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measures were taken. Accordingly, the American republics reaffirmed their judgment that a liberal trade policy without excessive restrictions and permitting trade to move along lines of economic advantage and equality was the soundest policy for all, and they renewed their support of this policy. This action was taken in the knowledge that trade arrangements of other kinds in the long run weaken the position of primary producers, curtail world markets, lessen economic benefit, and may under some circumstances be used as an instrument of political influence or domination. It was recognized, too, that this liberal policy was the only one proper to a peaceful trading world, rather than one of competing and force-using alliances. By carrying forward this policy with determination the American republics were seeking not only to suit their economic advantage but also to safeguard their equality and independence. In so doing, they made it clear that they are ready to cooperate with all nations of the world which care to participate in that program.

The declaration of principles of the solidarity of America, in part constituting a large expansion of the Buenos Aires consultative pact, and the implementation of the procedure of consultation, represent great progress beyond the agreements adopted at former inter-American conferences. The American republics have made it clear to the world that they stand united to maintain and defend the peace of this hemisphere, their territorial integrity, their principles of international relations, their own institutions, and national policies. The declaration of the Conference favored the solidarity of America in the protection of its peace and institutions against threats of force or of acts of any nature that might threaten that peace or those institutions. The agreement upon the declaration was reached in true American fashion by the democratic processes of discussion and conference. As a corollary to the principles on which the declaration of solidarity is based, and as an evidence of their deter

mination not to tolerate subversive activities of

aliens in the American Hemisphere, the Conference adopted a resolution and a declaration on these subjects.

Outstanding at the Conference was a realization by the delegations that international lawlessness and international anarchy exist in many areas on the earth and that the situation can be cured and the rights of nations and their peoples can be protected only by acceptance of a system of law and order based ultimately on international justice and good faith. The Conference therefore adopted a resolution setting forth principles which offer a program, susceptible of universal application, designed to safeguard the rights of all peoples and all nations— weak and strong. By these principles the Conference sought to make it clear that the nations of the new world do not seek to isolate themselves from the rest of the world but that they do strongly advocate and support sound and fundamental principles of international relations that can be universally applied. If the public opinion of the world can be rallied to

these principles, the American republics will have made a most valuable contribution to a system of international relations based upon law and upon respect for the rights of all nations and of all individuals, regardless of race and religion.

The United States, in accordance with our traditional policy, did not desire or intend to seek political or military alliances at the Lima Conference. It did hope that the American republics would continue to strengthen their cooperation in support of an inter-American and world program that will bring peace, economic welfare, and a recognition of human rights. That hope was fully realized.

This broad program was further strengthened and advanced by the study given to, and plans made for, a broad interchange in educational, professional, and scientific fields. The basis for genuine understanding among the peoples of the American republics has been extended and reinforced.

The Government of Peru which acted as host to the Conference is to be congratulated upon

the accomplishments of the Conference. The officials of the Peruvian Government who were charged with the arrangements for the Conference displayed statesmanship, efficiency, and tact. The hospitality and courtesy shown to all of the delegations and to the many other foreign visitors who were present in Lima during the Conference deserve the approbation and thanks of all of us.

At this time I also wish to pay tribute to the splendid cooperation and loyal work of the members of our own delegation. Those who followed the proceedings of the Conference will agree, I believe, that our delegates gave every evidence that in the fundamentals of interAmerican relations there is unity of purpose on the part of the people of the United States regardless of political or other affiliations of a domestic character. That fact greatly increased the effectiveness of the work of our delegation.

I return from the Conference with the conviction that its results will be of real and permanent value and that as time goes on the

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