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semination by nations of doctrines and the carrying on of other types of activity can be utilized for the purpose of undermining and destroying in other nations established institutions of government and basic social order. Such activities are based on the fallacious theories of class or racial superiority, or claims to national dominance, which are being revived again in some parts of the world.

There is no place in the Western Hemisphere for a revival of such doctrines and theories, which our nations, in common with an overwhelming majority of civilized mankind, rejected long ago.

Each and all of us desire to maintain friendly relations with every nation of the world, resting upon the basis of mutual respect for national independence, upon non-interference in the internal affairs of others, upon fair dealing in every phase of international relationships. But there should not be a shadow of a doubt anywhere as to the determination of the American nations not to permit the invasion of this hemi

sphere from any quarter by activities contrary or inimical to this basis of relations among nations. Here again, with a full consciousness of our common interest and responsibility, each of our nations must decide for itself what measures it should take in order to meet these insidious dangers.

All this is of surpassing importance. And yet adequate defense against actual or potential danger is not enough as the objective of responsible statesmanship. There is equal or even greater need for unstinted effort in the direction of removing the causes of danger and of opening the way for the constructive processes of human progress. The conditions which confront us require also a vigorous program of positive action.

In an important measure such a program already exists. It is the fruitful result of interAmerican conferences held in the past and of the influence exerted upon the life of our hemisphere by these periodic exchanges of views and by the agreements which we reach on vital

problems. The Conference in which we are again assembled now as representatives of the American nations offers a timely and precious opportunity for advancing and perfecting this indispensable program of assuring the solidarity, security, independence, prosperity, and progress of the Americas and of making our individual and joint contribution to the peace and well-being of the world.


Our Conference must carry forward the work of building an enduring structure of peace. It is within the power of the American nations to furnish a conclusive demonstration that peace, based on justice, law, and cooperative effort, is unquestionably feasible. To that end, we must examine anew the existing instruments of peace, by which we are all bound to a system of pacific settlement, and give our best thought to every possible method of perfecting further the interAmerican machinery of peace.

Our Conference must devote sincere effort to discovering the means of strengthening the

foundations of international law. At a time when the structure of world-order under law is being undermined and impaired in many parts of the globe, the very highest responsibility rests upon us to keep alive these fundamental principles of relations among nations upon which alone such order can be maintained. The right of each nation to manage its own affairs free from outside interference; recognition of the sovereignty and equality of states irrespective of size and strength; respect for the pledged word and the sanctity of treaty obligations—these and numerous other basic principles must be the governing rules of international conduct if peace rather than anarchy is to prevail and civilization is to advance.

Our Conference must extend and make more secure the bases of sound and healthy economic relations among nations. Excessive trade barriers and other obstacles to the flow of mutually profitable international commerce still weigh heavily upon the economic life of the worldon our continent as well as elsewhere. Nations 186263-404 [43]

cannot prosper and provide for their populations a full measure of stable employment and a rising standard of living if international trade is destroyed by suicidal attempts at autarchy or is impaired by being forced into the artificial channels of narrow bilateralism or exclusive regionalism. And just as production cannot be expanded and improved by a return to hand operation, so trade cannot be fostered by a reversion to the primitive forms of physical barter. Only through a liberalization of trade relations, through a reduction of excessive trade barriers, through a firm establishment of equality of commercial treatment, can the exchange of goods among nations play its vital and indispensable role of enhancing the prosperity and stability of national economies.

The removal of excessive trade barriers and the restoration of the trade process to a basis of equality of commercial treatment and commercial opportunity is today a task of the utmost importance. Unless the nations of the world can achieve this task, the prospect for

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