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whose representatives signed on July 22 without reservation as to acceptance. Canada has since accepted it by action of Parliament. Pending the entry into force of the Constitution, the Interim Commission will carry on the work authorized by the Arrangement establishing the Commission.

B. BACKGROUND

The International Health Conference was the result of action by a number of states to develop a single international health organization within the framework of the United Nations. At the United Nations Conference on International Organization in San Francisco in 1945, health was recognized in Article 55 of the Charter of the United Nations as a field with which the United Nations should concern itself. Article 57 of the Charter envisaged the establishment by intergovernmental agreement of a specialized health agency with wide responsibilities.

At that Conference, Brazil and China introduced a Joint Declaration calling attention to the need for the early establishment of an international health organization. This was unanimously approved by Committee II/3.

On the basis of the Joint Declaration, Brazil and China opened negotiations with France, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom, and the United States in order to convene in 1945 a conference to establish an international health organization. Brazil and China requested the United States to serve as host to the conference. In view, however, of the establishment of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations, it was agreed that the conference might most appropriately be convened by the Council. Accordingly, the Council at its first session adopted, on February 15, 1946, a resolution calling an International Health Conference to meet not later than June 20, 1946. This resolution also provided for a Technical Preparatory Committee, composed of 16 experts from as many countries, to meet in Paris in March 1946 to prepare basic documents for the Conference.

In 1945 and early 1946 the Department of State and the Public Health Service developed proposals for a draft constitution for the projected international health organization. The Department of State convened on October 11-12, 1945 an Advisory Health Group, composed of national leaders in health and civic affairs (Annex 6), which studied and amended the draft proposals and adopted a resolu

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tion (Annex 7) strongly urging early action in the establishment of an international health organization. The Senate on December 20, 1945 adopted unanimously Senate Joint Resolution 89 (Annex 8) requesting the President to urge upon the United Nations the prompt convening of an international health conference and the formation of an international health organization.

Dr. Thomas Parran, Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service, was appointed to the Technical Preparatory Committee by the Economic and Social Council, which also appointed as his alternate Dr. James A. Doull, Chief of the Office of International Health Relations of the Public Health Service. At the meeting of the Committee held in Paris, March 18–April 5, 1946, Dr. Parran presented to the Committee draft constitutional proposals (Annex 9) which were based largely on those developed by the Department of State and the Public Health Service with the assistance of the Health Advisory Group. On the basis of these proposals and those submitted by Doctors Cavaillon and Leclainche (France), Sir Wilson Jameson (United Kingdom), and Dr. Andrija Stampar (Yugoslavia), the Committee prepared and submitted specific constitutional proposals for a World Health Organization to the members of the United Nations and to the Economic and Social Council (Annex 10). The Committee further recommended to the Council that in view of the world-wide scope

of health problems, states not members of the United Nations and Control Commissions of occupied territories be invited to the International Health Conference as observers. It also recommended that several international organizations concerned with health and related problems be invited to send representatives as observers. In order to expedite the establishment of the proposed single international health organization, the Committee recommended that states invited to the Conference be requested to empower their delegates to sign an intergovernmental agreement establishing a World Health Organization and a protocol intended to absorb the Office International d'Hygiène publique into the World Health Organization. It made further recommendations concerned with the absorption of the Health Organization of the League of Nations and certain functions of the Health Division of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. An annotated agenda was prepared by the Committee to serve as a guide to the International Health Conference in the conduct of its work.

The Economic and Social Council at its session in May and June 1946 examined the report of the Technical Preparatory Committee, commended the Committee on the excellence of its work, and made certain observations on the constitutional proposals for consideration by the International Health Conference. It further decided to extend Conference invitations to certain states not members of the United Nations, to the Allied Control Commissions of Germany, Japan, and Korea, and to certain international organizations (Annex 11).

C. ORGANIZATION OF THE CONFERENCE AND

METHOD OF WORK

The International Health Conference was convened on June 19, 1946 at the Henry Hudson Hotel, New York City, and was brought to a close on July 22, 1946. It was attended by representatives of all members of the United Nations and by observers from 13 states not members of the United Nations, the control authorities of Germany, Japan, and Korea, and 10 international organizations with interests related to health. The observers were given the right to speak but had no vote.

The Conference was opened by Sir Ramaswami Mudaliar (India), President of the Economic and Social Council, who presided over its first session. At that session, Mr. John G. Winant, United States Representative on the Economic and Social Council, read a message of welcome to the delegates from the President of the United States. · The Conference was welcomed on behalf of the United Nations by Mr. Trygve Lie, Secretary-General, by Sir Ramaswami Mudaliar, and by Professor Henri Laugier, Assistant Secretary-General for Social Affairs. Dr. G. Brock Chisholm (Canada), Rapporteur of the Technical Preparatory Committee, presented to the Conference the report of the Technical Preparatory Committee.

At a plenary session on June 20, under the temporary chairmanship of Dr. Andrija Stampar, First Vice President of the Economic and Social Council, the Conference elected Dr. Thomas Parran, Chairman of the United States Delegation, as its President. Subsequent meetings in the Henry Hudson Hotel were devoted to the election of officers, adoption of rules of procedure, and general statements by delegates on the purposes of the Conference. These statements revealed strong general support for the proposals of the Technical Preparatory Committee. Beginning on Monday, June 23, the sessions of the Conference were held at Hunter College in the Bronx.

The Conference established five Working Committees, each being a committee of the whole, and assigned to each sections of the constitutional proposals of the Technical Preparatory Committee. A General

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Committee composed of the President, the five Vice Presidents, the chairmen of the Working Committees, and three members at large served as the steering committee. Each Working Committee elected a rapporteur and a small drafting subcommittee. A Central Drafting Committee, composed of one member from each of the drafting subcommittees of the Working Committees, was established under the chairmanship of Dr. Melville D. Mackenzie of the United Kingdom Delegation. The Central Drafting Committee was advised by a group of legal experts.

All Working Committee reports were submitted to plenary sessions of the Conference for adoption and then to the Central Drafting Committee for final drafting. The full report of the Central Drafting Committee, in English and French, was approved in plenary session on July 19, all documents thereafter being prepared in the five official languages of the Conference for signature.

On July 22, at a plenary session held in the Henry Hudson Hotel, the final texts to be presented for signature were read in English and French and formally adopted by the Conference. On the same day the final plenary session was held, at which Mr. A. Sobolev (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), Acting Secretary-General of the United Nations, presided on invitation of the President of the Conference.

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The members of the General Committee were:
President: Dr. Thomas Parran, United States
Vice Presidents: Dr. Geraldo H. de Paula Souza, Brazil

Dr. James K. Shen, China
Dr. André Cavaillon, France
Dr. Fedor G. Krotkov, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Sir Wilson Jameson, United Kingdom
Chairmen of Working Committees:
I. Scope and Functions

Dr. Aly Tewik Shousha Pasha, Egypt
II. Administration and Finance

Dr. G. Brock Chisholm, Canada
III. Legal

Dr. Karl Evang, Norway
IV. Relationship with the United Nations and Other Organizations

Dr. Arnoldo Gabaldon, Venezuela
V. Regional Arrangements

Dr. W. A. Timmerman, Netherlands
Members at large:
Dr. Carlos E. Paz Soldán, Peru
Dr. Andrija Stampar, Yugoslavia
Dr. C. K. Lakshmanan, India

This session was devoted to the signing of the following four documents in the five official languages: 1. Final Act of the International Health Conference (Annex 1)

signed on behalf of 61 states, 59 without reservation.” 2. Constitution of the World Health Organization (Annex 2)—

signed on behalf of 61 states, 2 without reservation.” 3. Arrangement concluded by the governments represented at the

International Health Conference (establishing an Interim
Commission) (Annex 3)-signed on behalf of 61 states, 47

without reservation.2 4. Protocol concerning the Office International d'Hygiène publique

(Annex 4)—signed on behalf of 60 states, 18 without reservation.2

D. UNITED STATES PARTICIPATION The following United States Delegation to the International Health Conference was appointed by the President on June 14, 1946: Thomas Parran, Surgeon General of the United States Public

Health Service, Chairman; Frank G. Boudreau, Director, Milbank Memorial Fund; Martha Eliot, Associate Chief, Children's Bureau, Department of

Labor; Edwin B. Fred, President, University of Wisconsin; James A. Paullin, Past President, American Medical Association; Durward V. Sandifer, Chief, Division of International Organiza

tion Affairs, Department of State. Otis E. Mulliken, Chief, Division of International Labor, Social and Health Affairs of the Department of State, served as Secretary-General of the Delegation and Louis L. Williams, Jr., Chief, Health Branch of the Division of International Labor, Social and Health Affairs, as Chief Technical Adviser.3

In addition to technical personnel of the Department of State and the United States Public Health Service, the Delegation included advisers from the Bureau of the Budget and the Federal Security Agency. Non-government advisers included officials of the American Medical Association, the National Nursing Council, the American Pharmaceutical Association, and the American Public Health Association. Upon the invitation of the Chairman, observers were accredited to the

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