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workers and to the Filipinos, a special May Day manifesto to the workers of Latin-America, a manifesto in connection with the TacnaArica affair and other manifestoes and leaflets which will be referred to later on.

"Direct contact with Mexico was maintained throughout the period, through the visits of Comrades Johnstone, Gomez, and Lovestone to Mexico and through steady correspondence. Comrade Wagenknecht visited the Philippines and established connections there. Correspondence connections were also established, with greater or less success, with practically every country in Latin-America, as well as with Hawaii and the Philippines. Through our activities five Filipino delegates were secured for the International Transport Conference in Canton, for which our Party was commended by the Communist International.

“Our party has carried on a consistent campaign, both in this country and in Latin-America against the 'labor imperialism of the socalled Pan-American Federation of Labor. Comrade Johnstone attended the convention of the Pan-American Federation of Labor at Mexico City, in November of last year, (1924) and cooperated with the Mexican Party in its strategy in connection with this convention.

“Comrade Gomez was sent to Mexico in April of this year (1925) and attended the convention of the Communist Party of Mexico as fraternal delegate from our Party. During this visit plans for joint action of the Mexican, Central American and United States parties against imperialist policies of the Pan-American Federation of Labor were adopted.

“Our Party was largely instrumental in the establishment of the All-American Anti-Imperialist League, which although organized only a few months ago and still in its initial stages, has aroused a real response in Latin-America, despite the miserably small funds which we were able to put into this work. The All-America Anti-Imperialist League was endorsed by the Communist International and the Red International of Labor Unions.

“The League is a non-partisan international organization admitting to affiliation all groups in the Americas willing to take up the fight against American imperialism. It aims to give driving force and centralized expression to the national liberation movements in Latin-America, Hawaii, the Philippine Islands, etc., in alliance with the movement of this country.

“The All-America Anti-Imperialist League has a special secretariat located in Mexico City, under whose supervision the monthly Spanish language organ of the league, which has now published five issues is edited, as well as special manifestoes, leaflets, etc. Our party has contributed towards defraying the expenses of the monthly magazine El Libertador and towards other expenses of the Mexico City secretariat, but lack of funds has made it impossible to give adequate support in this respect.

"A regular section of the All-America Anti-Imperialist League has been formed in Cuba, with Julio Antonio Mella as secretary, and is extremely active, holding mass meetings, lectures, etc. Labor, peasant, and student organizations in Costa Rica, Panama, Salvador, and Peru have affiliated with the League, but no regular sections have been formed in those countries as yet. Contacts have been established with some of the foremost intellectuals of Latin-America, who are supporting the league and writing for its monthly organ.

“At the suggestion of our Party, the League sent out the call for the observance throughout America of Anti-Imperialist Week' (June 29 to July 4), calling upon all anti-imperialist organizations in special literature, to conduct mass meetings, hold demonstrations in front of American consulates and embassies, etc. Our Party published a special leaflet for Anti-Imperialist Week and actively cooperated in its observance.

“Tentative plans are already being laid, also at the suggestion of our Party, for an All-America Anti-Imperialist congress to be held at Buenos Aires some time next year.”

The Fourth Convention listed among the concrete tasks of the Party

“To carry on a systematic and active agitation against American imperialism, particularly in Latin America. To demand the withdrawal of American armed forces from foreign lands. ...

“To give active support to the activities of the All-America AntiImperialist League."

The same Convention adopted a lengthy resolution with respect to the struggle against American imperialism. This resolution pointed out that “there is sufficient homogeneity to permit the building of a powerful continental movement of workers and farmers against American imperialism, and sufficient resentment due to the occupation of the Central American and Carribean countries, the sustaining of autocracies such as those of Venezuela and Peru by United States aid, the interference in the internal affairs of all of the countries, the system of financial and military advisors, the monopolistic Monroe Doctrine and the robbery of the tremendous natural resources of Latin America.”

The resolution declared that there were “millions groaning under the American imperialist rule" in the Philippines, Porto Rico, Cuba, Mexico, Haiti, etc., and that it was the task of the Communists to give active support to the anti-American movements in the various countries in Latin America. The resolution continues:

“42. There is a strong tradition of Latin-American solidarity which is a historic force for the unification of the anti-imperialist movements of the various Latin-American countries. This will be an important weapon in the struggle against Wall Street. The AllAmerica Anti-Imperialist League was created as the expression of the liberating movement of all the exploited peoples of the continent. The Workers Party took part in the creation. Represented in the League are also the Communist Parties of Mexico, Central America, and South America, as well as student groups, labor organizations, peasant leagues and national societies in various countries.


643. For us, the League constitutes an organizational expression of our determination to fight side by side with the exploited peoples of America's colonies and semi-colonies. While we strive to make the groups affiliated to the All-America Anti-Imperialist League recognize in the Communists and the Communist International, the leaders of the world struggle against imperialism, we must work conscientiously to build up the league itself to push it into activity and to make of it a powerful driving force for the overthrow of American imperialism.

44. The following is our concrete program of joint action with the exploited peoples for the struggle against American imperialism.

(a) Expose the purpose and methods of American imperialism everywhere.

(6) Demand independence for all American colonies and unconditional withdrawal of American troops from Latin-America, Chinese and other foreign soil.

(c) Actively support Latin-American strikes against American

(d) Ideological and practical struggle against the doctrine of Pan-Americanism.

(e) Expose and struggle against the so-called Pan-American Federation of Labor as an agency of American imperialism, and the Mexican and American Parties shall work out joint plans for exposing the true character of the Pan-American Federation of Labor and propagate the idea of the formation of Latin-American Labor Federation with anti-imperialist tendencies.

(f) Interchange of delegates at conventions and close cooperation with the Communist Parties of Latin-America; fraternal relations with the parties of the Far East.

(9) Help build the All-America Anti-Imperialist League into a powerful organization for the overthrow of American Imperialism.

(h) Immediately strive to build up sections of the All-American Anti-Imperialist League in parts of the United States, through affiliation of resident organizations of Mexicans, Filipinos, Chinese, etc.

(i) Support the proposed plan of the All-American Anti-Imperialist League for an All-American Conference against Imperial

(j) The Machete, organ of the Mexican Communist Party, and El Libertador, organ of the Anti-Imperialist League (published in Mexico) should be circulated among the Spanish-speaking workers of the United States."

The activities and plans of the American Communists as regards the organization of opposition to the United States in Mexico and Latin America are summed up admirably in a resolution passed by the Central Executive Committee of the Workers (Communist) Party on November 12, 1926. This resolution reads as follows:

“The tasks of our Party at the present time, as set forth in the resolution of the political committee, are those presented by the conditions of imperialism. American imperialism is able to win over large sections of the American workers by sharing with them


a small part of super-profits and continues to extend its hegemony in foreign fields. However, the steady expansion of American capitalism upon an imperialist' basis is accompanied by the enormous extension of the vulnerable surface which it presents to attack. Recent months have furnished striking evidence of the widespread movement for Latin-American unity against Wall Street. We cite particularly the present attitude of the Calles Government in Mexicoits general Latin-Americanism, its policy in Central America, its tendency toward cooperation with the All-America Anti-Imperialist League, and the decision of President Calles to send a personal representative to the Brussels world conference against imperialism.

"The comintern has repeatedly indicated that a basic task of any party situated in an imperialist country is to stimulate and give aid to the nationalist and national revolutionary movements in the colonial and semi-colonial countries under the heel of imperialism. This, together with the work among the American masses, form the basis of our party work. While our party has made considerable progress in anti-imperialist work, it is still far from a proper realization of the importance of this work. A far greater proportion of the party's resources must be utilized in anti-imperialist activities. District executive committees must have standing subcommittees on anti-imperialist activity, and these must be directed by capable comrades. The party machinery on a district as well as a national scale must be drawn into this work.

“The anti-imperialist work has been greatly hampered by lack of sufficient comrades. The party must take measures to create and train a corps of comrades engaged directly in anti-imperialist work.

"In spite of many handicaps, we have done much to build the AllAmerica Anti-Imperialist League into an organization engaged in actual struggle against imperialism. _We have carried on systematic work inside of the Pan-American Federation of Labor and have achieved some valuable results there. We have participated in work against United States imperialism in a number of Latin-American countries, notably Mexico, Porto Rico, Cuba, Panama and Peru. We have also established some contact with the Philippine independence movement, altho we have yet to establish our own nucleus there.

“The main task for the period immediaely ahead is the buil of a substantial section of the AAAIL (All-America Anti-Imperialist League) in the United States itself. This will be accomplished thru the affiliation of groups organized around specific issues, such as hands-off-Mexico committees, etc. The Workers (Communist) Party must remain the central factor in the United States section of the AAAIL, grouping around itself as closely as possible other workingclass organizations.”

The significance of Mexico in the eyes of the so-called Soviet gorernment is revealed in the following extract from the report of Chicherin, made at the III Session of the Union Central Executive Committee in March 1925:

“Resumption of Diplomatic Relations with Mexico "In America, in this manner, we still stand before a question mark. But in this time we have succeeded in re-establishing diplomatic relations, which give us a political base in the new continent, with the neighbor of the United States, Mexico. The Mexican Government is based on the Right trade unions and the radical small bourgeoisie. The Soviet Republic is extraordinarily popular in Mexico. Our plenipotentiary representative, Pestkovsky, met in Mexico the most enthus stic reception, receiving constantly from all sides expressions of the most friendly, even enthusiastic, attitude toward the Soviet Republic. Mexico gives us, thus, a very convenient political base in America for the development of our further ties.

As respects relations between the Soviet Legation in Mexico City and Communist activities being carried on in Mexico there is the following evidence:

(1) Statement by Mexican Labor Deputy, Ricardo Trevino, in the Mexican Chamber of Deputies on September 9, 1925:

"I can not say which are the better elements, whether ours or the Reds or those whom the Russian Minister brought. And on this point I must say that there are documents in which it is established that certain Red and Communist elements receive money from the said Minister and from the Communists at Moscow in order to work along Communist lines in Mexico against the United States whereby they would provoke an international conflict."

(2) Communication addressed to the Soviet Minister by the Central Committee of the Mexican Federation of Labor by direction of the Seventh Congress of that organization: "To the Minister of Russia in Mexico City :

On the other hand there was also considered by the Convention the report referring to the fact that in the diplomatic mission in your charge moral and economic support is lent to so-called Communist radical groups, the enemies of the Mexican Federation of Labor and of our government.

“This Central Committee was ordered by the Convention to inform you in your character as representative of Russia in Mexico that the Mexican labor movement represented by this confederation maintains the principle that the workers of each country must be organized in accordance with their opinions and necessities and that no nation has the right to impose nor to lay down for another the doctrine which must control its activities.'

(3) Resolution adopted March 6, 1926, at the Seventh Annual Convention of the Mexican Federation of Labor:

"... 3. That a courteous invitation be extended by the Central Committee to the diplomatic representative of Russia accredited to Mexico so that his office may abstain from lending moral and economic support to the so-called radical group, enemies of the Mexican Federation of Labor and of the government.

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