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road iron discussed, 77. New method
cation endowments, Railroad grants,
Pacific Railroad, Mo., Equity Shares,
Pacific Railroad Convention in Cali-
Partnerships, limited, 238.
Pacific Railroad, Mo.,
Equity shares, &c., 62. Fremonts
exploration of the central route. 184.
Southern route, 256. Central route
convention in California, 246. Rail-
roads in Arkansas, 64. "Midland R.
R., 224. Breaking ground at Hele-
na, 300. Mississippi, Ouachita and
Red River Railroad breaking ground,
301. Railroads concentrating at He-
lena, Ark., 370. Mobile and Ohio
Railroad, Engineer's Report, 173. St.
Louis, Memphis and New Orleans
Railroad, 212. St. Louis, Paducah
and Nashville Railroad Connection,
220. Railroads in Great Britain, Re-
port for 1853, 343. Keokuk and
Muscatine Railroad, 374. Cleveland
progress, length of straight lines,
curves, grades, &c., 374. Ohio and
Mississippi railroad open to Carlyle,
road completed, 376. _Mississippi &
St. Louis Railroad, Progress of the
duties on be repealed ? 77.
ring bars, 301.
position of their metalic composition,
St. Louis and Arkansas Trade, 134.
Trade with Hickman, Ky., Tennessee
and Arkansas Rivers, 294. St. Louis
civil statistics — Mayor's message,
Orleans Railroad, 212. St. Louis,
Paducah and Nashville railroad con-
Slavery in Africa and in the United
ment by Americans, 8, 111, 159, 239, England, 415.
Steel, manufacture of, 61.
bins, N. Y., 121.
Treaty with Japan, 368. Education-
Universal Prime Mover, 273.
Valley of the Ohio: Its conquest and
Valley of the Amazon: Its productions,
Valley of Mesilla, 251.
States during the year ending June
built in the United States from 1815
specting the navigation of the Ama. character of vessels entered at the
ports of the United States, in 1853,
The glory of a State is derived from the nature of its lands and the spirit of its men. If a country abounds with sublime and beautiful scenes : for this cause alone, it becomes famous among poets and travellers for pleasure, like Switzerland. If it abounds with gold, it inflames the imagination, and attracts crowds of speculators, like California. If it abounds with lovers of art, it is then invested with a refined halo, like Italy. If it abounds with useful metals, and with men who know how to turn those metals into use, it not only gains a brilliant glory of substantial civilization, but wins the honors of art and of gold from other lands, like England.
The State of Missouri possesses the materials of internal wealth, which are the great bases on which the splendor of the prosperity of England is established. Mountains of mineral, and vallies of fertility, adorn the central State of the Union. Beauty and sublimity of scene, soils and mines of wealth, every inanimate material of art are hers. But has she the spirit in her men to appreciate and display the power and the glory she is capable of attaining ? Time will tell.
We have heretofore invoked this spirit of her people, and a moderate manifestation of its presence was exhibited.
On the 24th of February, 1853, the Legislature of Missouri made "An act to provide for a geological and mineralogical survey of the State," directing the Governor to appoint a suitable and competent person, State Geologist, and authorizing the Geologist, by and with the consent of the Governor, to appoint four skillful assistants, and any necessary subordinates, and requiring them to discover and examine all beds or deposits of ore, coal, marls,
and such other mineral substances and mineral waters as may be useful or valuable, and to perform such other duties pertaining to the survey, as to make it full and complete. Elaborate examinar tions, assays and analyses, with reports thereon; an annual report of progress, with maps, drawings and specimens; and a final memoir of the whole survey are required to be made. Three complete cabinet collections of specimens of the geology and mineralogy of the State are provided for, one to be given to the State University, one kept in the State Capitol, and one presented to the City of St. Louis, for the purpose of public inspection. Twenty thousand dollars are appropriated for the purpose of carrying the provisions of the act into effect: amount of salaries, cost of chemical apparatus and other out-fit included. A wise provision is added, which, though a temporary annoyance to private speculators, will result in the most permanent and entire satisfaction to the masses of the people throughout the whole State. This provision obligates the chief Geologist and his principal assistants under oath “to abstain from all pecuniary speculations for themselves or others in the objects of their survey during its progress.”
This act of the Legislature shows that the spirit of the people is beginning to stir itself, in behalf of civil progress, and that the representatives of the people are being actuated with motives higher and nobler than those of mere petty, political intrigues--that they are moved with libera! feelings, and guided by enlightened views of a statesman-like public policy.
One year and a month has passed since the passage of the law. In the meantime Prof. G. C. SWALLOW, of the State University, was appointed State Geologist; and he with his four principal assistants and necessary subordinates, have been engaged fulfilling the provisions of the law. Surveys have been made in the Northwestern, the Southeastern and Southwestern portions, and Prof. Swallow is now out making surveys in the Northeastern quarter of the State. It is fair to presume that large quantities and great varieties of ores, soils, and other valuable substances have been collected from the four quarters of the State ; and that the laboratory is busy working out the secrets of the nature of the lands. In regard to the facts of the number, variety and source of specimens, and the result of their analyses: an apparently religious silence is observed by the corps, under a strict construction of their oath; and thus while they are maintaining a barrier against priv
ate speculation, and preserving their discoveries of the untold wealth of the State for the public good, the detail of facts and results gained by the corps, over which such a lively civil as well pecuniary interest is suspended, cannot be made known until disclosed to the Legislature.
While thig survey is progressing under this law, it is well to consider what additional arrangements should be made to prosecute this work with a force, in a style and to an extent, far beyond that now provided for. Although the Legislature of Missouri, after deliberating on the reports of the State Geologist, to be laid before them next winter, may determine to appropriate additional State funds for a more minute survey than could possibly be made under the present law; and although such a policy might display a liberal and patriotic spirit, yet this is not the only, neither is it the best policy to be pursued.
The State of Missouri has claims on the government of the United States, large claims, founded on principles of equity and good conscience, justified by precedents set by Congress, and capable of being firmly substantiated by sound reasons. These claims are in behalf of the geological survey of Missouri.
Immense sums of money have been appropriated by the General Government in behalf of the Survey of the Coast, of the Lakes, and of the Atlantic and Pacific ocean; and a respectable fund was lavished on the Dead Sea, while the center of the Union was suffering for aid to begin its own survey. Should not the center of the country receive from Congress equal regard with any one portion of its extremity ? - equal regard with any portion of Asia ? Is it not equitable to be just before being generous ? Is it not according to good conscience to take as much care of the heart as of the outside of the Union ?
On the question of a geological survey of a State, Congress has set precedents. The report of the Geological Survey of Wisconsin, Iowa and Minnesota, by David DALE OWEN, U. S. Geologist, dated 20th October, 1851, published in an elegant and costly style, and with its elaborate maps, drawings and hundreds of illustrations, is one of the results of a liberal appropriation made by Congress for this object. This expensive printed report, issuing from the press "BY AUTHORITY OF CONGRESS," has been spread throughout the United States, and has found its way in various foreign lands, and thereby another and more glorious result has occurred to Wiscon