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that the pages will not be lost easily, yet should be so bound that revised pages can be inserted. The aircraft specification will identify the manual, and when different types of the airplane are covered in separate manuals, each will be listed. Also, the latest approved revisions will be shown on the aircraft specification when these changes are considered to be of major importance to airworthiness.
The Airplane Flight Manual should contain as much of the following as is applicable to the individual model. It is suggested that the document be divided into sections as indicated in paragraphs (a)-(g) of this section. The sequence of sections and of items within sections should follow this outline insofar as practicable. This will facilitate revising the document when an airplane is altered in the field. It is recommended that revisions to the manual resulting from major alterations to the airplane be in the form of supplements to the original manual with individual log of revision pages.
(a) Introduction (1) Title page. This page should include the manufacturer's name, airplane model, registration or serial number, date of approval and space for the signature of the Chief, Aircraft Division. In addition the following note should be included: “This airplane must be operated in compliance with the Operating Limitations herein."
(2) Table of contents.
(3) Log of revisions. This page should be in the form of a table in which to record for each revision an identifying symbol, a date, and the page numbers involved. All revised pages should show a revision date and a vertical bar should be placed along the left hand margin to indicate the latest revised portion of each page.
(b) Operating limitations. The purpose of this section is merely to state the limitations without any unnecessary explanation of what they are. The manual should point out that observance of these limitations is required by law.
(1) Weight limits. Indicate the range of maximum take-off and landing weight approved by means of a table or suitable diagram showing these weights at various altitudes throughout the range for which performance information is contained in the manual. State that airplane weight in excess of maximum landing weight must be disposable fuel. State any other limitations on weight. In addition to
the maximum weights and any relative information, a statement to the effect that the airplane must be loaded in accordance with the approved loading schedule should be included. (See paragraph (e) of this section.) The following is a typical example:
(i) Maximum take-off weight at sea level is 92,000 pounds.
(ii) Maximum landing weight at sea level is 73,000 pounds.
NOTE: This airplane is to be operated in accordance with the approved loading schedule. (See paragraph (e) of this section.) For maximum permissible weights at various altitudes, see paragraph (d), Performance information, of this section. In scheduled or irregular passenger operations, operating weights are limited in accordance with Parts 41, 42, or 61 of this subchapter.
(iii) All weight in excess of the maximum permissible landing weight must consist of disposable fuel.
(iv) All weight in excess of 68,000 pounds must consist of fuel for structural reasons.
(V) All fuel weight must be distributed equally on both sides of the airplane. All main tanks must be filled (equally) first, alternate second, and then auxiliaries. Fuel must be used in reverse order from fuel loading except for take-off, climb and landing-at which time the main tanks should be used.
(2) Center of gravity limits. State all authorized C. G. limits and refer to paragraph (e) of this section for weight and balance data. All C. G. limits should be given in inches from the datum, which should be identified and in percent of the mean aerodynamic chord, with the landing gear extended in all cases.
(3) Power plant. State all power plant limitations; i. e., manifold pressure, r. p. m., maximum time for use of take-off power, cylinder head and barrel and oil temperatures, minimum fuel octane number, etc. Give any limitation on r. p. m. due to vibration, tip speed, etc.; also propeller pitch, cowl flap position limitations, etc. The items should be listed as follows:
(v) Landing gear operating speed. maximum speed at which the landing
(vi) Landing gear extended speed. a speed limitation (e. g., never exceed speed) results from compressibility effects, the manual should include & statement to this effect and information concerning warning symptoms, probable
behavior of the airplane and suggested
(e) Temperatures Maximum per by severe gusts. (The "maneuvering missible cylinder head and oil inlet. speed" is generally considered the opti
(f) Power limits—Those given by the mum speed to avoid excessive loads as engine specification; i. e., excluding the
well as inadvertent stalling or loss of effect of ram on critical altitude.
control in turbulent air.) The speed V10 (g) Any limitations, such as rpm
should not be deliberately exceeded, even ranges in which operation is prohibited
during scents bed ise the possibility due to engine or propeller vibration.
of unexpected gusts. The speed range
between Vno and Vne is to provide for (ii) Propellers.
inadvertent speed increases. When this (a) Manufacturer.
speed is reduced at altitude because of (b) Model designation.
Mach number effects, the purpose of (iii) Instrument markings. An ex
such reduction is to maintain the marginu planation of the instrument markings
between Vno and Vne for inadvertent 1 should be included. A typical example
speed increases. follows:
(iii) Maneuvering speed. VA, plus & (a) General: Red radial line-Maxi
statement of its significance, of which mum and minimum limits. Yellow arc
the following is an example: "Maximum Take-off and precautionary ranges.
use” of the primary flight controls should Green arc-Normal operating ranges.
be confined to speeds below this value. Red arc-Ranges in which operation is
For this purpose, “maximum use” is deprohibited.
fined as the lesser of the following: Rud
der—full throw, or (6) Fuel quantity indicator (when
Elevator—full throw, or applicable-Reference § 46.736). Red
force. Aileron-full throw, or arc-Fuel which cannot be used safely in
pounds force with each hand. flight. (4) Speed limitations. The speeds and
(iv) Flaps extended speed. Vre at explanations of their significance given
least the speed determined in accordin subdivisions (i) through (vi) of this
ance with $ 4b.714 must be given. Howsubparagraph should be included. Sec
ever, when desired, speeds for various tion 4b.710 does specify whether airspeed
combinations of flap settings and power limitations should be expressed in terms
conditions may be given, the following
is an example: of calibrated or indicated airspeed. However, to agree with past practice it is suggested that the airspeed values be
Flap setting expressed in terms of calibrated airspeed. The indicated airspeed values may also be included, but should be properly Take-off. identified, e. g. by parentheses.
Approach. (i) Never exceed speed. V ne (previ
Landing. ously known as "glide or dive speed") with and without de-icer boots, if applicable plus a statement to the effect
(A note should be added to indicate which of the values that speeds in excess of this value may
is to be marked on the airspeed indicator.) result in structural, flutter, or control hazards. The effects of altitude (i. e.,
Vlo, plus a statement that this is the Mach number) on this speed should be given if applicable unless the airplane
gear may be lowered or raised. is equipped with a Machmeter, in which case the “never-exceed" Mach number should also be quoted.
VlE, plus a statement that this is the (ii) Normal operating limit speed.
maximum speed with landing gear ex
tended and locked. V no (previously known as “level flight or climb speed" or "maximum structural
(vii) Compressibility effects. When cruising speed"), with and without deicer boots if applicable, plus statements to the effect that: Speeds in excess of this value may result in excessive gust loads, whereas speeds below this value will reduce the structural loads produced
Take-off. Continuous Take-off. Idling. Take-of.
(viii) Airspeed-indicator markings. An explanation of the airspeed-indicator markings should be included. A typical example follows: “Airspeed-Indicator markings (See definitions of speeds in subdivisions (i) through (vi) of this subparagraph). Red radial line-never exceed speed, Vne. Yellow arc-caution range, extending from Vno to Vne. White arc—flaps extended range, extending from stalling speed (VS) with flaps in landing position at maximum landing weight to the flaps extended speed (84b.714). Green arc-normal operating range; i. e., from stalling speed with flaps retracted at maximum take-off weight to Vno."
(5) Demonstrated crosswind. The statement on this item should indicate the maximum cross component of wind velocity at which it has been demonstrated to be safe to take-off or land. If the value established during the tests is considered the maximum up to which it is considered safe to operate the airplane on the ground, including take-offs and landings, it should be entered under this item; i. e., as a limitation. However, if the value established is not considered limiting it should be included as performance information, as outlined in paragraph (d) of this section, instead of a limitation. In the case of flying boats and additional maximum cross component of wind velocity for taxiing may be appropriate material. Crosswind should be based on reported wind velocities measured at 50 feet above the ground.
(6) Flight load acceleration limits. Flaps up
(at take-off weight). Flaps down (at landing weight).
(7) Type of airplane operation. A typical example would be as follows:
(i) Transport category.
(ii) Instrument night flying (when required equipment is installed).
(ii) Atmospheric icing conditions, should stipulate “none, trace, light, moderate or heavy."
(8) Minimum crew. Information should be given in this item for all operations specified under subparagraph (7) of this paragraph and any additional conditions if desired or considered pertinent. The number and identity of members of minimum crew necessary to safe operation should be stated.
(9) Miscellaneous. This item should include any information not given under
the preceding headings that is restrictive and considered necessary for the safe operation of the airplane. Some typical examples are as follows:
(i) The wing and tail anti-icing heaters should not be operated in flight when the outside air temperature is above 50° F.
(i) Pressurized cabin differential pressure limits, etc.
(iii) A notation should be included to warn flight personnel against jettisoning fuel while the flaps are lowered unless it has been demonstrated that flap position does not adversely affect fuel jettisoning. (See § 4b.437 (b).)
(iv) Propeller reversing to be used for taxiing only.
(v) The windshield temperature limits or head adjustment setting should be specified if resistance to bird penetration is dependent upon operation within
particular windshield temperature range.
(c) Operating procedures; general. This section of the manual should contain information peculiar to the airplane, concerning normal and emergency procedures, knowledge of which might enhance the safety of operation of the airplane. The manual should state that these procedures are not made mandatory by this part. However, they may be made mandatory by other parts of the regulations such as Parts 40, 41, 42, etc., of this subchapter.
(1) Normal procedures. This section should contain information and instructions regarding peculiarities of: Starting and warming engines, taxiing, operation of wing flaps, landing gear, automatic pilot, etc. Outline normal procedures for each, noting any special precautions in the interests of safety. Describe or refer to procedure in any emergency likely to occur in each. Also included in this section should be instructions for the operation of any equipment that is considered new in the aeronautical field or comparatively complicated.
(i) A typical example of the former would be: "Wing flaps should be exercised through three complete cycles prior to all initial take-offs. This operation accomplishes the automatic bleeding and the equalization of pressure to the eight separate hydraulic flap actuating cylinders."
used in repeatedly resetting non-oversome operators may develop various operating procedures that they consider equivalent or better than some of those an operator wants to incorporate new procedures in the Airplane Flight Man.
ual, the operator should apply to the FAA
(ii) Typical examples of the latter (h) Ignition for dead engine-"Off." are: “Recommended operating procedures for thermal ice prevention system,
(i) Propeller pitch control—"Full derecommended operating procedures for
crease r. p. m." reversible pitch propellers, and cabin
(iii) Automatic propeller feathering. pressurization.”
(iv) Unusual procedures. Informa(2) Emergency procedures-(i) En
tion on any emergency procedures that gine failure. This section should include
are considered unusual or in which & the procedure to be used in the event of
specific sequence of events are required an engine failure, including recom
to accomplish the operation satisfacmended minimum speeds, trim, opera
torily should be specified. Some typical tion of remaining engine(s), etc. A
examples are as follows: typical example would be as follows:
(a) All-engine go-around when it is "Engine Failure on Take-Off. The min
recommended practice to retract the imum speed (V.) at which the airplane
flap prior to retracting the gear resulting can be controlled directionally on the
from a design condition in which the flap runway with an outboard engine inoper
creates more drag than the landing ative and its propeller windmilling, and
gear. with take-off power on the remaining (b) Fire control procedures. engines, is 60 m. p. h. CAS. The mini
(c) Emergency cabin depressurizamum speed at which the airplane is tion. controllable in flight with the sudden failure of an outboard engine, with take
(d) Emergency landing gear extenoff power on the remaining engines, is
sion. 96 m. p. h. CAS. If an engine fails
(e) Emergency brake operation. during the ground roll below speed V1, cut
(f) Fuel dumping. the throttles on all engines and apply
(g) Electrical: In addition to other brakes. If ground contact has already
electrical items, the manual should specbeen broken, land straight ahead if sufficient runway remains. If not, retract
ify the circuits in which overriding landing gear, maintain full power on live
breakers, if any, are used and contain in
structions concering operation of both engines, and continue take-off. Feather the dead engine as outlined in subdivision
overriding and non-over-riding types.
The following is a typical example: “All (ii) of this subparagraph. Use mini
circuit breakers are of the non-over-ridmum cowl flap setting on live engines to maintain cylinder temperatures within
ing type except the fuel booster pumps limits. Retrim airplane as necessary.
and propeller feathering circuits. In an Speed for best climb under these condi
emergency, the breakers in these two tions is 115 m. p. h. CAS. See para
circuits may be held closed with the posgraph (d) Performance information, of
sible risk of fire hazard due to short this section, for criterion and V1 speeds
circuits, etc. Discretion should also be used in determining the runway lengths.”
riding breakers due to the fact that re(ii) Propeller feathering. This sec
setting may reestablish an arc and intion of the manual should outline the
crease the fire hazard." procedure to be followed in stopping the rotation of propellers in flight. A typi
(h) Emergency by day and/or night. cal procedure is outlined below:
(i) Flare release procedure. (a) Throttle-"Closed.”
(j) Wheels up landing procedure. (b) Push feathering switch button.
(k) Ditching procedure. When propeller blades are fully feath
(3) Other special operating proceered the button will kick out automat
dures (if any). ically.
(4) Alternate operating procedures
. (c) Mixture control-Idle cut-off."
After gaining a large amount of expe(d) Fuel and oil fire wall shut-off
rience with a particular model airplane, switches—“Off” (closed).
(e) Cowl flaps—"Closed.”
(g) Tank selector for engine being feathered—“Off.” (Do not shut tank selector “Off” if crossfeed is being used.)
originally described in the manual. It
office in the region where he is located for approval of the alternate procedures in the same manner that he would normally use in the case of a structural change or alteration. The local FAA regional office will coordinate the application with the FAA regional office containing the airplane technical data file if the proposed change in procedure is considered to be of sufficient importance.
(i) For scheduled air carrier operators only. For greater flexibility and to avoid duplication of instructions to pilots when operators desire to incorporate Airplane Flight Manual Operating Procedures in their operations manuals or devise their own operating procedures, the FAA will permit the removal of the Operating Procedures Section from the Airplane Flight Manual by scheduled air carrier operators provided the operators include the same or equivalent material in their operations manual and at the same time assume full responsibility of proving the equivalency of any new or altered procedures if called upon to do so by the FAA in connection with airplane accident investigations, etc. When the Operating Procedure Section is removed from the Airplane Flight Manual by an operator, an appropriate notation to this effect should be added to the Airplane Flight Maual of each airplane affected.
In accordance with the foregoing, the following statement should be included under the Operating Procedure Section of the Airplane Flight Manual when the Operating Procedure Section is transferred verbatim from the Airplane Flight Manual to the air carrier operations manual:
The airplane operating procedures prescribed by $ 46.742 Operating procedures are Included in
(show reference to appropriate section of the alr carrier operations manual)
If an air carrier operator desires to reword or restate the FAA approved operating procedures or establish new or alternate operating procedures without obtaining prior approval of these procedures from the FAA, the following additional statement should be included with the above statement:
Where the procedures in the air carrier operations manual differ from those contained in the FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual for this airplane, (------name of air carrier operator------) has determined that equivalent safety is provided by such alternate procedures and assumes full responsibility for this determination.
If for any reason the alternate operating procedures become inapplicable or inappropriate to the operation of the airplanes affected, the original FAA Approved Operating Procedures Section should be reinserted in the Airplane Flight Manual in order that the contents of the manual will revert to the same text as originally approved by the FAA.
(d) Performance information. This section should contain all the performance information necessary to implement the operating requirements of Part 40 of this subchapter, etc., and to operate the airplane safely.
(1) Introductory information. This should include any general information or any pertinent descriptions of the conditions under which the performance data were determined. The following examples are considered typical and appropriate:
(i) All climb data are for standard atmospheric conditions.
(ii) The minimum effective take-off runway lengths given in this section are defined as the longer "accelerate-stop distance" and the distance required to take off and clear a 50-foot obstacle with one engine becoming inoperative at speed V.
(a) The accelerate-stop distance is the distance required to accelerate the airplane from a standing start to the speed Vu, and assuming an engine to fail at this point, to stop.
(b) The take-off distance is defined as the sum of the following: Distance to accelerate to speed V, with all engines operating, distance to accelerate from speed V, to speed V, with one engine inoperative and propeller windmilling in low pitch. (It is assumed that gear retraction is initiated at the end of this segment), and the horizontal distance traveled in climbing to a height of 50 feet at speed V, with one engine inoperative. (It is assumed that propeller feathering is not commenced prior to the end of this segment.)
(c) Speed V, is defined as the critical engine failure speed and is a speed at which the controllability has been demonstrated to be adequate to permit proceeding safely with the take-off when the critical engine is suddenly made inoperative. The minimum V. speed for this airplane is 60 m. p. h. CAS (airspeed calibration should include ground effect); however, as explained below,