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cessful manufacture of such commodities as are needed in a new country, as does St. Louis ; and these conditions will continue to be enlarged and improved, as the population of the new territories shall increase.
The settlement of these territories will create a large demand for iron in all its forms; and while it will be in the power of Missouri to supply the raw material, the manufactures of St. Louis should aim to produce the manufactured articles in quantity sufficient to keep pace with the increasing wants of the country. Indeed, when we take a view of the mineral deposites, as far as they are known, west of the Mississippi, it is manifest that the entire central region west of the river must depend, in a great measure, upon Missouri for its supply of iron.
These are facts that sagacious men will soon begin to investigate; and it will then require no argument on our part to convince them of the advantages of mining and manufacturing in Missouri.
The settlement of these territories will also greatly enhance the value of our works of public improvement.
It is true that all our railroads do not lead in that direction; but they will all be benefitted by a more rapid development of the resources of the State.
The event is especially propitious to the future prospects of the line of railway—the Pacific-connecting St. Louis with the eastern boundary of Kansas, near the Missouri river.
This may now be justly regarded as among the best public enterprises west of the Alleghanies; and if the cost of the work should not too far exceed the Engineer's estimates, the stock must be sought for ' time as a desirable object of investment.
The great demand created for this road by the opening of the Kansas valley to settlement should operate as a powerral argument to the directory and to the people along its line, k, increase their exertions to complete the work; and we sincerely I spe, that the citizens of the western counties through which the ro il passes, will, in view of the benefits to be derived from its immediate completion, come up to the work with a resolution that will sure its accomplishment in two years at furthest from the present date.
But passing from local to broader and more nation's views of this subject, we still find cause of gratification in the settement of these extensive territories.
They embrace a region most admirably adapted to the pursuits of the herdsman, and more especially to the production of sheep. The American people are not much addicted to the occupation of herdsmen, and it may be some years before this branch of industry attains to much importance. But when a residence on the plains shall be made safe from Indian depredations, if Americans do not possess them as pastures and sheep walks, emigrants from other lands will, and the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains will add another great staple to the national wealth.
But more and better still than all, we shall have a pastoral population in the center and heart of the Union, whose bold independence and incorruptable patriotism will constitute one of the strongest and most durable pillars of our institutions.
It requires no effort of the imagination to perceive that the settlement of these territories will produce important changes in the political aspects of the nation. The machinery which has been used with so much effect by political aspirants and demagogues, will, in a great measure, be rendered powerless. The northern and southern parties which to the detriment of the center have been so long struggling for political ascendency, are destined ere long to lose their potency in the councils of the nation, and yield to sentiments more liberal and a policy more national-emanating from the center.
Heretofore the central region has had no policy of its own, and its weight in the national councils is still regarded by the north and the south as a prize to be won and enjoyed by the party which can play the deepest game to secure it. It is a matter of little consequence to the west which wins ; for her interests are generally overlooked and often positively sacrificed by the successful party. It is a pleasing reflection that the time is rapidly approaching when a new order of things will be established ; when the people of the great central region attracted thither by natural laws and actuated by a truly national sentiment, shall rise above the sectional strifes wbich have so long vexed the nation and disturbed the harmony of its constituents..
The people occupying the central region, when its resources shall have been developed, can have no interests antagonistic to those of either the northern or southern sections of the Union, and from the nature of things their policy must be conservative, and tend to the perpetuation of our happy institutions.
Believing that perhaps every reader of the Western Journal and Civilian will be pleased to have a copy of the law organizing these Territories in a permanent form, we give below a copy of the “ Act to organize the Territory of Nebraska.” The provisions of the law organizing the Territory of Kansas are in all respects similar to those contained in the following copy, except as to boundary. Kansas is bounded north by Nebraska, east by Missouri, south by the parallel of 37° north latitude, and west by New Mexico. The seat of government for Kansas is located temporarily at Fort Leavenworth.
AN ACT TO ORGANIZE THE TERRITORY OF NEBRASKA.
Be it cnacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled. That all that part of the territory of the United States included within the following limits, except such portions thereof as are hereinafter expressly exempted from the operations of this act, to wit: Beginning at a point in the Missouri river where the fortieth parallel of north latitude crosses the same; thence west on said parallel to the east boundary of the Territory of Utah, on the summit of the Rocky Mountains, thence on said summit northward to the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude, thence east on said parallel to the western boundary of the Territory of Minnesota; thence southward on said boundary to the Missouri river; thence down the main channel of said river to the place of beginning, be and the same is hereby created into a temporary government, by the name of the Territory of Nebreska; and, when admitted as a State, or States, the said Territory, or any portion of the same, shall be received into the Union with or without slavery, as their constitution may prescribe at the time of their admission: Provided, That nothtng in this act contained shall be construed to inhibit the Government of the United States from dividing said Territory into two or more Territories, in such manner and at such times as Congress shall deem convenient and proper, or from attaching any portion of said Territory to any other Slete or Territory in the United States: Provided further, That nothing in this act contained shall be construed to impair the rights of persons or property now pertaining to the Indians in said Territory, so long as such rights shall remain unextinguished by treaty between the United States and such Indians, or to include any territory which, by treaty with any Indian tribe, is not without the consent of said tribe, to be included within the territorial limits or juris. diction of any State or Territory ; but all such territory shall be excepted out of the boundaries, and constitute no part of the Territory of Nebraska, until said tribe shall signify their assent to the President of the United States to be included within the said Territory of Nebraska, or to affect the authority of the Government of the U. S. to make any regulations respecting such Indians, their lands, property, or other rights, by treaty, law, or otherwise, which it would have
been competent to the Government to make if this act had never passed.
Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That the executive power and authority in and over said Territory of Nebraska shall be vested in a Governor, who shall hold his office for four years, and until his suo. cessor shall be appointed and qualified, unless sooner removed by the President of the U.S. The Governor shall reside within said Terri. tory and shall be Commander-in-Chief of the militia thereof. He may grant pardons and respites for offences against the laws of said Territory and reprieves for offenses against the laws of the U. S. until the decision of the President can be made known thereon ; he shall commission all officers who shall be appointed to office under the laws of the said Territory, and shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed.
Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That there shall be a Secretary of said Territory who shall reside therein and hold his office for five years, unless sooner removed by the President of the U. S., he shall record and preserve all the laws and proceedings of the Legislative Assembly hereinafter constituted, and all the acts and proceedings of the Governor in his executive department; he shall transmit one copy of the laws and journals of the Legislative Assembly within thirty days after the end of each session, and one copy of the executive proceedings and official correspondence semi-annually, on the first days of January and July in each year, to the President of the U. S., and two copies of the laws to the President of the Senate and to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, to be deposited in the libraries of Congress; and in case of the death, removal, resignation or absence of the Governor from the Territory, the Secretary shall be and is hereby authorized and required to execute and perform all the powers and duties of the Governor during such vacancy or absence, or until another Governor shall be duly appointed and qualified to fill such vaca ancy.
Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That the legislative power and authority of said Territory shall be vested in the Governor and a Legislative Assembly. The Legislative Assembly shall consist of a Council and a House of Representatives. The Council shall consist of thirteen members, having the qualifications of voters, as hereinafter prescribed, whose term of service shall continue two years. The House of Representatives shall, at its first session, consist of twenty-six members, possessing the same qualifications as prescribed for members of the Council, and whose term of service shall continue for one year. The number of representatives may be increased by the Legislative Assembly from time to time, in proportion to the increase of qualified voters : Provided, That the whole number shall never exceed thirtynine. An apportionment shall be made, as nearly equal as practicable, among the several counties or districts, for the election of the Council and Representatives, giving to each section of the Territory representation in the ratio of its qualified voters as nearly as may be. And the members of the Council and of the House of Representatives shall reside in, and be inhabitants of the district, or county, or counties, for which they may be elected, respectively. Previous to the first elece tion the Governor shall cause a census, or enumeration of the inhabita ants and qualified voters of the several counties and districts of the Territory to be taken by such persons and in such mode as the Governor shall designate and appoint; and the persons so appointed shall receive a reasonable compensation therefor. And the first election shall be held at such time and places, and be conducted in such maßner, both as to persons who shall superintend such election and the returns thereof, as the Governor shall appoint and direct; and he shall at the same time declare the number of members of the Council and House of Representatives to which each of the counties or districts shall be entitled under this act. The person having the highest number of legal votes in each of said Council districts for members of the Council shall de declared by the Governor to be duly elected to the Council, and the persons having the highest number of legal votes for the House of Representatives shall be declared by the Governor to be duly elected members of said House : Provided, That in case two or more persons voted for shall have an equal number of votes, and in case a vacancy shall otherwise occur in either branch of ihe Legislative Assembly, the Governor shall order a new election ; and the persons thus elected to the Legislative Assembly shall meet at such place and on such day as the Governor shall appoint; but thereafter the time, place and manner of holding and conducting all elections by the people, and the apportioning of the representation in the several counties or districts to the Council and House of Representatives, according to the number of qualified voters, shall be prescribed by law, as well as the day of commencement of the regular sessions of the Legislative Assembly: Provided, That no session in any one year shall exceed the term of forty days, except the first session, which may continue sixty
Sec. 5. And be it further enacted, That every free white male inhabitant above the age of twenty-one years who shall be an actual resident of said Territory, and shall possess the qualifications hereinafter prescribed, shall be entitled to vote at the first election, and shall be eligible to any office within the said Territory ; but the qualifications of voters and of holding office at all subsequent elections shall be such as shall be prescribed by the Legislative Assembly : Provided, That the right of suffrage and of holding office shall be exercised only by citizens of the U. S. and those who shall have declared on oath their intention to become such, and shall have taken an oath to support the Constitution of the U. S. and the provisions of this act: And provided further, That no officer, soldier, seaman, or marine or other person in the army or navy of the U, S., or attached to troops in the service of the U. Š., shall be allowed to vote or hold office in said Territory by reason of being on service therein.
Sec. 6. And be it further enacted, That the legislative power of the Territory shall extend to all rightful subjects of legislation consistent with the Constitution of the U. S. and the provisions of this act, but no law shall be passed interfering with the primary disposal of the soil; no tax shall be imposed upon the property of the U. S.; nor shall the lands or other property of non-residents be taxed higher than the lands or other property of residents. Every bill which shall have passed the Council and House of Representatives of the said Territory shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the Governor o