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Resolved, That the Secretary cause a copy of the preceding resolution, together with a printed copy of the forms of reports which are to be used hereafter, to be transmitted to the several Academies in the State."

On the 10th of March, 1818, a committee composed of Mr. Van Buren, Mr. Young and Mr. Cochran, was appointed to consider and revise the former rule, and on the 24th of that month, Mr. Cochran, from this committee, reported :

" That they have had the same under consideration, and that in their opinion, the rule now in force as a general rule, distributing among the several Academies of the State the funds appropriated for that purpose according to the number of students studying classics, is more safe and salutary than any which can be devised. Inasmuch, however, as the particular situation and circumstances of some Academies may require some additional appropriation beyond the sum limited by the existing rule :

Your committee recommend the adoption of a rule which shall leave one-fifth of the whole sum annually given to the Academies, to be given to those under such particular circumstances, in such proportions as the Regents may see fit and proper.

Resolved, therefore, That the rule of distribution for the future be, that four-fifths of the sum annually distributed among the Academies of the State, be distributed in proportion to the number of students studying in the classics, in the respective Academies, and that the residue be distributed in proportion as the Regents may deem proper, among such of the Academies whose particular situation or wants may entitle them to any part of such residue.”

This rule was adopted, but as might be foreseen, it gave opportunities for urgent solicitation, and as a necessary result for dissatisfaction, in cases where the petitions were not allowed. The Academies of low grade were the first to complain, while the change was regarded with approbation by others that found their revenues increased, and a strong motive presented for raising them still more.

As academic students in the lower English branches got no benefit from the Literature Fund, and lost what they might have got by attending the Common Schools, this measure had a tendency to turn back to the latter, a certain class of pupils, to the manifest advantage of both systems.

Still, the dissatisfied class found a way for a hearing of their complaints in the Legislature, and by concurrent resolutions, passed in March, 1819, the Regents were called upon to report annually the

state of their funds, the mode of investment, the revenue derived and the mode of distribution for the preceding year.

The Regents, in a reply dated March 2, 1819, in speaking of the apportionment of moneys among the Academies, said:

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“ The rule formerly practiced by the Regents in the distribution of their revenue was, to apportion the same according to the total number of pupils instructed in the several Academies, agreeable to the returns made by their respective Trustees. The course of instruction pursued by many of the teachers, consisting chiefly of the first rudiments of an English education, gave a character to their institution more consonant to that of a Common School than of an Academy, where more advanced studies should be attended to. The liberal endowments which the Legislature have wisely be stowed upon Common Schools are calculated to afford to every section of the State, an opportunity of instructing youth in those branches of an English education which it is essential should be attainable by all. The fund placed at the disposal of the Regents

, is destined to support a course of instruction in the higher branches of learning than those taught in Common Schools, and with a view of preserving this distinctive characteristic, a rule has recently been adopted by the Regents,' for distributing their revenue in proportion to the number of scholars in the several Academies, who, during the preceding year, have received a course of classical instruction, usually pursued as preparatory to admission to a collegiate course. The adoption of this rule, the Regents conceive, was essentially necessary, to raise the reputation of the Academies, several of which, in their system of instruction, had sunk to the level of Common Schools. But the operation of the rule has been, to lessen the amount formerly distributed to some of the Academies and to aug. inent it to the others. The Regents have great pleasure in stating, that from the reports of the present year, it appears that the system of instruction is rapidly improving in many of the Academies, and they entertain a well-founded expectation of continued advances in perfecting the academical instruction, to the attainment whereof it is essential that the present mode of distribution be rigidly adhered to."

This remained as a rule of the Regents, and upon their authority only, until April 13, 1827, when the Legislature defined by law, the terms upon which the apportionment should be made, as follows: " The Regents shall distribute the whole income

in proportion to the number of pupils instructed in each Academy or Seminary, for six months during the preceding year, who shall hare

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Referring to a resolution offered by Mr. Cochran and adopted, repealing the rule of 1818, and reviving that of 1817. *This was on the same day as that on which the report, above cited, was made.

pursued classical studies, or the higher branches of English education, or both, and that no pupil shall be deemed to have pursued classical studies, unless he shall have advanced as far at least as to have read the first book of the Æneid of Virgil in Latin ; and no student shall be deemed to have pursued the higher branches of an English education, unless he shall have advanced beyond such knowledge of common, vulgar and decimal arithmetic, and such proficiency in English grammar and Geography, as are usually obtained in Common Schools."

This requirement passed into the Revised Statutes of 1830, and remained in force until the substitution of the written examinations of the Regents in recent times."

The ages of students claimed as pursuing classical or higher English studies, were not limited either by the act of 1828, nor by the ordinance of the Regents.

In 1834, the committee on apportionment, in speaking upon this point, said:

“Where such students have been under the age of ten years, the practice has been heretofore to make every presumption against them, so as to require the most rigorous proof that they had pursued all the preliminary studies, and acquired all the preliminary knowledge required to make them such students, and the result of such practice has been that very few under the age of ten years, have been allowed as classical scholars. But as claims to have them so allowed are presented every year, the committee make a final decision on the subject; and they respectfully suggest that that decision be against allowing children under the age of ten years, to be ranked among classical scholars, or scholars in the higher branches of English education."

Chap. 228, p. 237, Laws of 1827.

* On the 18th of March, 1818, an ordinance was passed by the Regents defining at large and more precisely, the studies required in a classical and in a higher English course, entitling Academies to a share of the moneys distributed from the income of the Literature Fund. In classics, they were to be equal to half of Corderius, half of Historia Sacra, a third of Viri Romæ, and two books of Cæsar's Commentaries in Latin prose, and the first book of the Æneid of Virgil. In higher English, besides reading and writing, they were to have acquired such knowledge of the elementary rules, compound numbers, fractions, reduction, practice, single rule of three and simple interest, as is commonly taught in District Schools. In grammar, they were to be able to parse correctly any common prose sentence, and correct examples of bad grammar. In geography, they must have studied to the extent of the duodecimo edition of Morse's, Cummings', Woodbridge's or Willett's geography. They must have attended at least four months during the year, with exercises in composition and declamation, at convenient and ordinary intervals.

This recommendation was adopted February 26, 1834, as a rule, in the distribution of the Literature Fund.

In noticing the chapter of the Revised Statutes which continued the law of 1827, we should especially indicate a new provision then introduced, which operated most unequally and unjustly while it remained in force. We refer to

The Apportionment of Moneys to Academies by Senatorial Dis

tricts. The Revised Statutes (which in this respect took effect at the be ginning of the year 1830), contained the following provision ::

“ The Regents shall have the control of the whole income arising from the Literature Fund, and shall annually divide such income into eight equal parts, and assign one part thereof to each Senate District. They shall annually distribute the part so assigned to each District, among such of the incorporated Seminaries of learning, erclusive of Colleges, within such District as are now or shall become subject to their visitation, by a valid corporate act.”

This rule of equal division among Senatorial Districts, thus introduced, afterward became a subject of grievous complaint among those who suffered from its unequal operation, and it may be well to here notice some of the statistics of distribution for some years previous, in order to enable the reader to judge, as to how far it was justified, at the time of its adoption, adding the apportionment of 1830 to further show how the rule operated during the first year after it took effect:

Distribution by Academies and Senatorial Districts, from 1823

to 1830, inclusive.

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1 Section 23, article 1, title 1, chapter 15, part 1 of Revised Statutes.

TABLE — (Continued).

1823.

1824.

1825.

1826.

1827.

$378 041 $399 50

$529 00 8589 00

$450 97

158 52 146 34

76 50 135 121

90 00 147 00

117 81 190 31

187 24 170 22

300 00

164 62 121 95

180 00 141 00

108 75 226 56

51 08! 153 19

$969 47

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ACADEMIES.

County.

1828.

1829.

1830.

Third District. Albany.......

Albany Albany Female......

Albany Albany Female Sem. Albany Greenville......

Greene. Hudson...

Colum... Kinderhook.. Colum... Lansiogburgh.

Rens.... Schenectady.

Schen....

$604 83 8489 87
725 80 661 34

281 70
298 381 232 71
241 93 257 20
411 28

355 16 177 42 153 10 80 64 110 23

$277 18 360 68 115 50

34 64 129 93 199 25 75 07 57 75

Total ............

$940 12|$1, 294 00 $1,232 43|$1,012 70 $2, 540 28 $2,541 31 $1,250 00

Fourth District. Ballston...

Sara....... Canajoharle

Mont..... Cambridge, Wash.. Wasb.. Granville..........

Wash.... Johnstown..

Mont.... Plattsburgh....

Clinton. St. Lawrence..

St. Law. Washington (Salem) Wash....

$129 02 $318 41

183 72

85 74 120 96 122 48

$221 45
241 13
59 10
98 47
162 40
359 24
108 26

314 51
64 58

319 03
134 73

Total

$629 07 $1,194 11 $1,250 00

Herk....

$104 83
209 67
322 58

$281 70

67 36 300 05 232 71

883 16

52 92 126 00 95 76 83 16

Fifth District.
Bridgewater....

Oneida...
Clinton Gram. Schooll Oneida..
Fairfield.......
Lowville,

Lewis....
Oneida Institute. Oneida..
Sem. of Oneida and

General Conf.......... Madison Steuben ................

Oneida.. Utica

Oneida.. Union Lit. Soc....... Whitesborough.. Oneida.. Hamiltor..

Madison

233 87
120 96
419 35

202 09
116 351
410 26

138 76

50 48 186 48 189 00

Jeff.......

67 10

94 12
76 50

74 00
114 00

54 57 253 75

221 28

516 12

367 41

224 28

Total .................................

$426 83 8611 23 $693 00 01, 114 8791, 106 40 $1,927 38 41, 977 93 $1,250 00

Sirth District.
Cherry Valley Otsego...
Cortland............

Cortland
Franklin...

Steuben Hartwick Seminary. Otsego... Oxford.

Chen .... Owego...........

Tloga.... Ithaca.

Tomp....

$73 20 $111 63 $163 00
109 78 182 12 135 00

74 00
335 35 158 62 244 00
195 11 258 001 98 00

$190 31
190 31

63 63
362 50
72 50

$212 77
170 22

39 57
212 77
76 60

$298 38 8416 39
282 25 189 84
177 42 146 97
169 33 202 09
186 48 146 97

140 85
188 48 214 34

$199 20 388 44

99 60 159 36 139 44 149 40 114 56

187 24

Total .....

$713 44 $710 371 8734 00 $879 25 $919 17 $1,298 36 81, 457 45 $1,250 00

$67 10 $164 50
164 62 141 12
195 11
274 38 229 12
128 04 70 601

$57 00
90 00
196 00
366 00
114 00

$99 68
145 00
145 00

$161 71
102 14
153 19

$358 06

120 96
161 29

$202 09

73 49 165 35

$226 60

87 72 146 20

108 75

102 14

120 96

97 98

79 26

102 34 197 37 182 75 87 72

201 61
112 89

99 88

82 00

126 87

300 07 110 23

102 14

219 30

Sronth District, Anburn............

Cayuga Cayuga....

Cayuga Canandaigua.

Ontario. Geneva....

Ontario. Onondaga......

Onon ... Ovid.....

Seneca.
Ontario Fem. Sem.... Ontario.
Pompey.....

Onon....
Yates Co. Acad. and
Fem. Sem.

Yates....
Total

Eighth District.
Buffalo High School Erie
Fredonia.
Gaines....

Orleans.
Middlebury...

Genesee Monroe...

Monroe. Rochester High Sch'l Monroe. Lewiston High Sch'l. Niagara. Total

$908 51 $705 12 $905 00 $625 30 9621 32 $1,075 71

$949 21 81,250 00

8266 94

Chau ...

$195 11

888 12

$253 00

8271 87

$238 29

$201 61
403 22

$208 21
428 62

123 70
253 90
364 57
240 89

110 23

$195 11

$88 121 $253 00 $271 87 $238 29

$604 83 $747 06 $1,250 00

Total for State....

|86,000 00/85, 000 0085, 590 00|46,000 00|$6,000 00$10,099 93/$9, 993 88|$10,000 00

Sum dne had the

apportionment been made by Senatorial Dists..

$625 001 2625 00

$698 75 8698 75 8698 75 $1,262 48 91,249 21 $1,250 00

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