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regions, nor held in solution by the air under the not merely the existence of the individual, but that form of vapour.

of posterity, was completely provided for. By this drainage of the waters from the land we The conformation of vegetables is among the most have advanced another step toward a fit residence for interesting and instructive inquiries which can enanimal life ; for how could those living beings have gage our attention; more especially such parts of existed in a mixture of mud, whom Providence de- their structure as are adapted to the furnishing, the signed to roam the earth? They would want solid ripening, and the impregoating of their seed. The earth for their support, and for their residence; on anatomy of plants discovers one set of vessels for the other hand, how could those live which were ar- the circulation of air throughout them ; another for the pointed to inhabit the waters ? they would want transmission of a liquid, which rises into exercise, as water purified, not mixed with earth; but, let this roused by the genial warmth of spring, and diffuses mud be separated into its parts, earth and water, and its enlivening influence throughout the whole. The accommodations for both These descriptions of crea- stem draws moisture from the earth, to supply the tures are furnished by one single operation.

branches and leaves which it supports; the leaves We have now acquired the distinctions, and have too imbibe moisture from the air, and exhibit a most separated the elements of earth, water, air, light; curious expansion of nerves, enveloped by the most light, the first great stimulus; air, the general envel- delicate of coatings for their protection. But nothope of the globe; that element most easily affected ing is more wonderful than the seed vessels, which, by light; that in which light produces heat, the next in a space extremely small, and in some plants scarcein kin to light; after air, water, a fluid possessing ly visible, contain millions of future offspring enclosmany of the properties of air, capable of mingling ed in each grain of their contents.

In short, vegewith air, of rising into the air, transparent like air, tative life, theugh it be not of equal powers with anand like air expansible in the highest degree: en the imal life, yet in some instances approaches it, and in other hand, possessing many of the properties of general holds the place of a medium between minerearth, capable of being condensed by pressure, of als, fossils, &c. whose life is dubious, if indeed it be being consolidated by privation of heat, of being con- life ; and animal life, which enables its possessor to verted into the substance of plants, of animals, of exercise those senses and motions by which it is disminerals, and even composing the basis of many arti- tinguished. cles which mankind have agreed to call earths. Last- In surveying the productions of the vegetable ly, earth, an indurated, substantial, solid body, com- world we are delighted with their variety, their beaupact, dense, and firm, in all its variations of clays, ty, and their utility. As they spring out of the metals, stones, and rocks; its surface varied by un- earth, and sport their green shoots above the surface, dulating vallies and hills, depths and prominencies; they interest us; the beauty of their flowers, their earth with all its varieties meets our observation, and infinitely diversified forms, the elegance of their atthus the chaotic state of the globe is exchanged for titudes, their graceful bendings, or their majestic firma state of regularity, order, and arrangement.

ness, attract our attention, and our attention glows

into admiration and praise. As means of our susteVERSES 11, 12.

nance vegetables are of the first importance to us, Now let life start into exercise, but in regular or- and from them we derive as well our habitation as der; first vegetable life, “Let the earth bring forth

our food. grass," *V7 DESHA, Botany Zopty, tender grass, suc- Such are the obvious and evident properties of culent herbage; not the first shoots, but the whole vegetables ; but what shall we say to those numerplant, complete, mature, prolific. Vegetation of all ous species, which go through allihe functions of life kinds: 1st, Grasses which clothe the earth with ver- unseen by us? those which the microscope has disdure; 2dly, Herbs yielding seed ; shrubs, rising covered ? those which in a few hours burst into life, higher than grass; more spreading, more umbrage- ripen, perpetuate their successors, and die ? those ous; but perhaps not permanent ; 3dly, Trees of va- which grew in the waters ? under the waters? those rious foliage and figure, lofty, solid, vigorous, peren- which inhabit the sultry desert ? and those which nial.

diversify the regions of ice? and which, it greatly Among botanic writers grasses are humble plants, surprises us! are of the same nature and genera? 1 feebly supported by jointed stems, and perishing af- say, those vegetables, which under the extreme frosts ter a single season : shrubs are plants approaching of the polar circle shew the last efforts of vegetative the nature, appearance, and form of trees, but their life, are the same as those which the torrid zone of stems die down to the earth, according to the sea- Africa scarce suffers to exist beneath the burning sons; whereas trees are permanent, and during many beams of a vertical sun. a year they equally abide the sultry suns of summer, To follow this subject, even moderately, would and the piercing frosts of winter.

lead us too far at present, but I strongly wish to reThe sacred writer observes of these patriarchal cal to the reader's mind the many various ways by vegetables,“ each having his seed in himself;" so that which vegetables furnish and preserve their seed. Usually the flower precedes the seed, and when the 1st, To divide day from night; this is effectually flower has done its office the seed is mature. The perforined by the sun, whose light constitutes day, flower has been taken by botanists as the distinguish- whose absence implies darkness. ing organ of plants, and the different forms in which 2dly, To be for signs, minx LeaturH, DISTINit appears have contributed to their arrangement and GUISHMENTS, recollections to bring to rememberclassification. But arrangement and classification ance; in short, to form so many epochas; from which are human ideas, ideas resulting from the attainments to begin reckoning, toward which to direct reckoning, and advances of science : whether they are natural in the course of ages. Accordingly, we find that principles is another question. Be that as it may, nations which have not the use of letters, consequentsome plants have no flowers, yet they bare seed, but ly, no registers, yet observe very accurately the bear it on their leaves; others bear their seed in ber- courses and stations of the sun and moon, and are ries, others in pods, others in nuts, others in stones, rarely mistaken in their observations on the situations, enclosed in their fruit; some have many seeds asso- aspects, effects, &c. of those heavenly bodies. ciated, as it were ; others liave single seeds; some 3dly, To be for seasons, 'TO MUODIM, literalexpose their seeds to open day, others ripen them ly, for appointments; now this idea includes in it under the earth; some plants render their seeds pro- that of a meeting, a prefixed meeting of two or more lific without the assistance of a partner, others must persons. I do not well know how the sun could be unite the offices of both sexes, or else their produc- the sign of an appointment for a distant period of.ee tions are barren: in short, in a thousand yarious man- time, as a year, or even half a year, since in the ners, and by a thousand different contrivances, they course of so many days an appointment might be are diverse one from another, yet each has its seed, forgot, or vacated, by sundry interventions; yet it its own proper kind of seed, in itself. Vide 1 Cor. might serve as a sign for one day; a meeting when xv. 37, &c.

the sun rises, when the sun declines, when the sun FOURTH DAY.

is at its height, would be clearly understood and re

membered ; and so we find it actually was employed LUMINARIES, HEAT.

in later ages : “ by the time the sun be hot ye shall Directly after the appearance of vegetation we have help,” i Sam. i. 9. vide also, Judg. ix. 33; read of the influences of the celestial luminaries; Lev. xxii. 27; Josh. viii. 23; Nehem. vii. 3. The and here I wish to observe, that although the element moon, however, being of shorter course than the sun, light has already engaged our attention, yet no men

and, tion, or hint, has occurred of the element heat ; heat,

“nightly varying in her cireling orb," however, is necessary to the existence of vegetables, to their maturity, and to their fertility. Now, though affords the means of fixing appointments in a much I do not consider the sun as truly the fountain of heat, better manner than the sun; and this I apprehend or that streams of fire, which are the cause of heat, was a part of her duty, and was among the earliest issue from the sun, yet I consider the sun as the uses actually made of her light, and her course. great agent, whose beams call into exercise those In hot countries the heat of the day is a time for principles of heat on our earth, which otherwise resting, not for exercise ; appointments, therefore, would be quiescent, and even immobile. Loosely would be made for a time when the sun declined, the speaking, then, the sun is the cause of heat; heat is cool of the evening, the breese of the day, as the Henecessary to vegetative life, especially to its maturi- brew speaks; but if appointments referred to a day ty, and its succession,

more distant than that now current, the moon would deThe periods of vegetation, also, are determined note the arrival of the period of time prefixed. This by the celestial luminaries. Plants which are annu- luminary then answered the purpose of some great als, which yearly shed their leaves, and die in their clock, which being universally seen, universally stems, whether or not they die in their roots, these heard, conveyed intelligence of the proper hour, to must needs be influenced by the annual effects of the every one who exercised a due attention, to every one sun which certainly determines their periods. Plants over the face of the whole earth: This is the use now whose duration is shorter, which more quickly ripen, made of the aspects of the satellites of Jupiter, those and more quickly terminate their various stages, are telescope planets; for when our ships sail to the utnot to be reckoned by the solar revolution, but by termost parts of the globe, yet they always know the the lunar; and these are monthly productions. This

This time at London, by inspection of those luminaries. statement is perfectly accordant with the sentiments It was however, as it still is, much more natural for of the same inspired writer on another occas man to direct his eyes toward his own moon, w

which Deut. xxxiii. 14, and with those words in the passage needed no telescope to render her visible, and which under consideration, which describe the offices and at once reported by her aspect the time or season of duties of these luminaries, which are, he informs us, public appointments, especially, 1st, to divide day from night ; 2dly, to be for signs; When I mention public appointments I must own 3dly, for seasons; 4thly, for days; 5thly, for years. I allude principally to the seventh day, which was

ordained as a time of sacred commemoration; for, to a half yearly harvest, or to a monthly harvest, we observe how perfectly the moon is adapted to this ser

must leave undecided at present. vice; when her young crescent just gilds the close Our inference, however, remains undeniable, that of evening with its mild lustre, her figure is totally days in the passage before us does not relate to the unlike what it is seven days afterward, when light and natural day, but to a period of time of some length; shade divide her between them; or when after another yet certainly not so long as a year, as is fairly imseven days she rises in full splendour, her whole sur- plied, in that being the period of time mentioned in face radiant with reflected light, and a flood of glory the following verse. bursts on all the skies. View the effect of the next 5thly, And for years: these heavenly bodies are seven days, observe how light' and darkness have still used in calculating years; we have therefore no changed their quarters; what had been light, to the occasion to stay to prove this to be any part of their right hand, now is dark; what had been dark to the original appointment. left hand, now is light; so that at these four periods A remark or two arises from the foregoing stateof the lunar revolution, the time of appointment indi- ment, which I think may be of some consequence : cated by her form could not be mistaken.

1st, that these periods of time were connected withi, I own I think it impossible to deny, and to support and either did regulate, or were regulated by, services the denial by convincing arguments, that these pecu- of a religious nature : they were therefore comnon liarities of the moon's appearance were coincident to all mankind; known by all mankind; the concern with the appointment of sacred worship among man- of the whole human race. 2dly, That the antedilukind; if a private person, or a private family, mightvians had a more complete manner of calculating time offer adoration to the Author of all things every even- than some have been ready to allow them; they had ing, as day declined, yet that more numerous assem- days, weeks, half years, and years; those therefore blies should unite their public devotions every sev- who have taken the antediluvian years for months, in enth day, wherever were inhabitants capable of pub- order to reduce the length of life in that early age of lic devotion, seems to be an irrefragable inference from the world, have overlooked this decisive instance of the those marks of time, which the moon exhibits to every rudiments of chronology which they possessed. 3dly, eye. Surely in these respects she was appointed, If these heavenly bodies were appointed officially to divinely appointed, for sacred seasons.

remind mankind of the return of religious opportunities, 4thly, For days, Olamim; this word, in the what shall we say to those who neither heed these monplural form, 1 conceive means somewhat more than itors, nor any others, but who “refrain their feet from inerely a natural day ; it means a peculiar, fixed, or the house of God,” and forget his worship, in spite set day. It has the appearances of sometimes mean- of the united voices of wisdom, of revelation, and of ing a year, as some think; so, Gen. xxiv. 55. “ Let nature. the damsel abide with us duys, i.e. a full period of days, or ten,” ten months, say some, 'ten days, say

FIFTH DAY. VERSES 20, 21. our translators. I suspect it means a month, or at least a period of days determinable by the moon, at

ANIMAL LIFE. shortest perhaps a fortnight. Lev. xxv. 29. “If a man sell a house, within days, a period of time, a When the earth was prepared to receive and supyear, a full year, he may redeem it,” say our transla- port vegetation, vegetation was commissioned to cover tors; whether this also should be a month I do not and adorn the earth; but vegetation itself is prenow inquire, but I think on the whole it should be paratory to the reception and support of new classes distinguished from a year, as in the following verse, of beings, which though they do not derive existence " And if it be not redeemed until the fulfilment of a from it, yet are to inhabit and to feed on its producwhole year;" i.e. at the utmost, at farthest. Per. tions, plants, herbs, and fruit. The divine command haps the word period expresses as much as this phrase is, let the waters produce, pov sherets, creeping does in the Hebrew. So, Exod. xiii. 10. "Thou things.Insects, say some, and very properly; shalt keep this ordinance from year to year,from but not insects exclusively ; it is certain that insects period to period: here it clearly refers to an appoint- of many thousands of kinds breed in the waters, and ed time for a religious service, and so it does, Gen. after a proper time spent in them they become iniv. 3. “And it was at the end of days, process of habitants of the air; but so do frogs, efts, and many time, Eng. Tr. Cain brought his offering to the Lord.” other creatures, which we cannot properly reckon Now this agrees perfectly with the Indian histories, among insects. In fact, I presume this word includes which say that Abel was slain by his brother at a whatever kind of creature is not properly ranged in general family sacrifice: and as it was customary the superior classes of animal life : say, tortoises, frogs, for the ancients to offer social sacrifices after gathering snails, slugs, &c. worms of a thousand sorts; insects, their fruits, I take this sacrifice to have been of that as gnats, beetles, locusts, ants; and those ten thoukind; but whether it referred to an annual harvest, sands of minute animalcula, which animate the pool; but whose names would convey no intelligible idea those eggs to the proper surface of the leaf, to guard to the reader.

them against dangers from the violence of the wind, It still continues to be the property of the waters from the power of rain, from frost, from snows: see to swarm with life, to bring forth animalculæ, whose how they roll up the leaf for this purpose: or how they minuteness and whose structure perplexes us. It is choose those branches of trees in whose crevices they worth our reflecting on the infinite variety of insects, may deposit their important burden: some enter the on their wonderful changes and transformations, and cups of flowers, others seeds, or fruits, or roots, or their instinctive foresight. Nor should we forget that woods; nay, flesh in its various states of freshness or the microscope discovers in water, insects so small that putridity; nay, even while living. Many are those thirty thousand of them may inhabit a single drop; yet animals which receive the deposited future progeny has each one of these its muscles, nerves, veins, arte- of insects, and which furnish that nest which is to be ries, stomach, blood, bowels, and animalspirits, or some- the mean of their opening into life. In these instances, thing equivalent; and if they also breed by laying eggs, and in how many others, what wonders rise to the what shall we say to the minute dimensions of their view of intelligent observation ! parts, and of those agents which perform these impor- From insects we are led to birds, whose creation tant functions ?

is referred to the same day; the transition is in corLet us descend; no, it is not descending ; let us rise rect order, for insects have wings like birds, like birds to a conception of these ranks of creatures, then to are oviparous, and like birds they are of land, and insects, &c. whose dimensions render them more vis- water, and air. I know that there is that admirable ible; let us think of their structure, and of their va- structure in a feather, which would justify our most rious modes of life ; for some expend their whole ex- accurate examination of it. T'he beauty and the fitness istence on a single leaf, while others fly abroad at of its parts are surprising ; and the internal conformapleasure; some multiply by division of themselves; tion of it, no less ihan the external, is wonderfully some bear their posterity growing from them as adapted to its purposes. But we must not enlarge on branches from trees; nay, these very branches shall what comes under daily notice. have young shoots, as it were budding on them, and shall be parents even before they quit their maternal

VERSE. 21. stock; three generations growing at once! What shall God created great WHALES, Hebrew, taninim : for we say to those which are multiplied by being cut to what these taninim might be, vide the plate, &c. pieces, of which, however minutely divided, each divis- Lam. iv. 3. No doubt but the epithet great describes ion acquires the parts necessary to life and action, and a class of sea animals of the most considerable mag. with them that vitality which animates those powers. nitude ; whatever, therefore, is known as a water an

I could wish to impress this on the reader. Imag- imal immense, or unweildy, is included in it. At the ine a single creature divided into ten parts, by what

same time

every living creature that moveth in the power does each part acquire proper members ? waters, i.e. in the sea, received its being. How init originally the head? how does it acquire a body, numerable these are needs no demonstration; we are legs, bowels? was it the body? how does it acquire aware that the most indefatigable naturalist never a head, legs, members ? Moreover, take one of these has seen, much less has observed, any considercreatures, turn it inside out, it shall nevertheless after able portion of these ; for indeed their situation in a time replace its parts in a proper order, and resume the great deep ever has prevented, and ever will prethe proper functions of each ; nor are these the only vent, any adequate knowledge of their numbers, their classes of creatures which are offered to our wonder- structures, or their manners. ing eyes; think of those whose bodies are soft, as God created the fishes ; they were not productions worms, yet whose productions after a time become of water itself, that element only furnished a place for hard as rocks; of those which inhabit others, without their residence. Consider on one hand the nature any visible way of entrance; of those which after and the simplicity of the element water ; on the years of apparent death are yet endued with life, and other hand, the admirable structure of fishes, which recover their vivacity after twenty years of suspend- is diversified into so many forms and manners. Some ed animation ! of those which we suffer to die, and to have their teeth in the jaws, others in the throat, which we restore lise under onr own eyes! In short, others in the stomach ; some have a single row of the mere enumeration of their wonders would lead teeth, others have many rows. Consider the strucus beyond our present limits.

ture of their eyes, of their fins, which answer the But like the vegetables formerly noticed, these in- purposes of legs, or which like oars impel them with sects also have their seed in themselves, and extreme. incredible swiftness; of their tail, which serves them ly worthy of remark, are the various attentions they as a rudder; of their exterior covering, scales, for pay to the welfare of their future progeny. See with instance, which differ prodigiously from the feathers what solicitude they choose the right kind of leaves on of birds : consider the provision made for their breathwhich to deposit their eggs, with what care they glue ing beneath the watery element, the air-bladder, the VOL. IV.

3

was

gills; nor omit the parts necessary to digestion, the table productions of nature, or those of a more elestomach, the intestines, &c. Consider the structure vated rank. The same intentions but under another and organization of their bones; some have them in- form, the same ideas but varied, perhaps heightened ternally, and of these some are solid masses, strength in their powers, or exalted in their application, were itself! others are pliant cartilages; the bones of oth- directed to the formation of animals in their various ers are on the outside of the creature, in the form of genera and species, and at last of man himself. shells ; also shells are the habitation of many kinds, Animals are divided by the sacred writer into, 1st, wherein they constantly reside; which “grow with Oana Behemah, great beasts, or cattle, animals capatheir growth, and strengthen with their strength,' ble of domesticity ; say horses, cows, &c. perhaps and which by means of a hinge of curious construc- even to the elephant ; 2dly, uhy Remesh, creepers, or tion, are opened or closed by the inhabitant at his animals of a smaller kind, say, such as weasels, ferpleasure.

rets, hedgehogs, &c. add to these, the hare, the rabAs to the creeping things in the sea, they are in- bit, the rat; and why not worms, serpents, snails, numerable, whether we class them as worms, polypi, and slugs ? all of which creep on the earth; 3dly, &c. some are crustaceous, as lobsters, crabs, shrimps, on chiah, wild animals, literally, livelies, those of a &c. others leather coated as the star-fish, the cuttle, savage nature, and which obtain their living by prey, &c. some are soft, others hairy, others slimy. or other acts of rapidity and exertion. Lions and

Fishes are extremely active, indefatigable, vora- tigers, perhaps, and carnivorous animals in general. cious, and destructive; whatever may be said on the We shall not stay to examine the peculiar natures question of beasts being carnivorous in their primitive of these, but shall proceed at once to introduce the state, fishes seem to have devoured one another from chief of all, man ; man who is raised above the creathe very beginning; and were it not for the wonder- tures, not so much by the form or figure of his perfully prolific powers with which they are endued, one son, as by the qualities of his mind; not by the more might almost suppose some of the weaker species exquisite construction of his members, by their acwould ere now have been extinct; but when we read tion, or by their powers, as by his enlarged underof millions, many millions, of eggs contained in the standing, his mental capacities, his reason, his soul, roe of a single fish, we are led to infer, and to admire, his intelligence. We have seen the world prepared the wonderful provision of Providence for the main- for his reception, the elements called into activity, tenance of every species. Fishes then, also, have and various distributions of life among animals; all their seed within themselves, and this receives life prior to the appearance of him who was to reside after a thousand different chances, and amid a thou- among them, and over them, the vicegerent of Deity sand different dangers.

itself.

Man is allied by the structure of his body to the SIXTH DAY. VERSE 2!. AD FIN.

animals; his arms, his legs, differ no great deal from

those of some among them; they too possess the The air was ready for the reception of inhabitants senses of seeing, of hearing, of smelling, of tasting ; before the waters, and the waters before the earth; they too move, walk, run, leap; their lives like his we have seen insects and birds fly in the air, and depend on the blood which circulates in their veins, fishes swim in the seas ; it remains that the solid on the air which plays in their lungs; they too have earth should be peopled also, and then the whole nerves, and those nerves are the instruments of senhabitable globe is occupied. This is the work of the sation, like the human. But speech is appropriate to sixth day.

mankind; it was evidently fit that a tribute of praise The legs and wings of birds, the fins of fishes were should be paid to the great Author of all; and this analogous to the legs of quadrupeds, as they are in- was the office appointed to man. « For we also are struments of motion; and their organs of digestion his offspring,” is a noble sentiment of the poet Arawere not unlike those which were requisite to enable tus, quoted by St. Paul, Acts xviii. 28. and it has aniinals also to receive food, and to convert it into been thought by many, that more than that propornutriment. We perceive, then, that the same prin- tion of care which had been employed on the creaciples of formation which were already in exereise, tures, was exereised when man was about to be formvaried to suit the element wherein they were to aet, ed. Certainly, as man only was made in the image would accommodate a new race of creatures, whose of God," invested with dominion, capable of knowing babits and manners were different from those of the God in his ways, of admiring him in his works, of exformer. They were not, it is true, called to fly in pressing his sentiments to those around him, and of the air, but they were to breathe this element as a directing ascriptions of praise to his almighty Author, condition of their life; they were not to swim like man was distinguished by faculties of the most imfishes, but to walk, to run, to climb, to migrate, and portant nature, by abilities which, wisely improved, to seek their food by various stratagems, whether of must have perpetuated his happiness, and probably open

force or secret fraud; whether from the vege would have augmented it.

TERRESTRIAL ANIMALS.

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