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MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT Sec. 6.650 Hydraulic systems. Subpart G-Operating Limitations and
GENERAL 6.700 Scope.
6.710 Air-speed limitations; general. 6.711 Never-exceed speed VNE. 6.712 Operating speed range. 6.713 Rotor speed. 6.714 Powerplant limitations. 6.716 Rotorcraft weight and center of grav
ity limitations. 6.717 Minimum flight crew. 6.718 Types of operation. 6.719 Maintenance manual.
MARKINGS AND PLACARDS 6.730 General. 6.731 Instrument markings; general. 6.732 Alr-speed indicator. 6.733 Magnetic direction indicator. 6.734 Powerplant instruments; general. 6.735 Oil quantity indicator. 8.736 Fuel quantity indicator. 6.737 Control markings. 6.738 Miscellaneous markings and placards.
ROTORCRAYT FLIGHT MANUAL 6.740 General. 6.741 Operating limitations. 6.742 Operating procedures. 6.743 Performance information. 6.744 Marking and placard Information.
ROTORCRAFT IDENTIFICATION DATA 6.750 Identification plate. 6.751 Identification marks.
AUTHORITY: $$ 6.0 to 6.751 issued under sec. 205, 52 Stat. 984, as amended; 49 U. S. C. 425. Interpret or apply secs. 601, 603, 62 Stat. 1007, as amended, 1009, as amended; 49 U. S. C. 551, 553.
AUTHORITY NOTE: Additional citation of authority to Part 6 was appended by Amendment 6-4, 24 F.R. 7074, Sept. 1, 1959, as follows: "(Secs. 313(a), 601, 603, 72 Stat. 752, 775, 776; 49 U.S.C. 1354(a), 1421, 1423)”
SOURCE: $$ 6.0 to 6.751 issued by the Civil Aeronautics Board, appear at 21 F. R. 10291, Dec. 22, 1956, except as otherwise noted.
NOTE: Sections of this part bearing two or more numbers to the right of the decimal point separated by a dash, are rules, policies or interpretations issued by the former Civil Aeronautics Administration (now the Federal Aviation Agency). Sources are cited to text.
CROSS REFERENCES: For Special Civil Air Regulation with respect to facilitation of experiments with exterior lighting systems, see SR-392B in Part 3 of this subchapter.
For Special Civil Air Regulation with respect to Class I and Class II provisional type
and airworthiness certificates for the operation of aircraft, see SR-425C in Part 1 of this subchapter.
Subpart A-General APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS $ 6.0 Applicability of this part.
This part contains standards with which compliance shall be demonstrated for the issuance of and changes to type certificates for rotorcraft. This part, until superseded or rescinded, shall apply to rotorcraft of any weight for which applications for type certification under this part were made between the effective date of this part (January 15, 1951) and August 1, 1956. For applications for type certificates made after August 1, 1956, this part shall apply only to rotorcraft which have a maximum weight of 6,000 pounds or less. 8 6.1 Definitions.
As used in this part, terms are defined as follows:
(a) Administration (1) Administrator. The Administrator is the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Agency.
(2) Applicant. An applicant is a person or persons applying for approval of a rotorcraft or any part thereof.
(3) Approved. Approved, when used alone or as modifying terms such as means, devices, specifications, etc., means approved by the Administrator. (See $ 6.18.)
(b) Rotorcraft types—(1) Rotorcraft. A rotorcraft is any aircraft deriving its principal lift from one or more rotors.
(2) Helicopter. A helicopter is a rotorcraft which depends principally for its support and motion in the air upon the lift generated by one or more powerdriven rotors, rotating on substantially vertical axes.
(3) Gyroplane. A gyroplane is a rotorcraft which depends principally for its support upon the lift generated by one or more rotors which are not power driven, except for initial starting, and which are caused to rotate by the action of the air when the rotorcraft is in motion. The propulsion is independent of the rotor system and usually consists of conventional propellers.
(4) Gyrodyne. A gyrodyne is a rotorcraft which depends principally for its support upon the lift generated by one or more rotors, which are partially power driven, rotating on substantially vertical
corrected for position error, instrument flow for the particular altitude. (EAS is equal to CAS at sea level in standard
(4) TAS. True air speed of the rotorcraft relative to undisturbed air.
(5) Vh. The maximum speed obtain
able in level flight with rated rpm and
axes. The propulsion is independent of (2) Minimum weight. The minimum the rotor system and usually consists of weight of the rotorcraft is that minimum conventional propellers.
at which compliance with the require(c) General design -(1) Standard ments of this part is demonstrated. (See atmosphere. The standard atmosphere
§ 6.101.) is an atmosphere (see NACA Technical (3) Empty weight. The empty weight Report 1235) defined as follows:
of the rotorcraft is a readily reproduci(i) The air is a dry, perfect gas,
ble weight which is used in the determi(ii) The temperature at sea level is
nation of the operating weights. (See 59° F.,
§ 6.104.) (iii) The pressure at sea level is 29.92
(4) Design maximum weight. The inches Hg,
design maximum weight is the maximum
weight of the rotorcraft at which com(iv) The temperature gradient from pliance is shown with the structural sea level to the altitude at which loading conditions. (See $ 6.101.) the temperature equals -69.7° F. is (5) Design -0.003566° F./ft. and zero thereabove,
minimum weight. The
design minimum weight is the minimum and
weight of the rotorcraft at which com(v) The density Po at sea level under pliance is shown with the structural the above conditions is 0.002377 pound loading conditions. (See $ 6.101.) seca/ft".
(6) Design unit weight. The design (2) Maximum anticipated air tem unit weight is a representative weight perature. The maximum anticipated air used to show compliance with the structemperature is a temperature specified tural design requirements: for the purpose of compliance with the
(i) Gasoline 6 pounds per U. S. gallon. powerplant cooling standards. (See 8 6.451.)
(ii) Lubricating oil 7.5 pounds per
U. S. gallon. (3) Aerodynamic coeficients. Aerodynamic coefficients are nondimensional
(iii) Crew and passengers 170 pounds coefficients for forces and moments.
per person. They correspond with those adopted by
(e) Speeds (1) IAS. Indicated air the National Aeronautics and Space Ad
speed is equal to the pitot static airministration (formerly the National Ad
speed indicator reading as installed in visory Committee for Aeronautics).
the rotorcraft without correction for (4) Autorotation. Autorotation is a
air-speed indicator system errors but rotorcraft flight condition in which the
including the sea level standard adiabatic
compressible flow lifting rotor is driven entirely by the action of the air when the rotorcraft is
(This latter correction is included in the
calibration of the air-speed instrument in motion,
(See $ $ 6.612 and 6.732.) (5) Autorotative landing. An auto
(2) CAS. Calibrated air speed is rotative landing is any landing of a rotorcraft in which the entire maneuver
equal to the air-speed indicator reading is accomplished without the application
corrected for position and instrument of power to the rotor.
abatic compressible flow correction to (6) Ground resonance. Ground res
the air-speed instrument dial, CAS is onance is the mechanical instability
equal to the true
air speed TAS in standencountered when the rotorcraft is in
ard atmosphere at sea level.) contact with the ground.
(3) EAS. Equivalent air speed is (7) Mechanical instability. Mechani
equal to the air-speed indicator reading cal instability is an unstable resonant condition due to the interaction between
error, and for adiabatic compressible the rotor blades and the rotorcraft structure while the rotorcraft is on the ground or airborne.
atmosphere.) (d) Weights-(1) Maximum weight. The maximum weight of the rotorcraft
(TAS=EAS (po/p) 1/2) is that maximum at which compliance with the requirements of this part is demonstrated. (See § 6.101.)
(As a result of the sea level adi
(6) VNe. The never-exceed speed. (See $ 6.711.)
(7) Vx. The speed for best angle of climb.
(8) Vy. The speed for best rate of climb.
(f) Structural-(1) Limit load. A limit load is the maximum load anticipated in normal conditions of operation. (See $ 6.200.)
(2) Ultimate load. An ultimate load is a limit load multiplied by the appropriate factor of safety. (See $ 6.200.)
(3) Factor of safety. The factor of safety is a design factor used to provide for the possibility of loads greater than those anticipated in normal conditions of operation and for uncertainties in design. (See $ 6.200.)
(4) Load factor. The load factor is the ratio of a specified load to the total weight of the rotorcraft; the specified load may be expressed in terms of any of the following: aerodynamic forces. inertia forces, or ground or water reactions.
(5) Limit load factor. The limit load factor is the load factor corresponding with limit loads.
(6) Ultimate load factor. The ultimate load factor is the load factor corresponding with ultimate loads.
(7) Fitting. A fitting is a part or terminal used to join one structural member to another. (See $ 6.307 (d).)
(g) Powerplant installation - (1) Brake horsepower. Brake horsepower is the power delivered at the propeller shaft of the engine.
(2) Take-of power of thrust. (i) Take-off power for reciprocating engines is the brake horsepower developed under standard sea level conditions, under the maximum conditions of crankshaft rotational speed and engine manifold pressure approved for the normal takeoff, and limited in use to a maximum continuous period as indicated in the approved engine specification.
(ii) Take-off power for turbine engines is the brake horsepower developed under static conditions at specified altitudes and atmospheric temperatures, under the maximum conditions of engine rotor shaft rotational speed and gas temperature approved for normal take
off, and limited in use to a maximum continuous period as indicated in the approved engine specification.
(iii) Take-off thrust for turbine engines is the jet thrust developed under static conditions at specified altitudes and atmospheric temperatures, under the maximum conditions of engine rotor shaft rotational speed and gas temperature approved for the normal take-off, and limited in use to a maximum continuous period as indicated in the approved engine specification.
(3) Maximum continuous power or thrust. (i) Maximum continuous power for reciprocating engines is the brake horsepower developed in standard atmosphere at a specified altitude, under the maximum conditions of crankshaft rotational speed and engine manifold pressure, and approved for use during periods of unrestricted duration.
(ii) Maximum continuous power for turbine engines is the brake horsepower developed at specified altitudes, atmospheric temperatures, and flight speeds, under the maximum conditions of engine rotor shaft rotational speed and gas temperature, and approved for use during periods of unrestricted duration.
(iii) Maximum continuous thrust for turbine engines is the jet thrust developed at specified altitudes, atmospheric temperatures, and flight speeds, under the maximum conditions of engine rotor shaft rotational speed and gas temperature, and approved for use during periods of unrestricted duration.
(4) Gas temperature. Gas temperature for turbine engines is the temperature of the gas stream obtained as indicated in the approved engine specification.
(5) Manifold pressure. Manifold pressure is the absolute pressure measured at the appropriate point in the induction system, usually in inches of mercury.
(6) Critical altitude. The critical altitude is the maximum altitude at which in standard atmosphere it is possible to maintain, at a specified rotational speed, a specified power or a specified manifold pressure. Unless otherwise stated, the critical altitude is the maximum altitude at which it is possible to maintain, at the maximum continuous rotational speed, one of the following:
(1) The maximum continuous power, in the case of engines for which this
1 For engine alrworthiness requirements see Part 13 of this subchapter.
tificate exceeds three years, a new appli
The provisions of this section shall apply to all rotorcraft types certificated the Administrator, the rotorcraft shall comply with the provisions of this part together with all amendments thereto effective on the date of application for type certificate, except that compliance with later effective amendments may be elected or required pursuant to paragraphs (c), (d), and (e) of this section. application for type certificate and the
issuance of the corresponding type cer
power rating is the same at sea level will withstand heat at least as well as and at the rated altitude,
aluminum alloy in dimensions appropri(ii) The maximum continuous rated
ate for the purpose for which it is to be manifold pressure, in the case of engines
used. When applied to fluid-carrying the maximum continuous power of which
lines, other flammable fluid system comis governed by a constant manifold pres
ponents, wiring, air ducts, fittings, and sure.
powerplant controls, this term refers to (h) Propellers and rotors -(1) Rotor.
a line and fitting assembly, component, Rotor is a system of rotating airfoils.
wiring or duct, or controls which will
perform the intended functions under (2) Main rotor. The main rotor is the the heat and other conditions likely to main system of rotating airfoils provid
occur at the particular location. ing sustentation for the rotorcraft.
(3) Flame-resistant Flame-resistant (3) Auxiliary rotor. An auxiliary
material means material which will not rotor is one which serves either to coun support combustion to the point of propteract the effect of the main rotor torque
agating, beyond safe limits, a flame after on the rotorcraft, or to maneuver the the removal of the ignition source. rotorcraft about one or more of its three
Flash-resistant principal axes.
material means material which will not (4) Axis of no feathering. The axis burn violently when ignited. of no feathering is the axis about which there is no first harmonic feathering or
(5) Flammable. Flammable pertains cyclic pitch variation.'
to those fluids or gases which will ignite
readily or explode. (5) Plane of rotor disc. The plane of
[21 F.R. 10291, Dec. 22, 1956, as amended by rotor disc is a reference plane at right
Amdt. 6–3, 23 F.R. 2592, Apr. 19, 1958; 24 angles to the axis of no feathering.
F.R. 5, Jan. 1, 1959; Amdt. 6-4, 24 F.R. 7073, (6) Tip speed ratio. The tip speed
Sept. 1, 1959] ratio is the ratio of the rotorplane flight
CERTIFICATION velocity component in the plane of rotor disc to the rotational tip speed of
§ 6.10 Eligibility for type certificates. the rotor blades expressed as follows:
A rotorcraft shall be eligible for type
certification under the provisions of this V cos a u=
part if it complies with the airworthiᎲ Ꭱ
ness provisions hereinafter established where: V=air speed of the rotorcraft along flight
or if the Administrator finds that the path (fps),
provision or provisions not complied with a=angle between projection in plane of
are compensated for by factors which symmetry of axis of no feathering and a
provide an equivalent level of safety: line perpendicular to the flight path
Provided, That the Administrator finds (radians, positive when axis is pointing aft),
no feature or characteristic of the rotors=angular velocity of rotor (radians per
craft which renders it unsafe. second), and R=rotor radius (ft).
§ 6.1l Designation of applicable regu.
lations. (i) Fire Protection (1) Fireproof. Fireproof material means a material which will withstand heat at least as well as steel in dimensions appropriate for the
under this part irrespective of the date purpose for which it is to be used. When applied to material and parts used to confine fires in designated fire zones, fireproof means that the material or part will perform this function under the most severe conditions of fire and duration likely to occur in such zones.
(2) Fire-resistant. When applied to sheet or structural members, fire-resistant material means a material which
of application for type certificate.
(a) Unless otherwise established by
(b) If the interval between the date of
? For propeller airworthiness requirements see Part 14 of this subchapter.
3 See NACA Technical Note No. 1604.
cation for type certificate shall be required, except that for applications pending on May 1, 1954, such three-year period shall commence on that date. At the option of the applicant, a new application may be filed prior to the expiration of the three-year period. In either instance the applicable regulations shall be those effective on the date of the new application in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section.
(c) During the interval between filing the application and the issuance of a type certificate, the applicant may elect to show compliance with any amendment of this part which becomes effective during that interval, in which case all other amendments found by the Administrator to be directly related shall be complied with.
(d) Except as otherwise provided by the Administrator pursuant to $ 1.24 of this subchapter, a change to the type certificate (see $ 6.13(b)) may be accomplished, at the option of the holder of the type certificate, either in accordance with the regulations incorporated by reference in the type certificate pursuant to $ 6.13(c), or in accordance with subsequent amendments to such regulations in effect on the date of application for approval of the change, subject to the following provisions:
(1) When the applicant elects to show compliance with an amendment to the regulations in effect on the date of application for approval of a change, he shall show compliance with all amendments which the Administrator finds are directly related to the particular amendment selected by the applicant.
(2) When the change consists of a new design or a substantially complete redesign of a component, equipment installation, or system installation of the rotorcraft, and the Administrator finds that the regulations incorporated by reference in the type certificate pursuant to $ 6.13 (c) do not provide complete standards with respect to such change, he shall require compliance with such provisions of the regulations in effect on the date of application for approval of the change as he finds will provide a level of safety equal to that established by the regulations incorporated by reference at the time of issuance of the type certificate.
NOTE: Examples of new or redesigned components and installations which might re
quire compliance with regulations in effect on the date of application for approval, are: New powerplant installation which is likely to introduce additional fire or operational hazards unless additional protective measures are incorporated; the installation of a new rotor system or a new electric power system.
(e) If changes listed in subparagraphs (1) through (3) of this paragraph are made, the rotorcraft shall be considered as a new type, in which case a new application for type certificate shall be required and the regulations together with all amendments thereto effective on the date of the new application shall be made applicable in accordance with paragraphs (a), (b), (c), and (d) of this section.
(1) A change in the number of engines or rotors;
(2) A change to engines or rotors employing different principles of operation or propulsion;
(3) A change in design, configuration, power, or weight which the Administrator finds is so extensive as to require a substantially complete investigation of compliance with the regulations. (21 F.R. 10291, Dec. 22, 1956, as amended, 24 F.R. 5, Jan, 1, 1959) § 6.12 Recording of applicable regula
tions. The Administrator, upon the issuance of a type certificate, shall record the applicable regulations with which compliance was demonstrated. Thereafter, the Administrator shall record the applicable regulations for each change in the type certificate which is accomplished in accordance with regulations other than those recorded at the time of issuance of the type certificate. (See 8 6.11.) 8 6.13 Type certificate.
(a) An applicant shall be issued a type certificate when he demonstrates the eligibility of the rotorcraft by complying with the requirements of this part in addition to the applicable requirements in Part 1 of this subchapter.
(b) The type certificate shall be deemed to include the type design (see § 6.14 (b)), the operating limitations for the rotorcraft (see $ 6.700), and any other conditions or limitations prescribed by the regulations in this sub. chapter.