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(c) The applicable provisions of this part recorded by the Administrator in accordance with $ 6.12 shall be considered as incorporated in the type certificate as though set forth in full. § 6.14 Data required.

(a) The applicant for a type certificate shall submit to the Administrator such descriptive data, test reports, and computations as are necessary to demonstrate that the rotorcraft complies with the requirements of this part.

(b) The descriptive data required in paragraph (a) of this section shall be known as the type design and shall consist of such drawings and specifications as are necessary to disclose the configuration of the rotorcraft and all the design features covered in the requirements of this part, such information on dimensions, materials, and processes as is necessary to define the structural strength of the rotorcraft, and such other data as are necessary to permit by comparison the determination of the airworthiness of subsequent rotorcraft of the same type. § 6.15 Inspections and tests.

Inspections and tests shall include all those found necessary by the Administrator to insure that the rotorcraft complies with the applicable airworthiness requirements and conforms to the following:

(a) All materials and products are in accordance with the specifications in the type design,

(b) All parts of the rotorcraft are constructed in accordance with the drawings in the type design.

(c) All manufacturing processes, construction, and assembly are as specified in the type design. $ 6.16 Flight tests.

After proof of compliance with the structural requirements contained in this part, and upon completion of all necessary inspections and testing on the ground, and proof of the conformity of the rotorcraft with the type design, and upon receipt from the applicant of a report of flight tests performed by him, the following shall be conducted:

(a) Such official flight tests as the Administrator finds necessary to determine compliance with the requirements of this part.

(b) After the conclusion of flight tests specified in paragraph (a) of this sec

tion, such additional flight tests as the Administrator finds necessary to ascertain whether there is reasonable assurance that the rotorcraft, its components, and equipment are reliable and function properly. The extent of such additional flight tests shall depend upon the complexity of the rotorcraft, the number and nature of new design features, and the record of previous tests and experience for the particular rotorcraft type, its components, and equipment. If practicable, these flight tests shall be conducted on the same rotorcraft used in the flight tests specified in paragraph (a) of this section and in the rotor drive endurance tests specified in $ 6.412. § 6.17 Airworthiness, experimental, and

production certificates. (For requirements with regard to these certificates see Part 1 of this subchapter.) $ 6.18 Approval of materials, parts,

processes, and appliances. (a) Materials, parts, processes, and appliances shall be approved upon a basis and in a manner found necessary by the Administrator to implement the pertinent provisions of the regulations in this subchapter. The Administrator may adopt and publish such specifications as he finds necessary to administer this regulation, and shall incorporate therein such portions of the aviation industry, Federal and military specifications respecting such materials, parts processes, and appliances as he finds appropriate.

NOTE: The provisions of this paragraph are intended to allow approval of materials. parts, processes, and appliances under the system of Technical Standard Orders, or in conjunction with type certification procedures for a rotorcraft, or by any other form of approval by the Administrator.

(b) Any material, part, process, or appliance shall be deemed to have met the requirements for approval when it meets the pertinent specifications adopted by the Administrator, and the manufacturer so certifies in a manner prescribed by the Administrator. 8 6.18–1' Approval of aircraft compo

nents (FAA rules which apply to

8 6.18). Aircraft components made the subject of technical standards orders shall be

• Appears at 16 F. R. 672 as $ 6.6-1.

approved upon the basis and in the manner provided in Part 514 of this title. [Supp. 5, 16 F. R. 672, Jan. 25, 1961) 8 6.18–2 Manufacturer (FAA interpreta

tion which applies to $ 6.18(b)). (a) For the purpose of accepting a statement of conformance for a Technical Standard Order product, the word "manufacturer" is interpreted to mean a person who fabricates, or both fabricates and assembles, a product by cutting, drilling, bolting, riveting, glueing, soldering, sewing, or other fabrication and assembly techniques.

(b) A person is not regarded as the manufacturer solely by his engaging in the following activities:

(1) Distributing a completed product fabricated or fabricated and assembled by another person.

(2) Cleaning and reassembling products, repairing products, or replacing components or parts in products. (Supp. 17, 23 F. R. 10326, Dec. 25, 1958) § 6.18–3 Approval of products under

the type certificate or modification procedures (FAA policies which ap

ply to § 6.18). A material, part, process, or appliance (called "product" in this section) may be approved as a part of the airplane type design under a type certificate or a supplemental type certificate in accordance with the procedures provided in this section.

EXPLANATORY NOTE: Products previously approved by the CAA by means of letters of approval, Repair and Alteration Form ACA-337, or listing on CAA Product and Process Specifications will continue to be eligible for installation in aircraft unless the eligibility is restricted by applicable regulations or airworthiness directives issued under $ 1.24 of this subchapter.

(a) Policies controlling where there is an applicable Technical Standard Order. If a Technical Standard Order covering the product is in effect, the applicant for approval should submit type design data showing that the product meets the performance standards of the Technical Standard Order. Deviations from such performance standards may be allowed to the extent that the applicant for the type certificate or the supplemental type certificate substantiates that certain provisions of the Technical Standard Order are not required for the product as installed in the airplane.

(b) Policies controlling in the absence of an applicable Standard Technical Order. Where no TSO covering the product exists, the applicant for approval should submit type design data showing compliance with all the requirements of this part which are applicable to the product. Any deviation from standards prescribed in this part may be allowed only in accordance with $ 6.10.

(c) Methods of identifying products approved under this section (1) Products approved as a part of the airplane type design under a type certificate should be identified by an airplane part number on the approved drawing list.

(2) Products approved as a part of the airplane type design under a supplemental type certificate should be identified by a part or drawing number on such certificate.

(3) Each TSO product that is approved as a part of the airplane should have the TSO identification removed and be identified as set forth in subparagraph (1) or (2) of this paragraph, whichever is applicable. (Supp. 17, 23 F. R. 10326, Dec. 25, 1958) $ 6.19 Changes in type design.

(For requirements with regard to changes in type design and the designation of applicable regulations therefor, see $ 6.11 (d) and (e), and Part 1 of this subchapter.)

Subpart B-Flight

GENERAL $ 6.100 Proof of compliance.

(a) Compliance with the requirements prescribed in this subpart shall be established by flight or other tests conducted upon a rotorcraft of the type for which & certificate of airworthiness is sought or by calculations based on such tests, provided that the results obtained by calculations are equivalent in accuracy to the results of direct testing.

(b) Compliance with each requirement shall be established at all appropriate combinations of rotorcraft weight and center of gravity position within the range of loading conditions for which certification is sought by systematic investigation of all these combinations, except where compliance can be inferred reasonably from those combinations which are investigated.

(c) The controllability, stability, and trim of the rotorcraft shall be established

at all altitudes up to the maximum anticipated operating altitude.

(d) The applicant shall provide a person holding an appropriate pilot certificate to make the flight tests, but a designated representative of the Administrator shall pil the rotorcraft when it is found necessary for the determination of compliance with the airworthiness requirements.

(e) Oficial type tests shall be discontinued until corrective measures have been taken by the applicant when either:

(1) The applicant's test pilot is unable or unwilling to conduct any of the required flight tests, or

(2) It is found that requirements which have not been met are so substantial as to render additional test data meaningless or are of such a nature as to make further testing unduly hazardous.

(f) Adequate provision shall be made for emergency egress and for the use of parachutes by members of the crew during the flight tests.

(g) The applicant shall submit to the authorized representative of the Administrator a report covering all computations and tests required in connection with calibration of instruments used for test purposes and correction of test results to standard atmospheric conditions. The Administrator's representative shall conduct any flight tests which he finds necessary to check the calibration and correction report. $ 6.101 Weight limitations.

The maximum and minimum weights at which the rotorcraft will be suitable for operation shall be established as follows:

(a) Maximum weights shall not exceed any of the following:

(1) The weight selected by the applicant;

(2) The design weight for which the structure has been proven; or

(3) The maximum weight at which compliance with all of the applicable flight requirements has been demonstrated.

(b) The maximum weight shall not be less than the sum of the weights of the following:

(1) The empty weight in accordance with $ 6.104;

(2) Usable fuel appropriate to the operation contemplated with full payload;

(3) The full oil capacity; and

(4) 170 pounds in all seats, except that when the maximum permissible weight to be carried in a seat is less than 170 pounds it shall be acceptable to use this lesser weight. (See $ 6.738 (a).)

(c) Minimum weights shall not be less than any of the following:

(1) The minimum weight selected by the applicant;

(2) The design minimum weight for which the structure has been proven; or

(3) The minimum weight at which compliance with all of the applicable flight requirements has been demonstrated.

(d) The minimum weight shall not exceed the sum of the weights of the following:

(1) The empty weight in accordance with $ 6.104;

(2) The minimum crew necessary to operate the rotorcraft, assuming for each crew member the lowest of the following:

(i) 170 pounds,

(ii) Weight selected by the applicant, and

(iii) Weight included in the loading instructions (see $$ 6.102 (b) and 6.738 (a)); and

(3) Oil in the quantity determined in accordance with the provisions of $ 6.440 (b). 8 6.102 Center of gravity limitations.

(a) Center of gravity limits shall be established as the most forward position permissible for each weight established in accordance with $ 6.101 and the most aft position permissible for each of such weights. Such limits of the center of gravity range shall not exceed any of the following:

(1) The extremes selected by the applicant,

(2) The extremes for which the structure has been proven,

(3) The extremes at which compliance with all of the applicable flight requirements has been demonstrated.

(b) Loading instructions shall be provided if the center of gravity position under any possible loading condition between the maximum and minimum weights as specified in § 6.101, with as

sumed weights for individual passengers and crew members variable over the anticipated range of such weights, lies beyond:

(1) The extremes selected by the applicant,

(2) The extremes for which the structure has been proven,

(3) The extremes for which compliance with all of the applicable flight requirements has been demonstrated. (See $ 6.741 (c).) $ 6.103 Rotor limitations and pitch

settings. (a) Power-on. A range of power-on operating speeds for the main rotor(s) shall be established which will provide adequate margin to accommodate the variation of rotor rpm attendant to all maneuvers appropriate to the rotorcraft type and consistent with the type of synchronizer or governor used, if any (see $$ 6.713(b) (2) and 6.714(b)). A means shall be provided to prevent rotational speeds substantially less than the approved minimum rotor rpm in any flight condition with pitch control of the main rotor(s) in the high-pitch position, and with the engine(s) operating within the approved limitations. It shall be acceptable for such means to allow the use of higher pitch in an emergency, provided that the means incorporate provisions to prevent inadvertent transition from the normal operating range to the higher pitch angles.

(b) Power-o0. A range of power-off operating rotor speeds shall be established which will permit execution of all autorotative flight maneuvers appropriate to the rotorcraft type throughout the range of air speeds and weights for which certification is sought (see $ 6.713 (a) and (b) (1)). A rotor blade low-pitch limiting device shall be positioned to provide rotational speeds within the approved rotor speed range in any autorotative flight condition under the most adverse combinations of weight and air speed with the rotor pitch control in the full low-pitch position. $ 6.104 Empty weight.

(a) The empty weight, and the corresponding center of gravity position, shall be determined by weighing the rotorcraft. This weight shall exclude the weight of the crew and payload, but shall include the weight of all fixed ballast, unusable fuel supply (see $ 6.421),

undrainable oil, total quantity of engine coolant, and total quantity of hydraulic fluid.

(b) The condition of the rotorcraft at the time of weighing shall be one which can be easily repeated and easily defined, particularly as regards the contents of the fuel, oil, and coolant tanks, and the items of equipment installed. (See $ 6.740.) § 6.105 Use of ballast.

Removable ballast may be used to enable the rotorcraft to comply with the flight requirements. (See $$ 6.391, 6.738, and 6.740.)

PERFORMANCE § 6.110 General.

The performance information prescribed in $$ 6.111 through 6.116 shall be determined, and the rotorcraft shall comply with the corresponding requirements in the standard atmosphere in still air. 121 F.R. 10291, Dec. 22, 1956, as amended by Amdt. 644, 24 F.R. 7073, Sept. 1, 1959) § 6.111 Take-off.

The take-off shall be demonstrated at maximum certificated weight, forward center of gravity, and using take-off power at take-off rpm and made in a manner such that a landing can be made safely at any point along the flight path in case of an engine failure and shall not require an exceptional degree of skill on the part of the pilot or exceptionally favorable conditions. Pertinent information concerning the take-off procedure, including the type of take-off surface and appropriate climb-out air speeds, shall be specified in the operating procedures section of the Rotorcraft Fight Manual. (See $$ 6.116, 6.740, 6.742, and 6.743.) [21 F.R. 10291, Dec. 22, 1956, as amended by Amdt. 6-4, 24 F.R. 7073, Sept. 1, 1959) $ 6.112 Climb.

(a) For all rotorcraft, except helicopters, the steady rate of climb at the best rate-of-climb speed with maximum continuous power and landing gear retracted shall be determined over the range of weights, altitudes, and temperatures for which certification is sought (see $ 6.740). This rate of climb shall provide a steady angle of climb under standard sea level conditions of not less than 1:6.

(b) For helicopters the best rate-ofclimb speed shall be determined at standard sea level conditions at maximum certificated weight with all engines operating at maximum continuous power.

(c) For multiengine helicopters the

eady rate of climb or descent shall be determined at maximum certificated weight, at the best rate-of-climb or descent speed, with one engine inoperative, and the remaining engine(s) operating at maximum continuous power. § 6.113 Minimum operating speed per

formance. (a) Hovering ceilings for helicopters shall be determined over the range of weights altitudes, and temperatures for which certification is sought with takeoff power and landing gear extended in the ground effect at a height above the ground consistent with normal take-off procedures.

(b) At maximum weight, under standard atmospheric conditions, and under conditions prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section, the hovering ceiling for helicopters shall not be less than 4,000 feet.

(c) For rotorcraft other than helicopters, the steady rate of climb at the minimum operating speed appropriate to the type with take-off power and landing gear extended shall be determined over the range of weights, altitudes, and temperatures for which certification is sought. $ 6.114 Autorotative one-engine

inoperative landing. Landings shall be demonstrated in accordance with the provisions of paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section. Pertinent information concerning the landing procedure, including the type of landing surface and appropriate approach and glide air speeds, shall be specified in the operating procedures section of the Rotorcraft Flight Manual. (See $ $ 6.740 and 6.742.)

(a) The approach speed or speeds in the glide shall be appropriate to the type of rotorcraft and shall be chosen by the applicant.

(b) The approach and landing shall be made with power off for single-engine rotorcraft, and with one engine inoperative for multiengine rotorcraft.

(c) The approach and landing shall be entered from steady autorotation and shall be made in such a manner that its

reproduction would not require an exceptional degree of skill on the part of the pilot or exceptionally favorable conditions.

(d) During the landing there shall be no excessive vertical acceleration and no tendency to bounce, nose over, ground loop, porpoise, or water loop. 8 6.114_1 Autorotative or one-engine

inoperative landing for helicopters with float installations (FAA policies

which apply to $ 6.114). (a) Helicopters equipped with float installations should comply with the following:

(1) Landings should be conducted on water at wave heights selected by the applicant to show compliance with $$ 6.114 and 6.715.

(2) When approval is requested under the air carrier operating regulations (see $$ 46.70, 46.71, and 46.206 of this chapter) for operations involving takeoff or landing over water with helicopters certificated under this part, compliance should be shown with subparagraph (1) of this paragraph.

(3) For approval of night operations, landings from cruising altitude should be conducted in accordance with subparagraph (1) or (2) of this paragraph.

(4) Pertinent information concerning the operating procedures investigated and the surface conditions prevailing during these landings should be included in the operating procedure section of the Rotorcraft Flight Manual. (Sec. 313(a) of Federal Aviation Act of August 23, 1958, 72 Stat. 731 (Pub. Law 85–726). (Supp. 18, 24 F.R. 965, Feb. 10, 1959) § 6.115 Power-off landings for multi

engine rotorcraft. For all multiengine rotorcraft it shall be possible to make a safe landing following complete failure of all power during normal operating conditions. § 6.116 Limiting height and speeds for

safe landing following power failure. If a range of heights exists at any speed, including zero, within which it is not possible to make a safe landing following power failure, the range of heights and its variation with forward speed shall be established together with

or

1 Salvage float gear" constitutes means to keep the helicopter afloat for salvage purposes only and is not to be regarded as a float Installation.

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