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JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURES.

[From the Mining Magazine.] The Cleveland Iron Company. The Cleveland Iron Mining Company have expended about $120,000 for various purposes; buying a town site, (Marquette,) building piers, warehouses, furnaces, &c. Their furnace was destroyed by fire in December last, and pow they abandon the manufacture of iron on Lake Superior, and sell all the ore they can get down. All the ore they deliver comes from the Jackson mine. With present facilities, it costs $5 to bring the ore from Marquette to Cleveland. When the S. Ste. Marie Canal, and the railroad from Lake Superior to the iron mines are finished, there will be no difficulty in furnishing Cleveland thousands of tons of ore per year, from the Lake Superior country. The Cleveland mine is about twelve miles, and the Jackson mine nine miles from the Marquette landing. The line of railroad is now partially graded for a plank road, and will be about sixteen miles long, to the Cleveland mine.

THE FOREST IRON COMPANY. The Forest City Iron Company of Cleveland are pushing ahead their works as fast as the weather will permit. They will probably commence manufacturing about the first of April. They are a very energetic Company, and if the Renton process is what it is claimed to be, they will make a great deal of money out of it. This Company have contracted with the Cleveland Iron Mining Company for one thousand tons of ore delivered at Cleveland for $12 per ton, which they intend to mix with ore from their mine at Sal. ineville, on the Cleveland and Pittsburg Railroad.

PRICES OF IRON. The Secretary of the Treasury of Virginia, in reply to a resolution of the State Senate adopted a year ago, has reported the average price of iron for the last ten years preceding 1853, at markets of production abroad and at home, as follows: Average of merchantable bar iror. at Liverpool............$31 78

merchantable bar iron at New York........... 56 521 merchantable bar iron at Pittsburg............ 55 45 best refined iron in Liverpool................... 47 641 best refined iron at N. York, 6 months credit 75 50 railroad iron in Wales .

......... 34 51 railroad iron in New York.

42 203 pig iron at Glasgow..........

13 21 pig iron at New York............

26 76 pig iron at Pittsburg .......

26 57

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1806......

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THE IRON TRADE OF GREAT BRITAIN. Retrospect since 1806; and the increased proportion which Scope

land bears to the whole.
FURNACES IN BLAST, AND PRODUCTION IN GREAT BRITAIN.

Furnaces.

Production.
1806..
.......... 216

243,851 tons. 1825...

374

581,367 402

...... 1,396,400 1848..

623

1,998,558
......... 655 ............ 2,701,000
OF WHICH THERE WERE, IN SCOTLAND-
Furnaces in blast.

Production. 1806 ...

........ 22,840 tons ....... £7 00 1813....

................ 23,450 ....... .... 8 0 0 1823...

30,500

4 15 0 1833...

44,000 ............

2 16 0 1843.................. 62

...... 248,300 ............

2 50 1853....... .......... 114

...... 740,000 DURING THE LAST TEN YEARS,

Furnaces in blast. Production-tons. Stock-tonga 1844 ........ 73 .......

295,000 .......... 190,000 1845 ..........

400,000 .......... 230,000 1846

580,000

145,000 1847 89

540.000 .......... 90.000 1848 103

600,000

100,000 1849 113

692,000

195,000 1850 105

580,000 .......... 230,000 1851 ........ 114

770,000

360,000 1852

............... 775.000 ........... 450,000 ................ 740,000

270,000 PRODUCTION OF MALLEABLE IRON IN SCOTLAND. " 1845 ................ 35,000 tons. 1849 ................ 80.000 tons. 1846 .......... 45.000

1850 ................ 80.000 1847 ................ 60.000

1851 and 2 each...... 90,000 1848 ............... 90,000

. 1853

1853 ............

18 18 22 31

...........

73

......

94 97

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AVERAGE PRICES OF PIG AND BAR IRON FOR THE LAST TWENTY YEARS,
Pig Iron Bar Iron.

Pig Iron Bar Iron, 1834 .... ..... £4 50 £6 18 6 1844 anni......£2 14 9 £6 2 6 1835 .......... 4 10 0 6 10 0 1845.......... 3 15 ) 9 4 0 1836 ... 6 13 0 10 12 0 1846...

3 11 8 9 180 1837 ...... OO 9 12 6 1847...

3 50 9 13 0 1838.... 00 9 50 1848.

4.4 6 11 6 1839.... 4 10 0 9 14 6 1849..

60 5 17 6 1840.... 15 0 8 7 6 1850...

47 5 80 1841 ....

3 00 ng 40 1851 .......... 200 1842 ... 2 10 0 5 19 0 1852.....

2 50

9 15 0 1843.......... 2 5 0 5 0 0 1853 .....unde 3 1 6 9 00

SHIPMENTS FROM SCOTLAND.
Foreign.
Coastwise.

Total. 1845...

.... 183,228 tons ........ • 237,899 tons. 1846 ... 119,100 .... 257,841

376,941 1847.

143,460 ....
227,005

370,465 1848...

162,151
227,833

387,984 1849..............ne 153,183 ......... 221,943 ............ 375,126 1850 ............... 134,576 .......... 190,083 ............ 324,659 1851 ................ 192,670 .......... 260,088 ............ 452.758 1852................ 224,097 .......... 199,971 ............ 424.068 1853...... ........ 314,270 ... ..ne 302,038 ............, 616,308

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MANUFACTURE OF STEEL.

As the manufacture of iron into the various forms of which it is capable, for commercial and immediate use, is attracting especial attention throughout the United States, as the demand for this metal is increasing more rapidly than the gold and silver of the country, and as the iron mines of Missouri are peculiarly distinguished for the superior quality of cast-steel into which the ores may be easily converted ; we are pleased to note the items in the following editorial from the Cleveland (Ohio) Herald of March 3d, and trust that the claims presented in behalf of this new process for making cast-steel may be fully investigated--and if found good may be applied in Missouri, that the cost of transportation of ores from the Iron Mountain region to Pittsburgh, for the purpose of steel manufacture, may be saved, that the cost of the metal may be reduced in price at our own doors, that the money

for it
may

be paid into the hands of our own workmen, and th at Missouri may derive both wealth and honor from the enterprise.

MANUFACTURE OF STEEL-IMPORTANT RESULTS.

Among the numerous advantages claimed for the new process of making wrought iron, one of prominent importance has lately been developel. The account of it is from undoubted authority, and is given as follows:

A munufacturer of steel lately purchased fifty tons of iron from the American Iron Company, Newark, N. J., made by the Renont process, to test its qualities as steel iron, which requires to be of the purest kind for that purpose.

The iron was taken from the bar, and by one simple process (only costing $30 per ton,) the iron was found susceptible, on account of its carbonaceous quality, to be capable of rapidly passing into steel of very superior texture, in the short space of four hours, saving the costly and tedious process of previous cementation. Thus, the daily products of each of the new furnaces can be converted into steel at a comparatively small cost, yielding 100 per cent. more profit than in iron.

The steel thus made has been put to various severe tests, made into razors, edge tools, &c., and is pronounced by competent judges to be the best of cast steel.

If these things are so, it will wonderfully reduce the cost of steel manufacture, and hold out new advantages to Cleveland enterprise, and especially to those who have lately embarked to reap the earliest advantages of the new mode of making iron from the Lake Superior ores. These have no rival in purity, and therefore the best results may be expected from them. What is to hinder Cleveland from beeoming an Iron City ?

JOURNAL OF INTERNAL IMPROVEMENT.

Pacific Railroad—Equity Shares.

• The people of Missouri are strongly attached to the Pacific Railroad; and the fortunes of the one are united with those of the other.

Three points of opposition to the interests of Missouri, are now bearing upon this enterprise. First, the force that is applied to the Iowa route, and is already building a bridge across the Mississippi river at Rock Island. Second, the force that is applied to the Texas route, and that has already obtained a grant of land twenty miles in width from the Sabine to the Rio Grande. Third, the force of inertia — the indisposition of the people of Missouri to build the Pacific Railroad, through their own State, immediately, out of their own resources; which force of inertia may be called the resistance of the people of Missouri, against the Missouri route.

The forces applied in favor of the Iowa and Texas routes, react upon the interests of the Missouri route indirectly. The resistance of the people of Missouri against the Missouri route, acts directly to the ruin of their interests; and this last, is the main point of opposition bearing upon the Missouri Pacific Railroad.

How can this resisting force be overcome? Only by a stronger impelling force. How can the impelling force be applied? By the affirmative vote of the tax-payers of St. Louis, to take pro rata shares in driving on the work. The tax-payers in St. Louis should set an example to the farmers in the counties along the route of the road through Missouri. If the Railroad bonds were high and the price of breadstuffs low, the force called for would not be needed.

But Railroad bonds have fallen, the farmers' products risen, and money is wanted to prosecute the work. Shall the Railroad now be crushed, and the fortunes of the farmer thus impaired; or shall the farmers maintain their fortunes, by raising those of the road? The crisis has come, and it most be met by the people, or else misfortune and dishonor will quickly stare them in the face. Lands have risen in value at rapid rates with the fortune of the road, and they will fall as quickly with its failure.

The North Missouri and Iron Mountain Railroads are linked in destiny by St. Louis bonds with the Pacific Railroad, and therefore the failure of one will bring discredit on the others. These three Railroads have raised the value of real estate in St. Louis county at least 100 per cent. The failure of one of them would lower the value of the same real estate, far beyond the amount now necessary to be raised for its support.

A subscription of $1,200,000 is called for by the Pacific Railroad Company to be taken in pro rata stock by the property holders of St. Louis county. The plan on which it is to be raised is called "Taxation”—a term as unfortunate as untrue. The plan should be called by the popular and fair name it deserves “EQUITY SHARES”-as, by the plan, certificates of stock are given for every payment made, and each property holder takes an equal amount of stock, with every other one in proportion to the value of his property.

In 1852, the population of St. Louis county, according to the census returns, was 121,853. The average amount therefore of the subscription of equity shares called for is less than ten dollars a piece for each inhabitant. And as only thirty per cent. of the same is to paid per year, the average amount of yearly payments on these equity shares, will therefore be only three dollars a year for each inhabitant.

On the hypothesis that the current value of the property in St. Louis city and county is $75,000,000, the man who owns $500 worth would have eight dollars of Railroad stocks as his share; and on the call of thirty per cent. per year, his yearly payment would be only two dollars and forty cents.

If the stock of the Company should be raised above par, these oquity shares will be a profitable investment.

When, therefore, the proposition to raise $1,200,000 in St. Louis, on the plan of Equity Shares as above shown, is fairly examined, instead of being hard and repulsive, it is reasonable and easy; and the more thoroughly it is understood, the more popular it must necessarily become.

This system will also give an opportunity for each and every property holder in St. Louis to gratify an honorable pride, in the consciousness that he has done his duty towards this great national enterprise. Further, the spirit displayed by St. Louis in boldly sustaining and promoting this measure, will be felt and appreciat

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