeckers are about, as wing; 5, worm. there are an unusual number employed among the Moth.—The upper wings of this little moth (4) fruit trees—amply paid for my trouble, and have are of a light grey color, beautifully pencilled and gained subjects for thought to amuse me for a mottled with dark brown dots and waving lines; month. Having noticed that the woodpeckers the back margin is ornamented with a large reddish were most busily engaged on the oldest fruit trees brown spot, surrounded with a border of reddish and those that had the roughest bark, I chose a brown gold, edged with a sparkling brown fringe. large old apple tree for my observations, and with The under wings are of a light brownish red, my pruning knife, which I always carry with me, shaded into a light dusky yellow, with a sparkling carefully raised the loose bark. For some time lustre, and bordered by a fringe. The body is light I could detect nothing that could interest either brownish grey, pencilled with dark brown lines, me or a woodpecker ; but at length I discovered a like the upper wings. The chrysalis (2) is a bright little dark substance resembling coarse mud-color-reddish brown; the cocoon (1), a dark brown flated silk, which appeared to glue a piece of loose tened oval silk ball, closely woven to, and surbark to the tree. On removing it carefully, I found rounded by, the bark. the coarse, dark cover, beautifully lined with soft In the months of May and June, great numbers white silk, forming a bed and cover to a little red- of these little moths may be seen at rest on the trees dish brown worm, which appeared fast asleep, or concealed among the grass during the day, but and carefully cradled for the winter. Pursuing as evening approaches, they begin their work of my search further, I found many more; but some destruction, by depositing their eggs on the young had undergone a change, and become what the en- fruit, always choosing the firmest and best as food tomologists call a chrysalis. (See 5, Fig. 14.) for the future grubs. The eggs are usually depoHere, then, was a reason for the visit from the wood-sited near the blossom or hollow of the apple, near peckers, who had found out the secret before me. the stalk. In a few days the eggs are hatched, and

But who is the little worm, and to what the little worms enter the young fruit, where they family does he belong? Of this the woodpeckers feed for three or four weeks; they then leave the know nothing, and the worm is fast asleep. I fruit whether it has fallen or not from the tree, and must try and find out. On carefully examining my find for themselves a home, usually under the bark little prisoner, I find a strong resemblance to a trou- of the tree, where they spin their beautifully and blesome family that has annoyed me all summer, curiously contrived covering, to shelter themselves commonly called apple worm, some of whom are during their helpless state. In a few days the little still lingering in the cores of my winter store grub changes first to a chrysalis, then to a moth, apples.°I must look further into this matter, and and comes out to deposit her eggs on the remaining see what are his future intentions.

fruit, which will be destroyed in proportion to the

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