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DEBATES IN THE SENATE. Mr. LLOYD, of Mass. was in expectation that the ho
norable gentleman who had subnitted the resolution, MONDAY, DECEMBER 5, 1825.
would give his reasons for the measure; which had his enAGREEABLY to the provision of the Constitution, Mr. L. said, was to investigate the subjects brought be.
tire concurrence. The object of appointing Committees, fixing the period for the meeting of Congress, the two fore them, to digest them and present them in a condensed Houses assembled in their respective Chambers, in the Capitol, this day, and commenced the First Session of the and, luminous form, that the Senate might act on them Nineteenth Congress.
with less labor and more confidence. He thought it
wrong to refer two subjects, which often came in collision IN THE SENATE,
with each other, to the same committee. He had the hoAt twelve o'clock, the VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED nor, last year, to be on the Committee of Commerce and STATES, ex officio PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE, took the Manufactures, and had received every mark of politeness Chair, and called the Senate to order. The roll of the and attention from the gentlemen composing that commitMembers being then called over, it appeared that a quo- tee ; yet he could declare that, on all questions relating to rum was present.
Commerce, excepting those concerning Light-houses, On motion, a Committee was ordered to be appointed, Breakwaters, and one or two others, he had the misfortune jointly, with such Committee as should be appointed by to be in a minority. It was well known, that the two great the House of Representatives, to wait on the President of national objects of Commerce and Manufactures, in legisthe United States, and inform him that the two Houses of lating on them, frequently came in collision with each Congress are assembled, and ready to receive any commu- other, and it must frequently happen that those who advonication he might have to make; and Mr. Smitu, of Md. cate the one would be opposed to the other. Commerce, and Mr.LLOTD, of Mass. were appointed the Committee on Mr. L. said, was the leading interest of the country: it furthe part of the Senate.
nished all the revenue; it gave three times the amount neThe usual orders, for furnishing the Members with a cessary to meet the expenditure of the country; and, concertain number of newspapers, &c. were adopted, and sidering its vast importance, he should decide upon passThe Senate adjourned to 12 o'clock tomorrow. ing the resolution.
Mr. DICKERSON, of N. J. offered a few remarks in faTUESDAY, DECEMBER 6, 1825.
vor of the motion. He thought it improper to blend two Mr. SMITH, of Md. reported, from the Joint Committee, subjects so distinct from each other as Commerce and Mathat they had waited on the President of the United States, nufactures, especially as there were Members sufficient to agreeably to order, and that the President informed the fill all necessary Committees. Mr. B. bore testimony to Committee that he would make a communication to the the advantage the Committee on Commerce and Manufactwo Houses this day.
tures had derived from the experience and information of Soon after which,
the gentleman from Massachusetts, and concluded by exA Message was received from the President of the Unit- pressing his strong conviction that it was the interest of the ed States, by the hands of Mr. J. Adams, Jun. his private country that the two subjects should be separated. Secretary; which was read, and 3,000 copies ordered to Mr. FINDLAY, of Penn. thought the subject of Agribe printed, together with 1,500 of the accompanying do- culture of as much importance as either Commerce or Macuments. (See Appendix.)
nufactures, and proposed so to modify the resolution that
it should read, one of Commerce, and one of Manufactures WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 7, 1825.
and Agriculture. The following resolution, submitted yesterday, by Mr. Mr.DICKERSON objected to the proposed amendment, DICKERSON, was taken up:
on the ground that there was no Committee of Agriculture, “Resolved, That the Thirtieth Rul for conducting the and it would be inexpedient to combine it with the Combusiness of the Senate be so amended, that, instead of a mittee on Manufactures: for, although the two subjects Committee of Commerce and Manufactures, there be two were in many respects connected with each other, yet the Standing Committees, one of Commerce, and one of Manu- different views which would be taken of them by the genfictures."
themen composing the cornmittes, would occasionally clasli. Vol. II?
Committees Commerce, Manufactures, Roads and Canals.
(Dec. 9, 1825.
Mr. HAYNE, of South Carolina, said, it was easy to committee as well defined as those of any of the Standling perceive that the gentleman from New Jersey looked to Committees. Manufaetures as a separate and distinct interest. If it had The question was then taken on Mr. Findlar's amendbeen otherwise, he would have accepted the amendment ment, and lost. proposed by the gentleman from Pennsylvania. Mr. H. The question was then taken on Mr. Dickersor's mosaid he protested against such a doctrine. Experience tion to create two comunittees, and carried; Yeas 20, Nays 9. had proved that much benefit had been derived froin com- Mr. JOHNSON, of Kentucky, submitted the following mitting to one committee the subjects of commerce and resolution: manufactures, and he would advocate any motion to add Resolved, That a committee be appointed to inquire into the subject of agriculture—willing that those three great the expediency of abolishing imprisonment for debt. national interests should be inseparably connected. Mr. Mr. J. moved the immediate consideration of this reso. II. thought, if they were to legislate with a view to have lution; but, some opposition being made to this course, he separate and individual interests on those subjects, great withdrew the motion. misery to the country at large would be the result. It The Senate adjourned to Friday. would be impossible for them to legislate wisely on manufactures, if they had not, at the same time, a distinct view
Fridar, DECEMBER 9, 1825. of the effect on the commerce of the country. To illustrate the advantage of combining the two subjects in one obtained leave, introduced a bill for the relief of Clark
Agreeably to notice, Mr. NOBLE asked, and, having committee, on which gentlemen conversant with eachi
McPherrin. would be appointed, Mr. H. adverted to the great benefit which the Committee of Commerce and Manufactures had, Peace Establishment, stationed at Fort Howard, who be.
Mr. N. stated that Clark McPheitin was a soldier on the at the last session, in its deliberations on the tariff bill, derived from the counsels of the honorable gentleman from came deranged and left the post, and was found eighteen Massachusetts, (!Ir. L.lord.) This fact was rell known— days afterwards, half a mile from the Fort, under a hayfor the value of his knowledge and experience on that stack, frostbitten to such a degree as to require the ampuCoinmittee was the subject of remark at the time. What, tation of both feet. His casc had been represented to the sailir. B. was the object of legislating on manufactures War Department, but there was no law in existence to af. Was it to provide articles for the domestic use of the coun
ford him relief; this had induced Mr. N. to introduce the
bill. try? No-it was to make them a subject of commerce, by esporting what was manufactured, or effecting the impor
The bill was read and passed to a second reading. Mr. tation of the produce of other nations, and it would be im- N. moved a second reading of the bill to-day, but the mopossible for them to pass a law which would affect the tion was objected to, and lost of course. manufactures of the country, which would not have a di
Mr. HAYNE submitted the following resolution: rect operation on its commerce. He hoped these great ob
Resolved, That uniform laws throughout the United jects would go on together, and that the proposition to States, on the subject of Bankruptcy, ought to be estab
lished. separate them would not prevail. Ir. SMITII said nothing was more common than to in
ROADS AND CANALS. troduce innovations in legislation; the subjects of manufac- The Senate then proceeded to the consideration of the tures and commerce had been for a series of years con- following resolution, subinitted by Mr. RUGGLES on nected in one committee, and there was then no com- Wednesday last: plaint, because these two great objects are so similar, that, Resolved, that there be added to the thirtieth rule for in attempting to do much good to one, there is danger of conducting the business of the Senate, the following: injuring the other. A similar innovation took plac. in the “And a committee, to consist of five members, on other House; a Committee of Manufactures was instituted, Roarls and Canals." and they went on for the promotion of that particular ob- Mr. RUGGLES said he was not aware it was necessary ject without regarl to the other; and, if the Senate fol- to offer any remarks on the proposed amendment to the Towed the example of the other House, they must expect rule. The subject of Roads and Canals had been before the same result. Commerce and Manufactures ought ever Congress every session for a considerable time, and this to go hand in hand, so as not to destroy or distress each session it formed a part of the President's Message, and it other; and in the Committee there should be gentlemen was necessary that a Standing Committee should be apwho were favorable to manufactures, and others who were pointed as well for the reference of that portion of the favorable to commerce, so as to check any motion or at- Message, as to inquire into the matters relating to the tempt to injure either the one or the other:
'subject, which would come before them from other quarMr. ROWAN observed that an Agricultural Society ters. A few days ago, the duties of the Committee on might be necessary for the ten miles square, as the soil was commerce and Manufactures had been divided: those of a decidedly capable of great improvement. He thought they Committee on Roads and Canals would be equally labo. had better leave agriculture as it is it was not within the rious, and it was of importance that a committee should be scope of the powers of this body. The power to regulate appointed. commerce was expressly given), and the connexion bc- Mr. HOLMES, of Maine, said, the Senate would not tween that and manufactures led to the establishment of a probably be aware of the'extent to which they would go in Cominittee of Commerce and Manufactures—but he should establishing a rule of this kind. They had heretofore been always rote against any proposition tending to regulate satisfied with appointing a committee from session to sesAgriculture,
sion; but if they were all agreed on the subject of Roads Mr. HOLMES, of Maine, said the duties of the Com- and Canals, it would be proper to have a Standing Com. mittee on Cominerce and Manufactures were well under- mittee; that is, if the Senate agreed not only that the Ge. stood, because they had been defined by practice, but, as neral Government had the power to construct Roads and regarded the duties of a Committee on Agriculture, he Canals, but that it would always be expedient to do so. If, could not imagine what they could be, and he thought that however, the Members of the Senate were not all of opi. they ought to be defined before such a committee was nion that they possessed the power, it would be better to established.
go on as they had done herciofore, and refer the subject Mr. FINDLAY said there were several cases in which to a Select Committee. such a committee could act; it was impossible to tell what The question was then taken on the resolution, and business might arise, and he thought the duties of that lost--ycas 14, nays 19.
Dec. 9, 1825.
Committee on Agriculture.
The Senate then proceeded to the consideration of the sequently, without explanation, an inference might be following resolution, submitted by Mr. FINDLAY: drawn by some of inconsistency between the two votes.
* Resolved, That the 30th rule of the Senate be amend. That amendment, however, was resisted by him upon the ed, by adding thereto “a Committee on Agriculture.'”. sole and identical principle which, in his opinion, operat
ME. FINDLAY said, that, when he brought forward the ed with the greatest force in favor of the present resolusubject on a former day, it was urged in opposition, that tion-the principle of inexpediency, in referring the subthe subject of Agriculture was not within the scope of jects of manufactures and agriculture to the same cem.that body, and that they could not, therefore, legislate re-mittee; and an inexpediency as great as to continue to refer specting it beyond the District of Columbia. Mr. F. said, commerce and manufactures to the same committee. All it was his opinion that the three great branches of domes- the arguments, so eloquently urged on that day by the tic industry, Commerce, Manufactures, and Agriculture, gentlemen from Massachusetts and New Jersey, for a sewere all equally entitled to the care and protection of the parate committee on each of the two last subjects, appli. Government. The Senate had directed the establishmented in equal vigor for a separate committee on agriculture. of a Committee on Manufactures as well as on Commerce, Not that he believed the interests of all these cardinal and he saw no reason why Agriculture should not receive branches of industry were not inseparably connected-for the same attention from the Senate. It might be alleged, he cordially united with the gentleman from South Carothat the connexion between Commerce and Agriculture lina in that particular; but it was a connection in their imrendered a committee on the latter subject unnecessary, portance to society, and in favor due from the Government; To this position he thought there might be exceptions. In nor that he believed they were not sisters, as happily exlegislating on Commerce, certain laws might be passed, pressed by the gentleman from Maryland—but sisters, which might operate to the depression of Agriculture; chiefly, in the affections of this House. They could be laws encouraging to a great extent the importation of arti- received separately; and, like those sciences having one cles in a raw state which might come in competition with common bond, must be examined in detail-peculiar t:the home materials which Agriculture furnished in abund- lents could, in distinct committees, be broughi to bear on ance. Things could not be in this state without the Agri- the investigation of each; and, by a proper analysis and culturists having a right to complain, and all their com- scrutiny of subjects of legislation, the same utility is atplaints would amount to nothing at all, if there were no tained as by a proper division of labor in the common committee to which their petitions could be referred. All affairs of life. That there was no employment for such subjects coming before the Senate that might particularly a committee, had been again pressed by the ingenious interfere with the interests of Agriculture, ought to be re- gentleman from Maine: but, in addition to the answer ferred to such a committee, who would report a modifica- given by the mover of the resolution, he would suggest, tion of the laws, or suggest new ones. Mr. F. concluded that all questions of direct taxes on land; all internal duby saring, he had submitted this resolution from the dic- ties and excises; and all imposts, no less than questions of tates of duty, and he did not think it necessary to say any foreign and internal commerce, have a powerful, anda thing further on the subject.
often, an immediate influence on the interests of agriculMr. HOLMES, of Maine, wished very much that the ture. And, in a territory like ours, of between two and gentleman from Pennsylvania had informed them what three millions of square miles; with two-thirds of its posuch a committee would have to do. Could any of them pulation exclusively engaged in agriculture; with annual know what its duties would consist in? Could he point exports from agriculture of about forty millions; and with, out any one thing it could report upon; any thing relating probably, fifteen millions of our duties paid, in the end, to the raising of cotton or of cattle? What power would by the tillers of the soil, who consume, and not by the the committee have? Was it to afford information to the merchants, who import—it is impossible not to find şub; people on the subject of agriculture, or to bring in rejects peculiarly proper, in some stage of their progress ports on which Congress was to act? Mr. H. said he was through this House, to be referred to such a committee. opposed to the appointment of a committee of informa- True it is, that the subject, as heretofore, might be retion; but, if the gentleman would point out any one thing ferred to other committees; and it is equally true, that which properly belonged to such a committee, or shew all subjects, whatever, might be referred to a Committee how the committee was to act, he did not know but he of the whole House. True it is, also, that the duties of should be disposed to indulge him with his vote; but he such a committee are not specifically defined; nor are the confessed he could, himself, think of no one thing: it was duties of any other committee; but depend on the express perhaps, owing to his want of understanding on the sub-object of the committee, and the nature of subjects com. ject, but he could not see what the committee woulding before Congress. If those concerning agriculture are have todo. If he were one of that committee, and that gen. now small, he hoped the prosperity of it would long keep tleman were the chairman, and could give no further in- them small. But, that her interests were daily touched, formation on the subject than he had now done to the Se- directly or indirectly, and might be considered by reports Tiate, he should, certainly, be greatly at a loss what to do. of other committees being referred to the committee bea
Mr. FINDLAY, in reply, referred to the article of spi- fore any final measures are taken, will be manifest, by rits-foreign spirits might come in competition with do- adverting, not only to the effect of the tariff, as before mestic ones, and affect the agriculturist in the grain-grow named, on some kinds of produce, but to the duties on ing States: a prohibition of foreign potatoes might be pro- sugar, as affecting the agriculture of that section suited posed, which would also interest the agricultural interest; to the cane; on hemp, as affecting another section; on and many other questions might be mentioned which it woollen and cotton goods, as aftecting the produce of rould be proper to refer to a committee on the subject other sections; tobacco, another. As a strong illustration But, supposing the committee had nothing to do, then the how agriculture may be affected by duties on articles congentleman certainly could not imagine that any thing of sumed
merely, and not grown here, something more than consequence could result from the appointment of it. half a million in value of salt is annually imported, paying
Mr. WOODBURY, of New Hampshire, observed, that a duty of twenty cents per bushel, and a large proportion he should vote for the resolution now before the Senate, of it being consumed by the farmers of the North, this notwithstanding the strong opposition to it which had been duty is a tax on them. The hardy yeomanry of the manifested. Yet he would not have risen to offer any country may ask, in time, to be heard on these, and simiremarks upon its passage, but for the circumstance, that, lar topics: and, though groaning under no such tithes and on Wednesday, he had voted against the amendment poor-rates as to require for relief the cumbrous system of proposed to the Committee on Manufactures, and, con- British Corn Laws; though not wont to be so clamorous
Imprisonment for Debt.
(Dec. 9, 1825.
as those engaged in some other pursuits; though not the United Stat:s, the subject embraced by this resoluthundering at your doors so often with petitions, memo. tion would come before that committee. He hoped, rials, and remonstrances; yet they have the same consti- therefore, the gentleman would permit his resolution to tutional right to notice, are as deeply interested in all the lie on the table till the Standing Committees of that legitimate objects of national legislation; and, as Lords · House were appointed, and it would then be referred to of the Soil, were known, by every bearer, to yield in no one of them, under whose examination it would more human excellence to the Lords of the Spindle. The other immediately come. House had a similar committee, and he trusted, this would Mr. JOHNSON said, it was the good fortune of his be deemed an additional argument for one here.
friend from Massachusetts, to have a Presidential recomMr. HOLMES, of Maine, said that the gentleman had mendation in behalf of his favorite measure to satisfy his ondeavored to define the duties of a Committee on Agri- mind. But, for himself, Mr. J. said, he was obliged to culture; but every one that he had mentioned, properly bring forward his favorite project in the same manner, belonged to, and was always considered by, the Commit. and ask for it the same course that it had taken the two tee on Finance. As regarded the tariff, or a tax affecting preceding sessions. He had not opposed the proposi. any article of commerce, the Committee of Finance was tion for a bankrupt law; but, if he had that subject not so properly the Committee of Agriculture for the Senate. much at heart as the measure he had now, for the third Mr. H. did not mean to disregard the interests of agri. time, presented to the Senate, he hoped he should be culture-on the contrary, he thought it the great interest pardoned for asking an opportunity of bringing it forward. on which all the other interests rested. The present He said this was the third time he had introduced this question was merely the proper mode of transacting the proposition. The first session, the bill for abolishing imbusiness of the Senate; but, as far as the agriculture of prisonment for debt, passed this body, but unfortunately the country was concerned, having a bearing on taxes it was at the close of the session, and, like every thing and on the manufactures of the country, the Committee which at that period goes from one house to the other, it of Finance was the true committee to which its interests was swallowed up and engulphed, for want of time, with ought to be referred.
the other unfinished business of both Houses. That was The question was then taken on the resolution of Mr. the fate of the bill the Senate acted on; and, last session, FINDLAY, and decided by Yeas and Nays, as follows: when he again introduced the subject, he was unsuccess
YEAS-Messrs. Barton, Bell, Benton, Chase, Dicker. ful. Mr. J. said, there was not a member of the commuson, Edwards, Findlay, Hayne, Hendricks, Johnson, of nity who would deny the isolated proposition for which Ken. Johnston of Lou. Kane, Knight, Marks, Noble, Rob- he contended, that imprisonment for debt ought to be bins, Ruggles, Seymour, Smith, Thomas, Willey, Wood. abolished; yet for want of perfection in the details, it was, bury--22.
last session, lost by the casting vote of the presiding officer. NAYS-Messrs. Branch, Chandler, Clayton, Cobb, He denied, most unequivocally, that this subject was emEaton, Gaillard, Harrison, Holmes, of Me. King, of Alab. braced in that of an uniform system of bankruptcy; he Macon, Mills, Rowan, Van Buren, Van Dyke-14. denied that it had cver been embraced in any system So the resolution was agreed to.
here or in Great Britain, or in any other proposition made IMPRISONMENT FOR DEBT.
here by a standing committee, and, if his life were spared,
he should submit it annually as long as he had the honor of The Senate then proceeded to consider the following a seat on that floor, although, out of respect to his assoresolution, submitted on Wednesday last, by Mr. Jounson, ciates, he should never complain of the result, if he fail. of Kentucky: Resolved, That a Committee be appointed to inquire to God, his country, and his conscience. He had stated
ed, but content himself with having discharged his duty into the expediency of abolishing Imprisonment for Debt. emphatically, and he should repeat with the same em
Mr. MILLS, of Massachusetts, said this was a subject phasis, that no individual in that House, or the other which had occupied much of the time and attention of Branch of the Government, had been known to raise his the Senate, and he should be glad to have it thorouglıly voice against the propriety of the proposition to abolish examined, that some course might be adopted, some pro- imprisonment for debi. They had only differed on the position made, which should meet with the approbation details of the measure. Imprisonment for debt was a of a majority of the Senate. But he was opposed to the stain on us as a Christian nation, and he thought that the appointinent of a Select Committee at the present time wisdom of Congress, whilst it sanctioned the object of a for that purpose. Amongst the great variety of subjects bill for its abolishment, would be capable of communicatin the President's Message, Mr. M. said, there was one ing to it a vivifying principle. He was not so fortunate he had recommended-and he thanked him for it—the as to have his proposition recommended in the President's establishment of an uniform system of bankruptcy in the Message, but he hoped, though it was only sanctioned by United States, in pursuance of the express delegation of a humble member of this body, it would have as good an that power to Congress by the Constitution; and it was opportunity for investigation as that which came with the easy to see that it was a subject connected with the pro- sanction of the Chief Magistrate. position now brought forward; and, whenever they exer- Mr. NOBLE, of Indiana, could not vote for referring cised that power, all the evils, of which there was so the subject to a Select Committee. It had been before much complaint, would be effectually remedied. As soon the Senate three years ; had been most amply discussed as the Standing Committees were appointed, that part of and, as far as he knew, there was no one in favor of the the Message which related to the subject of bankruptcy abstract proposition of imprisonment for debt; but all would be referred to one of them, probably the Com- were willing to abolish it. He would say now, that whenmittee on the Judiciary, and, when it was so referred, ever the subject should be brought before that body, he that committee would then have before it the very sub- should vote for the bill if it proposed giving to the honject to which the gentlemen now wished to call the at. est creditor a right to compel a cession of property, but tention of the Senate, and for which he wished the ap- not otherwise. The Committee on the Judiciary would pointment of a Select Committee, Mr. M. was of opinion consist of men of talents and experience, and a subject that, where two subjects were so intimately blended to which would vitally affect millions of persons within gether, that they could not legislate on one without the United States, certainly would not be passed over. involving the other, both ought to be referred to the Mr. MILLS said he should be sorry to be misundersame committee. In dig-sting and preparing an act to stood by the gentleman from Kentucky, or by any other : establish an uniform system of bankruptcy throughout his only wish, in the few remarks he offered, was to in